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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 160072, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105908

ABSTRACT

In this study, two virus concentration methods, namely Adsorption-extraction (AE) and Nanotrap® Magnetic Virus Particles (NMVP) along with commercially available extraction kits were used quantify endogenous pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nucleic acid extracted from 48 wastewater samples collected over six events from eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The main aim was to determine which workflow (i.e., concentration and extraction methods) produces greater concentrations of PMMoV and SARS-CoV-2 gene copies (GC) in comparison with each other. Turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of wastewater samples within and among the eight WWTPs were highly variable (41-385 NTU and 77-668 mg/L TSS). In 58 % of individual wastewater samples the log10 GC concentrations of PMMoV were greater by NMVP workflow compared to AE workflow. Paired measurements of PMMoV GC/10 mL from AE and NMVP across all 48 wastewater samples were weakly correlated (r = 0.455, p = 0.001) and demonstrated a poor linear relationship (r2 = 0.207). The log10 GC concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in 69 % of individual samples were greater by AE workflow compared to NMVP workflow. In contrast to PMMoV, the AE and NMVP derived SARS-CoV-2 GC counts were strongly correlated (r = 0.859, p < 0.001) and demonstrated a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.738). In general, the PMMoV GC achieved by the NMVP workflow decreased with increasing turbidity, but the PMMoV GC by the AE workflow did not appear to be sensitive to either turbidity or TSS levels. These findings suggest that suspended solids concentration, and the intended target for analysis should be considered when validating an optimal workflow for wastewater surveillance.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 159880, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086716

ABSTRACT

The global scope of pollution from plastic waste is a well-known phenomenon associated with trade, mass consumption, and the disposal of plastic products, including personal protective equipment (PPE), viral test kits, and vacuum-packaged food. Recently, however, the scale of the problem has been exacerbated by increases in indoor livelihood activities during lockdowns imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The present study describes the effects of increased plastic waste on environmental footprint and human health. Further, the technological/regulatory options and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach for sustainable plastic waste management are critically dealt in terms of their implications on energy resilience and circular economy. The abrupt increase in health-care waste during pandemic worsens environmental quality, hampers the development of renewable energy projects, socio-economic systems, and undermines sustainability in general. In addition, weathered plastic particles from PPE, including microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) adsorb chemical and microbial contaminants, which pose a risk to ecosystems, biota, occupational safety, and human health. PPE-derived plastic pollution during the pandemic also jeopardizes sustainable development goals, energy resilience, and climate control measures. However, it is revealed that the pandemic can be regarded as an opportunity for explicit LCA to better address the problems associated with environmental footprints of plastic waste and focus on sustainable management technologies such as circular bio-economies, biorefineries, and thermal gasification. Future researches in the energy-efficient clean technologies and circular bio-economies (or biorefineries) in concert with a "nexus" framework can help reduce plastic waste volume during the pandemic. As such, such efforts can help put humankind on a pathway toward a sustainable future, economic resilience, and improved 'climate-smart health care'.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12458, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066414

ABSTRACT

Considering the recent paradigm shift in sports tourism due to COVID-19, it is essential to understand the tourism needs and mentality of consumers. This study aimed to verify the relationship between tourism needs, self-monitoring, and the switching intention of golfing tourists. We used online questionnaires to survey golf tourists who experienced negative attention from other people in the context of COVID-19. The results of the structural equation modeling analysis are as follows: (1) tourism needs partially affect self-monitoring;(2) self-monitoring has a significant effect on switching intention;(3) self-monitoring did not play a mediating role between existence needs and switching intention;and (4) relatedness needs and growth needs were shown to play a mediating role. From the standpoint of tourism planning and marketing, the findings reveal a desire for tourism despite the COVID-19 infection risks. Marketers should identify the preferred tourism content, according to consumers’ tourism needs, and develop customized plans.

4.
23rd Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Intelligent Technologies, Governments and Citizens, DGO 2022 ; : 328-335, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2064294

ABSTRACT

The digitalization in public administrations has seen, through the COVID-19 pandemic, the appearance of health surveillance technologies at the workplace. Wearable health devices, such as physiolytics, may then have an increasing role in the management of public agents. Still, little is known about the use of these systems in work settings, as research is mainly oriented towards ethical debates or legal considerations. Accordingly, we propose to consider a concrete case of implementation of physiolytics in a Swiss public administration. We particularly investigate employees' use rates as well as the perceived opportunities and threats that are linked to physiolytics and health surveillance technologies. This is done through an action design research perspective, where we search to extract from the field guidelines and knowledge for practitioners. We especially highlight that physiolytics' use steadily decline after the first weeks, due to the design of such devices, the fear of surveillance, and the impression of competition that these systems bring into the workplace. It is therefore vital for public managers to introduce interventions, such as regular feedback, gamification, or nudging to support the engagement of public agents and ensure the viability of such novel health initiatives. © 2022 ACM.

5.
10th IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics, ICHI 2022 ; : 483, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063255

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 negatively impacts maternal health. We use national electronic health records data and machine learning techniques to recognize risk factors that are predictive of negative maternal outcomes in the pandemic. The cohort has been built with 191,403 gestations. The findings of this study will help advance the clinical decision support system for preventing negative maternal outcomes and promoting maternal health. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2022, ICTD 2022 ; 4:133-141, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062377

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted a wide range of human activities, from food delivery habits to major moving and travel decisions. Results indicate multiple pandemic-related factors have influenced millions of relocation decisions by Americans (e.g., health risk, financial pressures, more space, and employment), and there are various positive economic and social outcomes of this influence (e.g., remote work and education), enabling more affordable living and opportunity. This paper addresses COVID-19 impacts on mobility, especially involving permanent relocations. Survey design and data analysis with U-Haul targeted customers in Austin, New York, San Diego, and Chicago to understand mobility, new moving dynamics, and motivations. © ASCE. All rights reserved.

7.
The British Journal of Nutrition ; 128(8):1459-1469, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2062085

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is both a nutrient and a neurologic hormone that plays a critical role in modulating immune responses. While low levels of vitamin D are associated with increased susceptibility to infections and immune-related disorders, vitamin D supplementation has demonstrated immunomodulatory effects that can be protective against various diseases and infections. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells that have the ability to synthesise the active vitamin D metabolite. Thus, vitamin D acts in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu in fighting against infections. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are the new disciplines of nutritional science that explore the interaction between nutrients and genes using distinct approaches to decipher the mechanisms by which nutrients can influence disease development. Though molecular and observational studies have proved the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, only very few studies have documented the molecular insights of vitamin D supplementation. Until recently, researchers have investigated only a few selected genes involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway that may influence the response to vitamin D supplementation and possibly disease risk. This review summarises the impact of vitamin D supplementation on immune markers from nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics perspective based on evidence collected through a structured search using PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct and Web of Science. The research gaps and shortcomings from the existing data and future research direction of vitamin D supplementation on various immune-related disorders are discussed.

8.
Emerging Contaminants in the Terrestrial-Aquatic-Atmosphere Continuum: Occurrence, Health Risks and Mitigation ; : 103-119, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2060239

ABSTRACT

(Micro)plastics is a broad term referring to all forms of plastic pollution including plastic wastes, (micro)plastics and nanoplastics. (Micro)plastics in aquatic systems have received considerable research attention, and several reviews exist on the topic. However, limited reviews exist documenting the currently most studied aspects, understudied aquatic matrices, and future research needs. In addition, a summary of the data needs in low-income countries is still lacking. To address these knowledge gaps, the present study examined evidence to investigate the current research and information needs on (micro)plastics in aquatic environments. The chapter first presents a summary of the current research, including reviews on (micro)plastics in aquatic systems to identify the most studied aspects. A close examination of the evidence is then conducted to identify under-studied aquatic matrices, and aspect on (micro)plastics. Current evidence and research needs in low-income countries are discussed. Research constraints in low-income regions and proposals to address them are discussed. Finally, future research directions, comprising ten (10) key knowledge gaps are proposed. These knowledge gaps should constitute and drive the global research agenda on (micro)plastics in aquatic systems. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering , CSCE 2021 ; 249:343-350, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059743

ABSTRACT

Sound and effective solid waste management practices are important to mitigate health risks and protect the surrounding environment. Proper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management practices are especially important during the COVID pandemic. Since the beginning of the COVID pandemic different waste disposal and recycling behaviors are observed in Regina, the capital city of Saskatchewan. It is believed the changes of waste disposal rate at Regina landfill is related to the new hygienic guidelines, more opportunities for work from home, distinct consumer behaviors, and COVID related regulations and recommendations. Waste generation and recycling behaviors are complex and multi-dimensional. The objective of this study is to model waste disposal rate at the City of Regina landfill using a System Dynamics (SD) model. The proposed SD model will help us better manage the City of Regina’s human resources during the pandemic and estimate the demand of additional personal protective equipment required for the waste management workers. In the present work, a total of 7.5 years of waste disposal data is collected, consolidated, and verified. Socio-economical parameters such as GDPs and population at Regina were also collected during the study period from 2013 to 2020. The model is built using stock-flow diagram to illustrate the effects of various inter-related variables on the waste generation behaviors. Construction and demolition (C&D), Grit, Asphalt Shingles Only, Asphalt Shingles Mixed and Treated Biomedical wastes data are used in the SD model. Results show that waste generation has affected by the pandemic and there is a general increase in amount of waste generation. The modeling results are important because it helps us predict the amount of MSW during and after the pandemic. © 2023, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering.

10.
International Conference on Privacy in Statistical Databases, PSD 2022 ; 13463 LNCS:361-374, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059704

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for broad dissemination of case surveillance data. Local and global public health agencies have initiated efforts to do so, but there remains limited data available, due in part to concerns over privacy. As a result, current COVID-19 case surveillance data sharing policies are based on strong adversarial assumptions, such as the expectation that an attacker can readily re-identify individuals based on their distinguishability in a dataset. There are various re-identification risk measures to account for adversarial capabilities;however, the current array insufficiently accounts for real world data challenges - particularly issues of missing records in resources of identifiable records that adversaries may rely upon to execute attacks (e.g., 10 50-year-old male in the de-identified dataset vs. 5 50-year-old male in the identified dataset). In this paper, we introduce several approaches to amend such risk measures and assess re-identification risk in light of how an attacker’s capabilities relate to missing records. We demonstrate the potential for these measures through a record linkage attack using COVID-19 case surveillance data and voter registration records in the state of Florida. Our findings demonstrate that adversarial assumptions, as realized in a risk measure, can dramatically affect re-identification risk estimation. Notably, we show that the re-identification risk is likely to be substantially smaller than the typical risk thresholds, which suggests that more detailed data could be shared publicly than is currently the case. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
Revista Latina de Comunicación Social ; - (80):475-493, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2055774

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presente investigación profundiza en la posible influencia de factores poco estudiados en la interacción que despiertan los vídeos de YouTube sobre dietas milagro, dado el potencial riesgo de salud pública que pueden suponer los consejos que ofrecen, especialmente para la población joven. Metodología: Se analizaron los 50 vídeos más vistos sobre dietas rápidas subidos entre enero de 2020 y junio de 2021 en español y en inglés. A través de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo se estudió la influencia de variables sobre la relación con la audiencia y la presencia en cámara, la expresión de emociones y la descripción y análisis de la dieta o producto sobre la interacción y consumo del video. Resultados: Los factores estudiados no tienen apenas efecto, como tampoco lo tuvo el idioma, en las cifras de visionados, comentarios, likes, dislikes y compartidos. Discusión: Lo anterior se interpreta como señal de un consumo acrítico e irreflexivo, lo que podría suponer riesgos si la audiencia sigue dietas o consume productos que puedan suponer un riesgo para la salud. Conclusiones: El trabajo aspiraba a abrir nuevas vías de análisis de contenidos de salud en YouTube poniendo el foco en características de los vídeos menos estudiadas en la literatura previa. A pesar de los escasos efectos observados, se plantea la necesidad de seguir abordando factores como las emociones transmitidas, el tipo de información utilizada o la actitud hacia los productos o dietas tratados.Alternate :Introduction: This research focuses on the possible influence of little-studied factors in the interaction aroused by YouTube videos on miracle diets, given the potential public health risk that the advice they offer may pose, especially for the young population. Methodology: The 50 most viewed videos on miracle diets posted between January 2020 and June 2021 in Spanish and English were analyzed. Through a quantitative content analysis, the influence of variables related to the relationship with the audience and the presence on camera, the expression of emotions and the description and analysis of the diet or product on the interaction and consumption of the video was studied. Results: The studied factors have hardly any effect, nor did the language of the video, on the numbers of views, comments, likes, dislikes and shares. Discussion: The above is interpreted as a sign of uncritical and thoughtless consumption, which could pose risks if the audience follows diets or consumes products that may pose a health risk. Conclusions: The work aspired to open new ways of analyzing health content on YouTube, focusing on characteristics of the videos less studied in the previous literature. Despite the few effects observed, there is a need to continue addressing factors such as the emotions transmitted, the type of information used or the attitude towards the products or diets treated.

12.
3rd Conference on Modern Management Based on Big Data, MMBD 2022 ; 352:54-63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2054913

ABSTRACT

The increasingly effective managing of risks in construction projects requires the stakeholders to collaborate, resulting in the need to integrate the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) to mitigate the risks in project collaboration. Our understanding of strategic planning of BIM adoption amidst a pandemic is still limited, and it is widely accepted that COVID-19 is a long-term pandemic that require a constant and innovative range of mitigation approaches to protect public health. The significant construction advances emphasize remote work and digital tools that assist in the project's on-time completion. A fully digitalized approach is necessary for service continuity and rapid processing, particularly during a pandemic. Therefore, this study develops an adaptive digital collaboration framework based on Cloud-Based BIM technology to reduce risks while increasing workplace productivity and mobility. It resulted in a new way of managing the project information, enhancing the design team collaboration, and transforming 2D plans into 3D models. It integrates information to take a building through a virtual construction process long before it is completed, and each team member has access to the most up-to-date and current project information. © 2022 The authors and IOS Press.

13.
3rd Conference on Modern Management Based on Big Data, MMBD 2022 ; 352:29-46, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2054912

ABSTRACT

When a major public health incident breaks out, in order to prevent the explosion of multiple types of public opinion, relevant government departments need to guide the online public opinion according to the needs and characteristics of different audiences in order to achieve reasonable regulation and control. In this process, gender differences among the participating public in areas such as comprehension ability often affect the effectiveness of government guidance. A proper understanding of these differences will enable the government to allocate resources on the basis of needs to save resources and achieve the same goals with half the effort. This paper takes the outbreak of the COVID-19 as an example to analyze the gender differences among users in terms of the overall volume of participation and specific participation behaviors from the dimension of time and geographical locations. A total of 735,271 comments posted by users in responding to tweets published by 144 official government accounts on Weibo during the COVID-19 outbreak were collected and analyzed with a combination of the methods of natural language processing and propensity score analysis. The results show that in comparison to male users, female users participated more, and their responses were more emotionally expressive. Female users tended to respond faster than male users by 30 minutes to an hour, which allowed female users to play a more important role in the process of government guidance of public opinion during major public health incidents. Therefore, this study further provides policy recommendations for the government to provide reasonable guidance of public opinion and give future direction. © 2022 The authors and IOS Press.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055242

ABSTRACT

China has moved into a new stage of its fight against poverty, where the further raising of rural household income is of great importance. Health risk is one of the biggest obstacles to the poverty reduction progress. Therefore, how to cope with the negative effects of health risks has attracted the attention of scholars, especially in the background of the global outbreak of COVID-19. In this paper, we try to explore whether mobile payment, a new form of payment, can improve the income of rural households and mitigate the lower income condition caused by health risks in China. Using data from the 2017 China Household Finance Survey, we found: (1) mobile payment can substantially increase rural household income; (2) health risks will lower the income of rural residents, but mobile payment can lessen this negative effect. Mechanism analysis indicates that mobile payment is likely to ease liquidity constraints, increase social interaction, and stimulate entrepreneurship for rural households. We advised the government to promote mobile payment adoption in rural areas and enhance its design. Additionally, better medical resources should also be made available to rural households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Poverty , Rural Population
15.
2nd ACM Conference on Information Technology for Social Good, GoodIT 2022 ; : 424-430, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053350

ABSTRACT

During the periods of social isolation to contain the advance of COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021, educational institutions have had the challenge to adopt technological strategies not only to ensure continuity in students' classes, but also to support their mental health in a period of uncertainty and health risks. Loneliness is an emotional distress caused by the lack of meaningful social connections;it has increasingly affected young adults worldwide during the pandemic's social isolation and still bears psychological effects in the current post-pandemic period. In the light of this challenge, the Nonenliness App was developed as a way to bring together university communities to address issues related to loneliness and mental health disorders through a gamified and social online environment. In this paper, we present the app and its main functionalities (Beta version) and discuss the preliminary results of a pilot clinical study conducted with university students in Germany (N = 12) to verify the app's efficacy and usability, alongside the challenges faced and the next steps to be taken regarding the platform's improvement. © 2022 ACM.

16.
2022 Asia Conference on Algorithms, Computing and Machine Learning, CACML 2022 ; : 244-248, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2051934

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and spread of COVID-19 poses a tremendous threat to the health of people all over the world. We collected the new imported COVID-19 cases daily in Shanghai, China from September 1, 2021 to January 17, 2022 from the National Commission on Health of the People's Republic of China website. The SVR and ARIMA models were constructed and compared. On this base, it is provided for the early warning of the outbreak of COVID-19 and the targeted preventive measures proposed for this infectious disease. © 2022 IEEE.

17.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S241-S244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047012

ABSTRACT

Public health Is Increasingly threatened by global warming, land use, and changing wildfire patterns that shape vegetation type, structure, and biodiversity and ultimately affect ecosystem services and our society.1 Uncontrolled large wildfires emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that induce direct and indirect climate feedback through radiative forcing in the atmosphere2 and irreversible changes of natural vegetation, thereby further accelerating climate change and associated fire risks.3 Wildfires are also harmful to human health because they create high pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter that are 2.5 micrometers or smaller (PM2.5) and concentrations of coarse particulate matter that are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size. When inhaled, particulate matter significantly increases a myriad of health outcomes, including overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and emergency department visits for respiratory morbidity, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and angina.4,5 Between July and October 2020, high PM2.5 concentrations from massive wildfires surrounding a large regional hospital in the western United States were associated with a 6% increase in COVID-19 cases.6 Risks for developing adverse health effects from wildfire smoke are greatest among people who are living with chronic conditions;who are experiencing intergenerational racial, economic, and housing discrimination;and who are facing social inequities from the COVID-19 pandemic.4The unprecedented recent wildfires in the western United States and their ill effects on human health and society, as well as the multiple other threats to people and places brought about by climate change, draw attention to the increasing urgency of developing new public health approaches and long-term adaptation strategies to support future population health. Observational fire data covering the past few decades give valuable information on current wildfire events.1 However, these data hardly capture long-term trends (i.e., centennial to millennial time scales) of wildfires and associated atmospheric emissions that may help to improve future fire models and thereby provide the base to adapt public health systems.3 To understand long-term trends, natural archives preserve fire history on a wide range ofspatial scales in the past beyond the period of observational fire data;examples include polar and highalpine ice cores;lake, peat, and marine sediment cores.3,8,9 Such paleofire records are based on measurements of the gaseous tracers ammonium and nitrate or particulate matter, such as levoglucosan and black carbon, and charcoal that reflect different components of wildfire-induced atmospheric smoke pollution.8,9 These paleofire records have previously identified complex regional interactions of humans, ecosystems, and climate change.3 Submicron-sized (100-500 nm in diameter) black carbon particles from wildfires and fossil fuel during the industrial era (i.e., the past 250 years) measured in ice cores and lake sediments can be used as a direct tracer for the release of harmful PM2.5 to the atmosphere.8,10 Such paleo black carbon records have been established from both polar and high-alpine glaciers on several continents and are recently developed from lake sediments.10 These found significant changes of fire activity in response to climate and human impact and enhanced pollution levels varying both in time and space. With public health nurses being well positioned to understand population health needs, planetary health, and the health consequences of wildfires, public health nurses can improve upon wildfire adaptation planning and essential public health services by understanding historical perspectives from past fires.9,11,13 Paleofire data provide direct estimates of historical atmospheric emissions from past wildfires and associated harmful concentrations of particulate matter over long distances.

18.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S384-S386, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046788

ABSTRACT

In response and in a show of solidarity, global community-led networks- MPact Global Action for Gay Men's Health, the Global Network of People Living with HIV, the International Network of People Who Use Drugs, Global Action for Trans Equality, and the Global Network of Sex Work Projects- joined forces to cocreate HIV2020, the first alternative, community-led global HIV conference.7 Although most HIV conferences have narrowed their focus to treatment, clinical care, and other biomedical solutions, HIV2020 articulated a vision for and by key population communities. HIV2020 elevated necessary blunt discussions about sex and drug use from the points of view of communities engaged in these practices rather than encasing them in public health discourse, which can often be focused on disease and risk rather than identities and pleasure.8 The community-led conference endeavored to create a radically different global gathering in which intersectional coalitions and solidarity movements could be envisioned and formed to counter divisive agendas. [...]this was the first major conference to have done so, demonstrating yet again ingenuity and flexibility. People living with HIV, gay and bisexual men, people who use drugs, sex workers, and transgender people united in open recognition ofthe overlap between their communities and a common understanding about the synergistic and compounding effects of stigma faced by individuals with multiple community memberships and identities.

19.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1173-1174, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046394

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although the mechanism of neurological complications after COVID-19 vaccination has not been precisely explained, it could be attributed to the inflammatory state triggered by COVID-19 vaccine as in the course of COVID-19 viral infection. This condition induces disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in combination with vascular endothelial dysfunction, leading to stroke of the large vessels. This hypothesis may be the main cause of DIC, especially in mRNA-based vaccines, whose mechanism involves delivery of the mRNA code of the spike protein to human cells. Cellular synthesis of the spike protein stimulates the immune system to recognize and store it for future attack. Based on this hypothesis, the inflammatory state triggered by the vaccine can be considered the main pathway for neurological complications of COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: The aim of this work is to analyse the incidence of ischaemic stroke risk following administration of the ComirnatyTM vaccine in ASST GOM Niguarda, an Italian hospital based in Milan, and to compare it with data from FAERS database. Methods: The Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) was calculated in order to evaluate a possible correlation between the risk of ischaemic stroke and Comirnaty™ vaccine administration in the period of January-December 2021. For this purpose, we consulted FAERS public domain database that allows you to search information relating to adverse events reported to the FDA. Results: From reports of adverse events of ComirnatyTM vaccinated patients at ASST GOM Niguarda hospital, it was observed that after administration of this vaccine there is a correlation with the risk of developing ischaemic stroke mainly in over 65 years old patients (OR = 1.26;95% CI 0.17-9.13;z = 0.230;p value = 0.8182) when comparing the data with other vaccines. These data match the data obtained from FAERS (OR: 1.29;95% CI 0.85-1.96;z = 1.205;p value = 0.228), confirming the data collected in ASST GOM Niguarda. Conclusion: The data extrapolated from this analysis conducted at ASST GOM Niguarda mirror those obtained from the FAERS database with a comparable significance index (p value). In conclusion, the possible correlation between ComirnatyTM vaccine administration and the development of ischaemic stroke as an adverse event was confirmed.

20.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1209, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046272

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently, capillary leak syndrome (CLS) emerged as new suspected adverse event after immunization (AEFI) associated to COVID-19 vaccination. This condition is rare, but serious and potentially fatal [1]. Objective: Our pharmacovigilance study aims to evaluate the onset of CLS as AEFI with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (Spikevax and Comirnaty) compared to viral vector vaccines (Janssen and Vaxzevria). Methods: We carried out descriptive and disproportionality analyses of all Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) reporting a vaccine COVID-19 as suspected drug and the CLS as AEFI, which were collected in the pharmacovigilance database EudraVigilance from January 1st, 2021, to January 14th, 2022. For the disproportionality analysis we applied the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) 95% CI. Results: During study period, CLS was described as AEFI in 84 out of 1,357,962 ICRs reporting a vaccine COVID-19 as suspected drug and collected in the EV database. Overall, the ICSR reported by CLS were mainly related to the viral vector COVID-19, Vaxzevria®, (N = 36) and Janssen®, (N = 9), while the ICSR reported to vaccines COVID-19 mRNA were 39 (Comirnaty®, N = 33;Spikevax®, N = 6). Majority of ICSRs were reported by healthcare professionals (N = 60;71.4%). The non-healthcare professional represented the primary source in the 41.7% of Vaxzevria® related ICSRs. Majority of the patients were adult (N = 49;58.3%). The female gender accounted in more than 65% of ICSRs referred both to mRNA and viral vector vaccines. The CLS outcome was more frequently favorable in mRNA ICSRs (N = 13;33,3%). On the other hand, among the ICSRs reporting CLS with unfavorable outcome (N = 25;29.8%) we found 9 ICSRs describing fatal CLS (Comirnaty® N = 1;Vaxzevria® N = 4;Janssen® N = 4). From disproportionality analysis emerged a lower CLS reporting probability after COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA vaccines compared to viral vector-based ones. Conclusion: According to our results, few ICSRs describing CLS have been collected in EV in front of billion administered doses. This could underline the rarity of this AEFI or the limit of underreporting of spontaneous reporting and therefore also our study. Since the significant clinical relevance of CLS, this AEFI requires a careful monitoring. Healthcare professionals as well as patients should be aware of the signs and symptoms of CLS. Patients with a history of CLS require particular attention because of a possible risk of flare-up of disease. Since a precise mechanism is still not identified, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between CLS and COVID-19 vaccination.

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