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1.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063185

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the Covid-19 period, when human beings are socially isolated, telework is a viable solution to safeguard employees' health. Because many employees have never experienced such a working system and organizations have not planned for it before the pandemic, imposing employees to telework has adversely affected their productivity and efficiency. This study aims to identify factors affecting individuals' tendency toward teleworking during the pandemic, which can lead to practical solutions for the post-pandemic era. Design/methodology/approach: Through the use of technology acceptance models, a conceptual model was designed. Data used to assess the model were cross-sectional and derived from 229 questionnaires filled out by employees in Tehran. The AMOS24 software processed the corresponding structural equation model. Findings: The results from the cross-sectional data indicated that attitude toward telework and perceived behavioral control over the system were significantly correlated directly with the intention to telework, while perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of telework were correlated indirectly. Therefore, the integrated model predicts behavioral intentions better than single models performed separately. Originality/value: Psychological and mental health research describing adoption intentions of telework, particularly those focusing on employees, is still lacking. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in this regard that has used a conceptual model derived from two technology acceptance models during the Covid-19 outbreak. An era in which the extent of the pandemic has forced employees to experience such working systems and thus the importance and practicality of teleworking have been more evident to nearly every individual.

2.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S393-S394, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045598

ABSTRACT

[...]In 2020 the NIH Office of AIDS Research and the National Institute of Mental Health, Division of AIDS Research developed and Implemented a deliberative process to actively engage researchers, community members, and government officials In a rigorous review of the concepts, theories, measurements, and Interventions that address HIV-related Intersectional stigma and discrimination. The co-occurring amplification of the COVID-19 pandemic and persistent racial Injustices further exposed the Intersecting effects that racism, economic disenfranchisement, gender Inequity, heterosexism, and other forms of systemic discrimination have on people belonging to multiple socially oppressed groups and the reality that people experiencing multiple forms of oppression suffer the greatest harms to their health. Genuine community-based participatory approaches respect the Innate knowledge ofthe community with its inherent strengths and assets while engaging community members as partners to Inform the entire research process-from framing the research questions to designing, conducting, analyzing, and Interpreting findings- which benefits from research and community perspectives.

3.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 113, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health research in Canada is not only underfunded but there remains an inequitable distribution of funding to address unmet needs especially in clinical and applied research. In 2018, the legalization of cannabis for non-medical use in Canada sparked the need to examine the relationship between cannabis use and mental health. The federal government allocated $10 M over 5 years to the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a pan-Canadian health organization funded at arm's length by the federal government. METHODS: In 2020, the MHCC implemented an innovative community-based research (CBR) program to investigate this relationship among priority populations including people who use cannabis and live with mental illness, First Nations, Inuit and Métis, two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and/or queer (2SLGBTQ+) individuals, and racialized populations. Extensive consultations, a scoping review and an environmental scan set the research agenda. Key program components included a review committee with representation from diverse priority populations, extensive proposal-writing support for applicants, and capacity bridging workshops for the 14 funded projects. RESULTS: Of the 14 funded research projects, 6 focus on and are led by Indigenous communities, 5 focus on other equity-seeking populations, and 9 explore the perceived patterns, influence and effects of use including benefits and harms. Lessons learned include the importance of a health equity lens and diverse sources of knowledge setting the CBR research agenda. In addition to capacity bridging that promote equitable roles among knowledge co-producers as well as the critical role of organizational support in increasing research productivity, especially in the area of mental health and cannabis use where there is a need for more applied research. CONCLUSION: Centering equity and lived and living experience strengthened the rationale for investments and ensured user-led evidence generation and utilization - a key public health gain. Organizational support for proposal development and capacity bridging yields significant value that can be replicated in future CBR initiatives.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Health Equity , Canada , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Public Health
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1758, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought drastic changes to the lives of the global population. The restrictions imposed by government agencies impacted the daily lives of citizens, influencing several health behaviors, such as physical activity (PA). Thus, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI) and its associated factors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A population-based household seroepidemiological survey was conducted in two Brazilian municipalities located in the state of Minas Gerais, in which 1750 volunteers were interviewed between October and December 2020. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire in an electronic format. The moments considered for the PI analysis were M0 (before the pandemic), M1 (from March to July 2020), and M2 (from October to December 2020). Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the factors associated with PI before (M0) and during the pandemic (M1 and M2). RESULTS: The prevalence of PI was higher in the first months of the pandemic (M1) (67.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 62.4-71.9) than in the months from October to December 2020 (M2) (58.7%; 95% CI: 52.8-64.3); however, at both times (M1 and M2), PI was more prevalent than in the period before the pandemic started (M0) (39.7%; 95% CI: 35.6-43.8). Individuals who were overweight, obese, and had low educational levels were more likely to be physically inactive. At both M1 and M2, individuals who worked at a work from home were less likely to have PI. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively influenced PA, substantially increasing the prevalence of PI. The determinants associated with PI were education, body mass index, and work from home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leisure Activities , Prevalence , Sedentary Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Teleworking
5.
Critical and Radical Social Work ; 10(2):297-318, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2021437

ABSTRACT

Community accountability is a model through which to redress anti-Black racism in health care and to create community-based participatory research about the health of Black Canadians. This article provides a case example of a study undertaken by a Black community collective in Quebec made up of researchers, activists, service providers, business leaders and their allies who sought community accountability in making visible the impact of COVID-19 on local Black communities. The principles articulated within the Black emancipatory action research approach (Akom, 2011) are used to ground an analysis of our research-activist process in order to illuminate how knowledge gained through the collection of data can be used to help inform Black communities about the realities, needs and concerns of their members, to advocate for rights and entitlements, and to work towards community accountability in research that empowers Black communities, both in Quebec and elsewhere.

6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 99, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021301

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, astonishingly rapid research averted millions of deaths worldwide through new vaccines and repurposed and new drugs. Evidence use informed life-saving national policies including non-pharmaceutical interventions. Simultaneously, there was unprecedented waste, with many underpowered trials on the same drugs. We identified lessons from COVID-19 research responses by applying WHO's framework for research systems. It has four functions-governance, securing finance, capacity-building, and production and use of research-and nine components. Two linked questions focused the analysis. First, to what extent have achievements in knowledge production and evidence use built on existing structures and capacity in national health research systems? Second, did the features of such systems mitigate waste? We collated evidence on seven countries, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, to identify examples of achievements and challenges.We used the data to develop lessons for each framework component. Research coordination, prioritization and expedited ethics approval contributed to rapid identification of new therapies, including dexamethasone in the United Kingdom and Brazil. Accelerated vaccines depended on extensive funding, especially through the Operation Warp Speed initiative in the United States, and new platforms created through long-term biomedical research capacity in the United Kingdom and, for messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, in Canada, Germany and the United States. Research capacity embedded in the United Kingdom's healthcare system resulted in trial acceleration and waste avoidance. Faster publication of research saved lives, but raised challenges. Public/private collaborations made major contributions to vastly accelerating new products, available worldwide, though unequally. Effective developments of living (i.e. regularly updated) reviews and guidelines, especially in Australia and Canada, extended existing expertise in meeting users' needs. Despite complexities, effective national policy responses (less evident in Brazil, the United Kingdom and the United States) also saved lives by drawing on health research system features, including collaboration among politicians, civil servants and researchers; good communications; and willingness to use evidence. Comprehensive health research strategies contributed to success in research production in the United Kingdom and in evidence use by political leadership in New Zealand. In addition to waste, challenges included equity issues, public involvement and non-COVID research. We developed recommendations, but advocate studies of further countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Capacity Building , Government Programs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2022 ; : 4850-4851, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020406

ABSTRACT

Similar to previous iterations, the epiDAMIK@KDD workshop is a forum to promote data driven approaches in epidemiology and public health research. Even after the devastating impact of COVID-19 pandemic, data driven approaches are not as widely studied in epidemiology, as they are in other spaces. We aim to promote and raise the profile of the emerging research area of data-driven and computational epidemiology, and create a venue for presenting state-of-the-art and in-progress results-in particular, results that would otherwise be difficult to present at a major data mining conference, including lessons learnt in the 'trenches'. The current COVID-19 pandemic has only showcased the urgency and importance of this area. Our target audience consists of data mining and machine learning researchers from both academia and industry who are interested in epidemiological and public-health applications of their work, and practitioners from the areas of mathematical epidemiology and public health. Homepage: https://epidamik.github.io/. © 2022 Owner/Author.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e33898, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM), a variant of the Delphi Method, was developed to synthesize existing evidence and elicit the clinical judgement of medical experts on the appropriate treatment of specific clinical presentations. Technological advances now allow researchers to conduct expert panels on the internet, offering a cost-effective and convenient alternative to the traditional RAM. For example, the Department of Veterans Affairs recently used a web-based RAM to validate clinical recommendations for de-intensifying routine primary care services. A substantial literature describes and tests various aspects of the traditional RAM in health research; yet we know comparatively less about how researchers implement web-based expert panels. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) to understand how the web-based RAM process is currently used and reported in health research and (2) to provide preliminary reporting guidance for researchers to improve the transparency and reproducibility of reporting practices. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched to identify studies published between 2009 and 2019 that used a web-based RAM to measure the appropriateness of medical care. Methodological data from each article were abstracted. The following categories were assessed: composition and characteristics of the web-based expert panels, characteristics of panel procedures, results, and panel satisfaction and engagement. RESULTS: Of the 12 studies meeting the eligibility criteria and reviewed, only 42% (5/12) implemented the full RAM process with the remaining studies opting for a partial approach. Among those studies reporting, the median number of participants at first rating was 42. While 92% (11/12) of studies involved clinicians, 50% (6/12) involved multiple stakeholder types. Our review revealed that the studies failed to report on critical aspects of the RAM process. For example, no studies reported response rates with the denominator of previous rounds, 42% (5/12) did not provide panelists with feedback between rating periods, 50% (6/12) either did not have or did not report on the panel discussion period, and 25% (3/12) did not report on quality measures to assess aspects of the panel process (eg, satisfaction with the process). CONCLUSIONS: Conducting web-based RAM panels will continue to be an appealing option for researchers seeking a safe, efficient, and democratic process of expert agreement. Our literature review uncovered inconsistent reporting frameworks and insufficient detail to evaluate study outcomes. We provide preliminary recommendations for reporting that are both timely and important for producing replicable, high-quality findings. The need for reporting standards is especially critical given that more people may prefer to participate in web-based rather than in-person panels due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Expert Testimony/methods , Internet/trends , Pandemics , Research Design/standards , Delphi Technique , Humans , Internet/standards , Patient Care , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design/trends
9.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25258, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dilution ventilation by enhancing fresh air intake has been prescribed to reduce airborne infection spread during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is all the more important in assembly spaces like auditoriums. Premier technology institutes have large campuses with large auditoriums for academic and cultural events in India. These institutes serve as role models for society, where gatherings are essential, but there is also the possibility of transmission of all airborne respiratory infections, including tuberculosis, into the community. The fresh air taken in should also be filtered for pollution to prevent other lung issues. AIMS: Fresh air intake and filtration have been studied in order to understand whether the outside air supplied indoors is filtered for PM2.5, which is a major ambient polluter in India. Settings and design/methods: In this study, the Right to Information Act of 2005 has been used to obtain first-hand information from the institutes with respect to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in their auditoriums. Twelve of the 19 institutes fall in cities with non-attainment of ambient air quality standards. RESULTS: Eleven out of all those had recently integrated fresh air supply, and six replied in the negative. Only one out of all of them had appropriate filters. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need for a possible trade-off between the use of air conditioners for thermal comfort + assumed protection against PM2.5, which is the switching off of air conditioners and manually opening up windows and using fans for ventilation. Indian HVAC design for gathering spaces, especially educational institutes, needs to factor in fresh air for dilution ventilation as well as PM2.5 filtration.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987566

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the post-COVID-19 world, when the adequacy of public health workforce education is being critically re-evaluated, this study undertakes a historical analysis of how the educational and scientific field of public health developed during and after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The study intends to historically contextualize public health education and science development in former Soviet Republics. It attempts to document achievements after gaining independence and identify remaining challenges that need to be addressed for advancing public health science and education in Former Soviet Union countries to better prepare them for future pandemics and address current health challenges of the nations. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods review approach combining both a literature review, information collection from the school's websites, and secondary analysis of the quantitative data available about scientific outputs-peer-reviewed articles. Results: During communist rule and after the fall of the Soviet Union, the main historical events seem to have shaped the public health field of former Soviet countries, which also determined its eventual evolution. The international efforts post-1991 were instrumental in shifting medically oriented conceptualization of public health toward Western approaches, albeit with variable progress. Also, while scientific output has been growing from 1996 to 2019, sub-regional differences remain prominent. Conclusion: The region seems to have matured enough that it might be time to start and facilitate regional cooperation of public health schools to advance the field of public health and research. Regional and country variabilities feature prominently in the volume and quality of scientific output and call for the immediate attention of national governments and international partners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Health Education , Humans , Public Health , USSR
12.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1104-1106, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958303

ABSTRACT

In their study, Aliseda-Alonso et al. compared publicly available surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)to data on COVID-19 cases and deaths from state and territorial governmental sources;they found that the CDC consistently underreports the cases and deaths of Blacks and Latinos as well as people younger than 65 years. Standardizing data collection and reporting is necessary, but not sufficient, for interoperability-the ability of the US health system's many sectors to easily exchange information to benefit clinical, public health, and research efforts. A wide variety of data sources will be required, including, but not limited to, public health surveillance data, clinical data from public and private health systems, death certificates, claims, and administrative and survey data. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has created an Interoperability Standards Advisory process to provide information regarding standards needed for interoperability, although without the authority to require implementation or adoption.7 In a 2020 report, interoperability between health systems in the United States was reported to be improving, albeit slowly;it is concentrated in cities, is highly variable, and is associated with health system size.8 In Iran, Shanbehzadeh et al. consulted the literature and convened experts to create a COVID-19 minimum data set and interoperable reporting framework to support their nation's public health pandemic response.9 Following the implementation of a standardized, interoperable data collection system, states must be held accountable for data reporting.

13.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

14.
4th IEEE Nigeria International Conference on Disruptive Technologies for Sustainable Development, NIGERCON 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948835

ABSTRACT

In recent times, the unprecedented surge in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to several attempts at understanding and containing the outbreak of the pandemic as well as to ultimately eradicate it. Steps taken so far include encouraging the wearing of face masks and shields, municipality restrictions such as work-from-home orders, the development of vaccines by health research institutions among others. It is widely believed that the main mode of transmission of the virus is from human to human. In this paper, we present the multi-class classification and modeling of the hospitalization status of COVID-19 patients by using both machine learning and compartmental mathematical models focusing on critical factors like hospital stay-days (SDs) and admission type based on severity of illness. The classification of hospitalization status of COVID-19 patients is necessary in order to know priority cases and give them prompt attention. Two key machine learning algorithms-the decision tree and random forest, are deployed in our analyses. The Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm was used for parameter estimation for the mathematical model. From our results, it is easy to identify high risk patients in order to optimize treatment plans that would lower cost of treatments, reduce the chances of others getting infected and assist logistics teams to optimally allocate hospital resources. Hospital administrations can also be supported in deciding the number of staff and visitors per patient per day in a facility. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928499

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates India's first officially approved self-administered rapid antigen test kit against COVID-19, a device called CoviSelf. The context is rural India. Rapid antigen tests (RATs) are currently popular in situations where vaccination rates are low, where sections of the community remain unvaccinated, where the COVID-19 pandemic continues to grow and where easy or timely access to RTPCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) testing is not an option. Given that rural residents make up 66% of the Indian population, our evaluation focuses on the question of whether this self-administered RAT could help protect villagers and contain the Indian pandemic. CoviSelf has two components: the test and IT (information technology) parts. Using discourse analysis, a qualitative methodology, we evaluate the practicality of the kit on the basis of data in its instructional leaflet, reports about India's 'digital divide' and our published research on the constraints of daily life in Indian villages. This paper does not provide a scientific assessment of the effectiveness of CoviSelf in detecting infection. As social scientists, our contribution sits within the field of qualitative studies of medical and health problems. Self-administered RATs are cheap, quick and reasonably reliable. Hence, point-of-care testing at the doorsteps of villagers has much potential, but realising the benefits of innovative, diagnostic medical technologies requires a realistic understanding of the conditions in Indian villages and designing devices that work in rural situations. This paper forms part of a larger project regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in rural India. A follow-up study based on fieldwork is planned for 2022-2023.

16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e42, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918306

ABSTRACT

Objective: To map research protocols, publications, and collaborations on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) developed in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods: Included were research protocols registered in international platforms and research publications containing populations, data, or authors from LAC. The source of information for protocols was primarily the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) of the World Health Organization; for publications, specific electronic databases and repositories pertaining to COVID-19 were used. The search for publications was conducted up to 11 November; the search for protocols, up to 30 November 2020 (both dates inclusive). Data was extracted from protocols using standardized variables from the ICTRP, and from publications following pre-established criteria. Results: Among the protocols, 63.0% were therapeutic studies, 10% focused on prevention, and 45% were collaborative; 64% of the protocols received no funding from industry; 23% of the publications were not peer-reviewed and 23% were collaborative in nature. The most frequent study designs were systematic reviews and cross-sectional studies; 47.1% of studies were conducted in health facilities and 22% in community settings; 38.0% focused on diagnosis and 27.9% on prognosis. A qualitative synthesis was performed by line of care and approach strategies. Conclusions: There was an increase in the number of collaborative research studies relative to earlier studies and in protocols not funded by industry. The proposed research agenda was covered in large part as the pandemic unfolded.


Objetivo: Mapear protocolos de pesquisa, publicações e colaborações sobre a doença causada pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19, na sigla em inglês) desenvolvidos na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC). Métodos: Foram incluídos protocolos registrados em plataformas internacionais e publicações de pesquisas que consideraram população, dados e autores da ALC. A fonte de informação para os protocolos foi principalmente a Plataforma Internacional de Registros de Ensaios Clínicos (ICTRP, na sigla em inglês) da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Para as publicações, foram utilizadas bases de dados eletrônicas e repositórios específicos sobre COVID-19. As publicações foram pesquisadas até 11 de novembro, e os protocolos, até 30 de novembro de 2020 (inclusive). As informações dos protocolos foram extraídas de acordo com variáveis padronizadas da plataforma ICTRP e das publicações, segundo critérios pré-estabelecidos. Resultados: Dos protocolos, 63% eram estudos sobre terapias, 10% sobre prevenção e 45% eram colaborativos. Em relação ao financiamento, 64% dos protocolos não vieram da indústria. Em relação às publicações, 23% eram sem revisão por pares e 23% eram colaborativas. Os delineamentos mais frequentes foram revisões sistemáticas e estudos transversais; 47,1% foram realizados em serviços de saúde e 22% no âmbito comunitário; 38,0% focaram no diagnóstico e 27,9% no prognóstico. Realizou-se uma síntese qualitativa segundo a linha de cuidado e as estratégias de abordagem. Conclusões: Observou-se um aumento no número de pesquisas colaborativas (em comparação com estudos anteriores) e de protocolos não financiados pela indústria. A agenda de pesquisa proposta foi coberta, em grande parte, à medida que a pandemia progredia.

17.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 21(1): 86-91, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896636

ABSTRACT

Mentorship and collaboration are fundamental to ensure success in research, particularly health research. In this article, we summarise a conversation between the Master's in Biostatistics students at Stellenbosch University and Professor Salim Abdool Karim, the head of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa. In May 2021, Professor Abdool Karim was invited to share some of his expertise and knowledge on successful mentorship and collaboration with researchers in the early stages of their careers. Passion, hard work and always trying one's best were some of the key values he highlighted as what a young researcher would need to succeed in today's world. In this candid and open discussion, Professor Abdool Karim provides valuable insight pertaining to the intricacies of a career in research, in terms of collaboration, mentorship and personal lessons drawn from his own life experience.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Mentors , Humans , Male , South Africa , Universities , Work-Life Balance
18.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 58, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies show the potential of loyalty card data for use in health research. However, research into public perceptions of using this data is limited. This study aimed to investigate public attitudes towards donating loyalty card data for academic health research, and the safeguards the public would want to see implemented. The way in which participant attitudes varied according to whether loyalty card data would be used for either cancer or COVID-19 research was also examined. METHODS: Participants (N = 40) were recruited via Prolific Academic to take part in semi-structured telephone interviews, with questions focused on data sharing related to either COVID-19 or ovarian/bowel cancer as the proposed health condition to be researched. Content analysis was used to identify sub-themes corresponding to the two a priori themes, attitudes and safeguards. RESULTS: Participant attitudes were found to fall into two categories, either rational or emotional. Under rational, most participants were in favour of sharing loyalty card data. Support of health research was seen as an important reason to donate such data, with loyalty card logs being considered as already within the public domain. With increased understanding of research purpose, participants expressed higher willingness to donate data. Within the emotional category, participants shared fears about revealing location information and of third parties obtaining their data. With regards to safeguards, participants described the importance of anonymisation and the level of data detail; the control, convenience and choice they desired in sharing data; and the need for transparency and data security. The change in hypothetical purpose of the data sharing, from Covid-19 to cancer research, had no impact on participants' decision to donate, although did affect their understanding of how loyalty card data could be used. CONCLUSIONS: Based on interviews with the public, this study contributes recommendations for those researchers and the wider policy community seeking to obtain loyalty card data for health research. Whilst participants were largely in favour of donating loyalty card data for academic health research, information, choice and appropriate safeguards are all exposed as prerequisites upon which decisions are made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Attitude , Humans , Information Dissemination , Qualitative Research
19.
Contemporary Perspectives on Family Research ; 19:63-90, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1874139

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore how families respond to the death and dying of their loved ones in a hospital setting, archival research was conducted using eight qualitative articles describing next-of-kins’ perceptions of end-of-life care in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The articles were based on the qualitative arm of the VA Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) study entitled, “Best Practices for End-of-life Care and Comfort Care Order Sets for our Nation’s Veterans” (BEACON).Design: The archival research consisted of an interactive methodological process of data immersion, analysis, and interpretation which resulted in the emergence of two overarching thematic frameworks called “losing control” and “holding on.”Findings: “Losing control” is the process that occurs when the patient experiences a cascading sequence of deleterious biological events and situations rendering the caregiver no longer able to direct the timing or setting of the dying trajectory. The notion of “holding on” captures family member’s responses to the need to maintain control after relinquishing the patient’s care to the institutional setting. During the patient’s hospitalization, the dual dynamics of “losing control” and “holding on” unfolded in the spatial, temporal, and life narrative domains.Originality: The findings not only contribute to better overall understanding of family members’ responses to death in the pre-COVID-19 hospital setting but also heighten the awareness of the complex spatial, temporal, and narrative issues faced by family members who lost a hospitalized loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(6):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1849269

ABSTRACT

According to Margaret A. McLaren (2017), transnational feminism results in 'decolonizing feminism' and Sylvanna M. Falcón (2016) calls it a 'Paradigm for Decolonizing the Practice of Research.' Two research questions are discussed in the paper: "What motivated the teachers in the cases to teach digital literacy?" And "What made teachers in the cases think the digital skills gender divide exists?" "The Sexual Politics of Manusmriti: A Critical Analysis with Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights Perspective," a research article by N.M Naseera and Dr. Moly Kuruvilla discusses the law codes of the ancient legal text Manusmriti, that have a significant role in creating the Brahmanic patriarchy and the heteronormative structures in Ancient India. The contributions to this JIWS Special Issue witness and underline practices of women's voices/movements around the world and gender justice across national boundaries, which in turn contribute to the transnational social change processes. 3 Tamanna Arora holds Double Post Grad Degrees in Law (LL.M) with one specialization being in International Human Rights Laws from the City, University of London, United Kingdom, and the other one being in Corporate, Banking, and Insurance Laws from Amity University, Noida (India).

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