Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 82
Filter
1.
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine ; 12(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164665

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to uncontrolled lymphocyte reaction, the overproduction of cytokines in COVID-19 patients can cause sepsis-like symptoms, suggesting sepsis, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Since different therapeutic approaches are used for each diagnosis, differentiation is essential. This study aims to use H-score as a possible prognostic tool in COVID-19 patients. Method(s): A sample of 64 moderate and severe COVID-19 patients was enrolled in this study. Clinical and laboratory findings were assessed. H-score was initially calculated and reevaluated among severe cases 72 hours later and among moderate cases showing severe features of COVID-19. Result(s): Mortality of 31.3% was reported. Laboratory findings, including triglycerides (TG), ferritin, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed significantly higher initial and follow-up laboratory assessment levels in severe cases than in moderate cases. Moreover, fibrinogen was significantly higher among severe cases than moderate cases at the initial assessment, but no significant difference was reported in the second fibrinogen assessment. Conclusion(s): In this study, H-score was useful as a predictive tool for the initial evaluation of severe cases of COVID-19. H-score is much lower in these patients than in non-COVID-19 HLH patients may be due to the different underlying immunologic pathophysiology of COVID-19;thus, each H-score criterion must be evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in COVID-19 patients. The H-score cut-offs, H-score may be useful for diagnosing immune overreaction and determining the need for more exclusive immunomodulatory treatments. Copyright © 2022 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

2.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology ; 25(6):1170-1173, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2163884

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory condition that presents with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and characteristic laboratory findings. Mutations in the perforin gene PRF1 have been implicated in cases of familial HLH (fHLH) and can cause isolated CNS-HLH in the absence of systemic HLH. Results: A five year-old boy presented with three weeks of headache, blurry vision, and emesis. He was diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), thought to be triggered by SARS-CoV-2 given positive nasopharyngeal testing. He completed a five day course of high dose IV methylprednisolone and plasma exchange. In the subsequent months, he was admitted twice due to worsening clinical and radiological activity and after several courses of IV pulse steroids, plasmapheresis, and IV immunoglobulin (IVIG), his condition stabilized with rituximab and monthly IVIG. A few months later, his younger brother presented with a similar syndrome. It was discovered that his parents were second cousins, leading to concern for a genetic disorder. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous mutation for PRF1 in both siblings (variant c.4422G>A). Conclusions: This is the first presentation of CNS-isolated familial HLH triggered by SARS-CoV-2 in the pediatric population. Furthermore, this is the first report of this specific PRF1 mutation, the variant c.4422G>A, as pathogenic. It highlights the relevance of genetic testing in pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders that do not respond adequately to conventional treatments. It is possible that as our knowledge in neurogenetics develops, certain genes will be identified as predisposing factors to syndromes such as ADEM.

3.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(11):1513-1519, 2022.
Article in Japanese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2155805

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old man with no medical history presented with fever 4 days after receiving the first dose of mRNA-1273 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. He had no prior clinical evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and was negative for serial polymerase chain reaction testing. Ten days after vaccination, he was referred to our hospital because of no response to antibiotics and the emergence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and liver dysfunction. Blood tests also showed elevated serum ferritin and plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptors. Serological and PCR testing excluded active infections of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and hepatitis viruses. Blood culture yielded no growth. Computed tomography revealed mild hepatosplenomegaly and porta hepatis lymphadenopathy but no focus on infection. Bone marrow aspiration demonstrated hemophagocytosis but no infiltrating lymphoma cells. Immediately, 2-mg/kg intravenous methylprednisolone was commenced based on the presumptive diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), leading to the rapid and durable improvement of his symptoms and laboratory data. Later, without other causes triggering hemophagocytosis, and with the close link between vaccination and disease onset, the final diagnosis of vaccination-induced secondary HLH was made. HLH after COVID-19 vaccination, though extremely rare, can occur regardless of the vaccine type. Therefore, clinicians should recognize and deal with this occasionally fatal adverse event.

4.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 10600280221134719, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of clinical sequelae and emerging treatment options for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using the search terms "hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis," "hemophagocytic syndrome," "macrophage activation syndrome," and "treatment" on Ovid and PubMed from January 1, 2017, through September 28, 2022. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant clinical trials, meta-analyses, case reports, review articles, package inserts, and guidelines to identify current and emerging therapeutic options for the management of HLH. DATA SYNTHESIS: Genetic disorders and secondary causes may trigger HLH in both children and adults. Notable improvements in the diagnosis of HLH were seen with implementation of the HLH-2004 standard diagnostic criteria; however, timely and accurate identification of HLH remain significant barriers to optimal management. Multiagent immunochemotherapy are the backbone of aggressive therapy for acutely ill patients with HLH. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: The global coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and emerging immune effector cell therapies have served to highlight the concerns with immune dysregulation and subsequent HLH precipitation. Without prompt identification and treatment, HLH can be fatal. Historically, the clinician's armamentarium for managing HLH was sparse, with etoposide-based protocols serving as the standard of care. Relapsed or refractory disease portends a poor prognosis and requires additional treatment options. Second- or subsequent-line options now include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, emapalumab, alemtuzumab, anakinra, ruxolitinib, and tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in diagnostic methods and novel immunosuppressive treatment strategies, including noncytotoxic immunochemotherapy, have transformed the therapeutic landscape. Unfortunately, many unanswered questions remain. Additional studies are required to optimize dosing, schedules, treatment sequences, and indications for novel treatment options.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 835421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099159

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a disease (COVID-19) with multisystem involvement. The world is now entering a phase of post-COVID-19 manifestations in this pandemic. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event triggered by viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Both Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome-Adults (MIS-A) and Cytokine Storm Syndrome (CSS) are considered close differentials of sHLH and add to the spectrum of Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). In this report, we presented the case of a middle-aged Asian man who was initially discharged upon recovery from severe COVID-19 infection after 17 days of hospitalization to a private institute and later came to our hospital 13 days post-discharge. Here, he was diagnosed with sHLH, occurring as an extension of CSS, with delayed presentation falling within the spectrum of PACS. The diagnosis of sHLH was made holistically with the HLH-2004 criteria. Our patient initially responded to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and dexamethasone, later complicated by disseminated Candida auris infection and had a fatal outcome. Though many cases of HLH during active COVID-19 and a few cases post COVID-19 recovery have been reported, based on H-score, which has limitations as a diagnostic tool. We report the first case report of post-COVID-19 sHLH using the HLH-2004 criteria, complicated by disseminated Candidemia, emphasizing that the care of patients with COVID-19 does not conclude at the time of hospital discharge. We highlight the importance of surveillance in the post-COVID phase for early detection of sHLH which may predispose to fatal opportunistic infections (OIs).

6.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(4): 49-52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081648

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a myriad of clinical presentations and periodic flares. We present a case of a young lady with a history of SLE who presented with constitutional symptoms 1 week after starting Isoniazid and Rifampin for treatment of latent TB. Her presentation shared similarities with several diseases including TB lymphadenitis, SLE flare, Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (KFD) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) posing a diagnostic dilemma. Additionally, she presented not long after the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic, further expanding the differential diagnosis. She was ultimately diagnosed with a severe SLE flare caused by rifampin induced suppression of the CYP3A4 system, thereby reducing the therapeutic efficacy of steroids. This case highlights the deadly potential of drug-drug interactions, especially in patients with autoimmune conditions.

7.
Bioactive Materials ; 21:531-546, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041591

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a highly fatal condition with the positive feedback loop between continued immune cell activation and cytokine storm as the core mechanism to mediate multiple organ dysfunction. Inspired by macrophage membranes harbor the receptors with special high affinity for proinflammation cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage membrane-coated nanoparticles (LMNP) were developed to show strong sponge ability to both IFN-γ and IL-6 and suppressed overactivation of macrophages by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Besides, LMNP also efficiently alleviated HLH-related symptoms including cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and hepatorenal dysfunction and save the life of mouse models. Furthermore, its sponge effect also worked well for five human HLH samples in vitro. Altogether, it's firstly demonstrated that biocompatible LMNP could dampen HLH with high potential for clinical transformation, which also provided alternative insights for the treatment of other cytokine storm-mediated pathologic conditions such as COVID-19 infection and cytokine releasing syndrome during CAR-T therapy.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023795

ABSTRACT

Glycosylated ferritin (GF) has been reported as a good diagnostic biomarker for adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), but only a few studies have validated its performance. We performed a retrospective study of all adult patients with at least one GF measurement over a 2-year period in one hospital laboratory. The diagnosis of AOSD was based on the expert opinion of the treating physician and validated by two independent investigators. Patients' characteristics, disease activity, and outcome were recorded and compared. Twenty-eight AOSD and 203 controls were identified. Compared to controls, the mean GF was significantly lower (22.3% vs. 39.3, p < 0.001) in AOSD patients. GF had a high diagnostic accuracy for AOSD, independent of disease activity or total serum ferritin (AUC: 0.674 to 0.915). The GF optimal cut-off value for AOSD diagnosis was 16%, yielding a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 63%. We propose a modified diagnostic score for AOSD, based on Fautrel's criteria but with a GF threshold of 16% that provides greater specificity and increases the positive predictive value by nearly 5 points. GF is useful for ruling out differential diagnoses and as an appropriate classification criterion for use in AOSD clinical trials.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017798

ABSTRACT

The development of effective SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines has been a significant accomplishment. Adverse events are extremely rare, but continued surveillance is important, especially in at-risk populations. In 5-patients with preexisting immune dysregulation, hyperinflammatory syndromes, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, developed after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Early recognition of this rare condition is essential.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006268

ABSTRACT

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare genetic and life-threatening immunodeficiency disease. Here, we present a 38-year-old male who initially developed multiple annular to irregular erythema accompanied by a fever after COVID-19 vaccination. He was diagnosed with HLH with evidence of leukocytopenia in a full blood test, elevations of ferritin and sCD25, decreased NK cell function, and hemophagocytosis of a bone marrow biopsy specimen. A genetic examination revealed two probable disease-causing heterozygous mutations on UNC13D associated with type 3 familial HLH. A review of the case reports relevant to HLH following COVID-19 vaccination and the cutaneous manifestations of HLH with genetic defects suggests the necessity that individuals with preexisting immune dysregulation or diseases not classified should be cautious about COVID-19 vaccination and reminds clinicians that various recalcitrant skin lesions may be a sign of HLH.

11.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(8): 970-973, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979534

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an uncommon complication of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Non-specific findings that mimic other diseases make timely diagnosis and treatment challenging. We present a rare case of severe ARDS and multiorgan failure from secondary HLH due to peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Case presentation: A middle-aged female presented with dry cough and fever for three days. On presentation, the patient was febrile to 105°F and hypoxic to 88% on room air. Chest X-ray showed bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Laboratory investigations showed lymphopenia and elevated inflammatory markers. The viral panel, including coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), was negative. Her respiratory status progressively worsened, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS. Despite lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and the use of paralytic agents, the patient continued to remain hypoxic, necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The patient was started on antibiotics and high-dose steroid. Thereafter, she developed a leukemoid reaction, and the ferritin level started rising; raising suspicion for lymphophagocytosis. During this time, she also developed acute liver and kidney failure and required multiple vasopressors and renal replacement therapy. Eventually, a diagnosis of mature peripheral T-cell lymphoma was established. Subsequently, her respiratory status and multiorgan failure significantly improved, and ECMO was explanted after 2 weeks. She was started on etoposide and steroid, and eventually discharged after 6 weeks. Discussion: This is the first case describing a successful implementation of ECMO in an adult diagnosed with ARDS secondary to mature peripheral T-cell lymphoma; allowing for recovery of respiratory status, which was compromised during the initial cytokine storm and provided time to establish the diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment of secondary HLH mature due to peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and in the end, prevented a fatality. We believe that ECMO may be appropriately instituted in rapidly deteriorating patients with an unknown illness refractory to conventional therapy, to allow for end-organ recovery, to reach a diagnosis, and to administer appropriate therapy. How to cite this article: Hundal J, Bowers D, Gadela NV, Jaiswal A. Rare Case of Refractory Hypoxia and Severe Multiorgan Failure from Secondary Lymphohistiocytosis Successfully Bridged to Treatment with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(8):970-973. Statement of Ethics: This is a case report and does not contain any images or patient identifying information.

12.
JAAD Case Rep ; 28: 18-20, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977458
13.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969509

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral disease associated with an intense inflammatory response. Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS), the complication present in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), shares many clinical aspects observed in COVID-19 patients, and investigating the cytolytic function of the responsible cells for the first line of the immune response is important. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples obtained by post mortem necropsy were accessed for three groups (COVID-19, H1N1, and CONTROL). Polymorphisms in MAS cytolytic pathway (PRF1; STX11; STXBP2; UNC13D and GZMB) were selected and genotyping by TaqMan® assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA, USA) using Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, MA USA). Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody against perforin, CD8+ and CD57+ proteins. Histopathological analysis showed high perforin tissue expression in the COVID-19 group; CD8+ was high in the H1N1 group and CD57+ in the CONTROL group. An association could be observed in two genes related to the cytolytic pathway (PRF1 rs885822 G/A and STXBP2 rs2303115 G/A). Furthermore, PRF1 rs350947132 was associated with increased immune tissue expression for perforin in the COVID-19 group. The genotype approach could help identify patients that are more susceptible, and for this reason, our results showed that perforin and SNPs in the PRF1 gene can be involved in this critical pathway in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Biopsy , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Perforin/genetics , Perforin/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
14.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(1):129-133, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1913219

ABSTRACT

Ferritin plays an important role in modulating inflammation and is a significant marker in some life-threatening pathological conditions. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), sepsis, and the more recent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) share many clinical and laboratory aspects, including the increase in ferritin levels, so that they are considered hyperferritinemic syndromes. In the pediatric emergency setting, the finding of high ferritin levels if associated with fever requires considering these rare syndromes to start a timely therapy.

15.
J Mol Histol ; 53(4): 753-762, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888926

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) constitutes a life-threatening inflammatory syndrome. Postmortem histological findings of bone marrow (BM) from COVID-19 patients showed histiocytosis and hemophagocytosis and supported the hypothesis that secondary HLH (sHLH) may be triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there are a limited number of sHLH cases in which trephine has been performed in living post-COVID-19 patients. Here we present a recent case and a mini-review of sHLH diagnosed by trephine biopsy in living patients after COVID-19. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of hypertension, diabetes, ischemic stroke, was referred to the hospital to evaluate leukocytosis, pyuria, and elevation of inflammatory markers four weeks after recovering from COVID-19. Computed tomography of the abdomen did not reveal focal signs of infection or hepatosplenomegaly. The patient received intravenous meropenem and two packed red blood cell units. Leukocytes and C-reactive protein were gradually decreased. A BM biopsy was performed and the patient was discharged on cefixime. BM smear revealed severe anemia, lymphopenia, and dysplastic morphologic findings of erythroblasts, neutrophils, and megakaryocytes. Trephine biopsy revealed hypercellular marrow dyserythropoiesis, plasmacytosis, lymphocytosis, histiocytosis, hemophagocytosis, and the absence of granulomas or carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry documented a mixed population of T lymphocytes (CD3+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+). Strong positivity for CD68 confirmed histiocytosis. CD138 κ, λ staining proved polyclonal plasmacytosis. Perl's staining showed excess hemosiderin deposits. Based on our findings, we document sHLH in trephine BM biopsy of a living post-COVID-19 patient and persistent leukocytosis, underscoring the diagnostic value of trephine biopsy in preventing life-threatening conditions such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/adverse effects , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Leukocytosis/complications , Leukocytosis/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 896903, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875424

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a pathologic condition that has emerged during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although the epidemiological evidence of association between MIS-C and SARS-CoV-2 infection has been demonstrated, its pathogenic mechanism is still undefined. We describe the case of a 17-year old female, previously vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, presenting with a history of asthenia, fever, cough, anorexia, abdominal pain, and vomiting. During the hospitalization, the patient developed bilateral conjunctivitis, hand vasculitis, cutaneous rash, and multiple pulmonary nodules, following by hepatitis and pancreatitis. As she reported a high-risk contact with a SARS-CoV-2 positive patient 10 days before admission, the epidemiological link and the clinical picture characterized by multi-system organ disfunction and inflammatory biomarkers increase led us to the diagnosis of MIS-C. Therefore, the patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids, resulting in a rapid resolution of fever, cutaneous, and pulmonary involvement, while the recovery of hepatitis and pancreatitis was observed in the following weeks. This case leads to the discussion on whether SARS-CoV-2 immunized children and adolescents should be considered at risk of developing MIS-C and on their possible presentation with non-classic clinical features. Additionally, due to the increasing number of vaccinated children and adolescents, the issues resulting either from the diagnostic suspect of MIS-C or from the consequent need of an early therapeutic approach are discussed.

17.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(5): 322-338, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports have associated the severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (sCOVID-19) with secondary-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and proposed utilizing the hemophagocytic syndrome diagnostic score (HScore) for sCOVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to find the possible association of HScore parameters with severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using all HScore and COVID-19 keywords. The studies were all from 2020, and the study language was limited to English. The records were screened based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random/fixed-effect models were employed for meta-analysis, based on the I2 index of parameters. The pooled mean differences were estimated for continuous parameters. The pooled odds-ratio was estimated for fever. The level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (comprising 2459 patients) out of 26151 screened studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the level of leukocyte, neutrophil, aspartate transaminase (AST), ferritin, and fibrinogen were significantly higher in sCOVID-19 patients than in non-severe ones. Significant lower levels of lymphocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin were also found in sCOVID-19 patients than non-severe patients. Fever was nearly associated with two times increased odds of sCOVID-19 (P=0.051). CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypohemoglobinemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of AST, and fever are common features of both sCOVID-19 and HLH. However, the leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and hyperfibrinogenemia found in sCOVID-19 are in contrast with HScore. Conclusively, HScore parameters could be risk factors for sCOVID-19. However, some parameters' roles are contradictory, suggesting the need for further investigation and a new way of HScore interpretation in sCOVID-19 patients.A preprint of this study was published at https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-54490/v2.

18.
J Clin Transl Res ; 8(2): 143-146, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801553

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome that is induced by hyper-activated macrophages, cytotoxic T cells, and reduced natural killer cell activity. A 46-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of intermittent fever for the past 2 weeks associated with fatigue along with oral ulcers and skin rashes which resolved spontaneously. These symptoms started after he received the second dose of the BBIP-CorV COVID-19 vaccine. His complete blood picture showed pancytopenia. A detailed infectious disease workup was unrevealing; however, his bone marrow biopsy revealed increased histiocyte activity, with some showing hemophagocytosis and dysplasia. Immunohistochemistry profile demonstrated strong CD 68 positivity. Further investigations showed raised serum ferritin and fasting triglyceride levels. He was immediately started on dexamethasone acetate at a dose of 10 mg/m2, after which his clinical symptoms, as well as his blood parameters, improved remarkably. This is the first documented case in Pakistan. Conclusion: The data from clinical trials support the general safety profile of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. We endorse its mass implementation. However, we believe that robust data need to be generated to evidence any adverse events, especially those with serious outcomes. Physicians should be aware of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine as a possible trigger for HLH and start prompt treatment, resulting in favorable outcomes. Relevance for Patients: The presentation of HLH may vary and can present in an immunocompetent patient with no underlying risk factor. HLH should be kept in differentials when a patient presents with pancytopenia with a recent history of receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Steroids play a major role in the treatment of HLH, and definitive diagnosis and early treatment improve clinical outcomes.

19.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 14: 100966, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797102

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak sparked by SARS-CoV-2, begat significant rates of malady worldwide, where children with an abnormal post-COVID ailment called the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C), were reported by April 2020. Here we have reviewed the clinical characteristics of the pediatric patients and the prognosis currently being utilized. A vivid comparison of MIS-C with other clinical conditions has been done. We have addressed the probable etiology and fundamental machinery of the inflammatory reactions, which drive organ failure. The involvement of androgen receptors portrays the likelihood of asymptomatic illness in children below adolescence, contributing to the concept of antibody-dependent enhancement.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786089

ABSTRACT

Although serious adverse events have remained uncommon, cases of myocarditis induced by messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Here, we presented a rare but potentially fatal disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, in a 14-year-old previously healthy adolescent after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The initial evaluation showed splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Further examination revealed positive blood EBV DNA, and other infectious pathogen surveys were all negative. Hemophagocytosis was observed in the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. HLH was confirmed and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy were given. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) was set up for cardiopulmonary support for 3 days due to profound hypotension. The patient was kept on oral prednisolone treatment for 28 days with the following gradual tapering. The hemogram and inflammatory biomarkers gradually returned to normal, and the patient was discharged. The fulminant presentation of HLH in our case could be the net result of both acute immunostimulation after COVID-19 vaccination and EBV infection. Our case suggests that the immune activation after COVID-19 vaccination is likely to interfere with the adequate immune response to certain infectious pathogens, resulting in a hyperinflammatory syndrome.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL