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1.
Chinese Rural Economy ; 3:157-177, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20244489

ABSTRACT

On the verge of the expiry of land contracts, it is theoretically and practically important to explore the willingness and motivations of farmers to stabilize the land contract relationship, with regards to protecting their land contract rights, addressing potential contradictions during the land contract extension, and maintaining the stability of contracted land. Using China Land Economic Survey Data in 2020, this paper explores the impact of differences in areas per capita of household contracted land on farmers' willingness to stabilize land contract relationship. The findings show that most farmers support the stability of land contract relationship;the smaller areas per capita of contracted land are occupied by households than the average in the village, the weaker of the farmers' willingness to stabilize the land contract relationship. The difference between the areas per capita of contracted land ownership of a household and the average in the village has a greater impact on the willingness to stabilize land contract relationship for middle-and low-income farmers, while the development of land transfer market does not increased the willingness. Affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the land plays a more important role of employment security, which reduces farmers' willingness to stabilize the land contract relationship. Furthermore, the promotion of socialized agricultural service has also mitigated the willingness of farmers o stabilize the land contract relationship.

2.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 25(3):1-15, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241803

ABSTRACT

In Sri Lanka, womens labor force participation has never exceeded 35% in over three decades. As of 2022, the country was ranked 110 out of 146 countries in the World Economic Forums Gender Gap Index. The gaps in womens participation in the formal economy alongside womens limited political empowerment are two leading causes for the country to be lagging in such global gender equality indicators. At a large cost to the economy, the existence of archaic gender norms that promulgate womens unpaid care work often exclude women from the formal labor force. This paper dissects the socio-economic and socio-political factors that lead to the invisibility of women in Sri Lankas economy, while seeking to understand how such underlying causes have been aggravated within the precarity of the post-pandemic context. It is important, now more than ever, to recognize the invisibility of women in Sri Lankas formal economy, while bringing about a transformative vision with a multi-pronged approach to address existing gaps and challenges. With reference to key principles of feminist economics, including the theoretical foundations of Claudia Goldin, Nancy Folbre, and Diane Elson, among others, the paper will make a case for inclusivity and intersectionality in policy recommendations aimed at encouraging womens entry, active engagement, contribution, and retention in Sri Lankas economy. The paper reaches a conclusion that when women lead, participate, and benefit equally in all aspects of life, societies and economies will thrive, thereby contributing to sustainable development and inclusive economic growth.

3.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1153(1):012035, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241667

ABSTRACT

The socioeconomic characteristics of the community in the Bengawan Solo Hulu watershed allow the agribusiness MSMEs business process to occur in production and significantly impact aspects of socioeconomic life. The limited reliable sources of income will affect the community's tendency to repressive actions. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine the sociodemographic conditions of agribusiness MSME households, (2) to determine the effect of the season on the achievement of agribusiness MSME output, and (3) to find out the solutions of Agribusiness MSMEs. The research method used was a survey on Agribusiness MSMEs by taking locations in 2 Sub-watershed, Alangunggahan Sub-Watershed (Eramoko District) and Keduang Sub-Watershed (Jatipurno District and Jatisrono District) with a total sample of 60 MSMEs. The analysis used is the input-output analysis and Econometric analysis. The results showed that the R2 value was 87.14%, the F test was significant at 95%, and all sociodemographic variables were significant except the age factor of Agribusiness MSME actors. There is a significant seasonal difference in the achievement of agribusiness MSME output. This phenomenon indicates that post-Covid, efforts have risen from the Covid 19, and seasonal differences are considered in decision-making efforts to increase output achievements in the Agribusiness MSME.

4.
Gender & Behaviour ; 18(3):16068-16074, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20240718

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is highly contagious, especially via person-to-person contact, is ravaging the world creating mayhem globally. Countries all over the world have devised various strategies to slow down the rate of spread of the COVID-19 which is not treatable presently. To curb COVID-19 spread, South Africa has been in several stages of lockdown since March 2020, restricting movement and business as usual. These lockdowns albeit imposed to keep people healthy and safe, have had tremendous negative impacts on business, especially those that require frequent movement and face-to-face contact with people. However, during lockdowns, one still needs to fend for self and family members, but without being able to work, there is no likelihood any income, even if government gives palliatives, it might not be enough to take care of critical needs of the family. Of note, a large percentage of households in South Africa are female-headed and as such, they often bear a larger burden in providing for themselves and children even prior COVID-19 outbreak not to mention during the course of the pandemic. Furthermore, many women, who are often the sole breadwinners of their households are involved in various business entrepreneurs to support themselves and their families. This paper looks at the plight of women business entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns and their accessibility to the government stimulus package.

5.
Environment and Development Economics ; 28(3):211-229, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238415

ABSTRACT

Insights on the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are critical for designing and implementing policies to alleviate the food security burden it may have caused, and for bolstering rural communities against similar macroeconomic shocks in the future. Yet estimating the causal effects of the pandemic is difficult due to its ubiquitous nature and entanglement with other shocks. In this descriptive study, we combine high-resolution satellite imagery to control for plot-level rainfall with household socio-economic panel data from 2014, 2016, 2019 and 2020, to differentiate the effect of the pandemic from climatic shocks on food security in Morogoro, Tanzania. We find evidence of decreased incomes, increased prices of staple foods, and increased food insecurity in 2020 relative to previous years, and link these changes to the pandemic by asking households about their perceptions of COVID-19. Respondents overwhelmingly attribute economic hardships to the pandemic, with perceived impacts differing by asset level.

6.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8890, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238077

ABSTRACT

The sustainable development goals (SDGs) provide an integrated framework of targets and indicators, including the elimination of stunting, to support better development planning. Indonesia faces a significant challenge as it ranks fourth globally in terms of stunting prevalence, exacerbated by disparities across regions, gender, and socioeconomic status, further compounded by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Given the interlinked nature of SDGs, this study provides empirical support for the prioritization of SDG indicators, primarily in the context of stunting elimination at the district level in Indonesia. This study employed a combination of economic complexity and network theory, utilizing data from a comprehensive set of 54 indicators spanning 28 targets within 13 SDG goals in 514 districts. The analysis is based on network metrics, including revealed comparative advantage (RCA), proximity, centrality, and density to establish the SDG interlinkage network and identify key priority indicators. The findings highlight the importance of prioritizing indicators such as civil registration, health facilities and services, access to basic facilities and housing, and access to ICT in efforts to reduce stunting, particularly among disadvantaged households. Given the unique resources and capacities of each region, our analysis offers district-specific prioritization strategies for stunting elimination.

7.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8854, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20237612

ABSTRACT

Energy poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that affects many Europeans. Alleviating energy poverty is high in the EU, national, and local policy agendas. Despite the attention the phenomenon has been gaining from a policy perspective, especially after the current energy crisis, there are still some gaps due to the complexity of the issue and its vastly different manifestations across Europe. This manuscript presents the policy implications stemming from the implementation of the POWEPROOR approach in alleviating energy poverty in eight European countries, as co-created with relevant stakeholders in each country. The knowledge gained from empowering energy-poor citizens by promoting behavioural changes and small-scale energy efficiency interventions, as well as by encouraging the uptake of renewable energy sources in the form of collective energy initiatives while leveraging innovative financing schemes, resulted in policy recommendations for national and sub-national governments and lessons for civil society and the private sector.

8.
European Journal of Housing Policy ; 23(2):313-337, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236914

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 policy responses have intensified the use of housing as a spatial and material defence against community spread of infection. In so doing, they have focussed attention upon pre-existing inequalities and the effects of socio-economic management of COVID-19. This paper draws upon individual households' accounts to explore these effects on housing inequalities, and then adapts a critical resilience framework from disaster response in order to examine the implications for policymaking. The empirical work centres upon a case study of lived experiences of COVID-19-constrained conditions, based on a longitudinal-style study combining semi-structured interviews with 40 households, photographs and household tours at two datapoints (before/during COVID-19) in Victoria, Australia. The study reveals how these households were impacted across four domains: (1) employment, finances, services, and mobilities;(2) homemaking including comfort and energy bills, food and provisioning, and home-schooling/working from home;(3) relationships, care and privacy, and;(4) social, physical and mental health. The interviews also indicate how households coped and experienced relief payments and other related support policies during COVID-19. Drawing upon literature on disaster response, we highlight the centrality of vulnerability and resilience in recognising household exposure and sensitivity to COVID-19, and capabilities in coping. From this analysis, gaps in COVID-19 housing and welfare policy are exposed and guide a discussion for future housing policy interventions and pandemic planning.

9.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1153(1):012042, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236788

ABSTRACT

The cause of rural changes, in terms of demographic, technological developments, climate changes, and the Covid-19 pandemic potential to cause vulnerabilities, especially for women as individuals in household members. These must be responded with livelihood resilience by involving the women's role to contribute in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. This study aims to (1) describe the vulnerabilities of farmers' households and (2) analyze women's role in household resilience through the use of livelihood assets during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research was conducted in Gubugklakah village, Malang regency as a tourist village affected by the closure of TNBTS tourist visits due to the Covid-19 pandemic. This research used the simple random sampling technique, with total sample of 64 women farmers. Data were analyzed using WarpPLS software. The results showed that farmers' households experienced several vulnerabilities by that the households' livelihood assets: natural, physic, human, social and financial capital can be optimized to achieve a degree of resilience. The women's role in resilience efforts is as the core of the household, because all financial cycles involve housewives' role, such as reducing consumption expenditures, selling jewelry assets, taking savings, involving in farm worker, and others.

10.
Community, Work & Family ; 26(3):373-384, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234848

ABSTRACT

Economic disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic left many households without the income necessary to meet basic needs. We describe an innovative, community-based partnership between a financial services company, philanthropic funders, and employers to provide financial assistance to hotel workers in New Orleans who lost jobs and income due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from a survey of 1,056 hotel workers show that workers experienced lower food insecurity and difficulty paying bills in the month after receiving assistance, while transaction data from the VISA gift cards used to disburse assistance showed that workers mostly used assistance on necessities. We discuss implications for employers who want to offer emergency assistance fund programs and for public policy changes to better support low-wage workers, especially those with children.

11.
Hallazgos-Revista De Investigaciones ; 19(38), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20234688

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the way in which children and adolescents went through schooling, particularly in single-mother households, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The scarce official information published is reconstructed and compiled, specific cross-check are made through the official microdata base and different documents produced by international organizations, particularly UNICEF, are selected. A quantitative and qualitative (that is, mixed) analysis is combined here, based on the work with the aforementioned sources. It is expected to provide inputs for decision-making while at the same time providing material that contributes to the field of work on school inequality that was generated during the pandemic. The general question guiding this work is to what extent the COVID-19 pandemic will deepen pre-existing marks in the educational system and what is the schooling gap by gender that the pandemic will leave behind.

12.
Journal of Social Development in Africa ; 36(2):63-86, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234144

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged nations and people's lives throughout the globe across multiple dimensions. Measures to curtail the spread of the disease in Zimbabwe have stifled the capacity of the majority of the population, relegated to the informal sector, to source a living. In the absence of robust social protection interventions from the state, these measures pose a more immediate threat to the lives of marginalised and vulnerable communities than the pandemic itself. Savings groups (SGs), which have providedfinancial relief andprotection from economic shocks and stressors to such population groups, have been entrapped by the preventive and containment measures employed by the Zimbabwean authorities. It is unclear how and to what degree such conditions leave underserved populations exposed to socioeconomic shocks as such vital informal social protection alternatives have been rendered ineffectual. Using documentary review, this study examines the fate of SGs in such socially restricted and economically debilitating circumstances. In addition, the authors discuss strategies for improving the sustainability of such grassroots micro-finance initiatives under COVID-19 induced contraptions. Programmatic andpolicy measures necessary for retaining and protecting the viability of (SGs) as alternatives for informal social protection for marginalised and vulnerable groups under COVID-19 are advanced.

13.
Journal of Information Technology & Politics ; 20(3):303-322, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20232029

ABSTRACT

Poverty, known as a widespread economic and political challenge (specifically at the times of crisis, like COVID-19), is a very complicated problem, which many countries have been trying for a long time to eradicate. Cash-subsidy allocation procedure using traditional statistical vision is the famous approach, which articles have targeted. Inefficiency of these solutions besides the fact that a pair of households with exact same situation will not be existing leads us to inadequacy and inaccuracy of these methods. This study, by putting data mining and machine learning (as well-known majors in IT and computer Science) visions together, draws a path to overcome this challenge. For this aim, the social, income and expenditure dimensions of a dataset are surveyed from 18885 households considered to measure the population poverty ratio (a fuzzy look at on their eligibility). In respect to the different experimental mode, the effective features are being filtered to use in FCM algorithm in order to determine to what extend the households in the poor or wealthy. Moreover, Genetic Algorithm displays its efficiency in the role of optimizer. Finally, the evaluation results show more accurate outcomes from the feature selection technique (on normalized data) and get the optimized clusters. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Information Technology & Politics is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Agropecuaria Catarinense ; 36(1):67-72, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231778

ABSTRACT

Income of farming households with low socio-economic status is a task in emerging nations, rural parts of Nigeria inclusive. In connection with this, the entrance of Covid-19 pandemic posed a grave risk to the economy of the households. This study, therefore, investigate the coping strategies in mitigating Covid-19 pandemic's effect on the farming households' income. Data for the paper were collected from 150 farming household heads, through multistage sampling method, with the use of interview scheduled and analysed using appropriate statistics. The findings showed that many (57.3%) of the respondents were male. The widely practiced coping strategies during the pandemic were rationed spending (=2.63), job diversification (=2.40), reduction in hired labour (=2.36), household food rationing (=2.28) among others. There is substantial relationship between household size (r = 0.075, p = 0.003), annual income (r = 0.033, p = 0.004) and coping strategies practiced at p0.005. It was concluded that the pandemic had great effect on the income of the farming household. The study recommends formulation of necessary, effective and urgent policies for assisting and generating fresh employments and revenue producing prospects for affected households.

15.
Journal of Health Management ; 25(1):8-125, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231629

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 11 s that discuss recent learnings and developments in healthcare financing from a global perspective. The s cover a range of topics such as the impact of mental illness on poverty and catastrophic health expenditure in India, financing challenges in the American healthcare industry, comparative analysis of health system financing in India and Saudi Arabia, and the contribution of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme to inequality in healthcare utilisation. Other s explore the influence of socio-economic status on health financing choices in Jambi Province, households' willingness to pay for community-based health insurance in Bangladesh, and changes in household expenditures during the first wave of COVID-19 in India. The issue also includes discussions on managing the provider-purchaser split in India and reconsidering patient value to create better healthcare.

16.
Applied Economics Letters ; : 1-6, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230617

ABSTRACT

In 2021 and 2022, inflation expectations of households in the euro area rose dramatically. Based on a time-series investigation from 1995 to 2022, I find that inflation expectations are driven by current price developments of three consumption product categories and house prices (which are not included in the consumer price index). About half of the recent rise was fuelled by energy prices, 20% by food prices, over 10% by transportation costs and almost 20% by house prices. On a macro-level, controlling for a standard set of spending determinants, a regression analysis suggests that accelerating inflation expectations in general will slow down growth of area wide real private consumption, but under circumstances of low nominal interest rates helped to cushion the negative shock of the covid pandemic and the energy crisis.

17.
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag ; : 1-13, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325540

ABSTRACT

The 2020 coronavirus pandemic has involved a series of political and social measures that have been adapted to the spread of the disease. Apart from the severe effects on health sector, the most effects of the pandemic have been felt in households and day-to-day life. Consequently, COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the generation of not only medical and health care waste but also of municipal solid waste production and composition. In this context, this work studied the implications of COVID-19 for municipal solid waste generation in Granada, Spain. Granada is a city where the economy is based mainly on the services sector, tourism and the University. Therefore, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the city and it can be analyzed through the municipal solid waste generation. For the study of the incidence of COVID-19 in the generation of waste a period that goes from March 2019 to February 2021 has been chosen. The results show that, in the global calculation, a decrease in the generation of waste in the city is observed in this last year, reaching - 13.8%. Regarding the organic-rest fraction, the decrease in the COVID year represents - 11.7%. However, bulky waste has shown an increase in the COVID year which may be related to higher home furnishings renovation rates than in other years. Finally, glass is the waste flow that best indicates the effect of COVID in the service sector. In leisure areas, a significant reduction in the collection of glass is observed (- 45%). Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10163-023-01671-2.

18.
EuroMed Journal of Business ; 18(2):270-295, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2323371

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe empirical analysis dealt in this paper emphasizes on the impact of military expenditures on out of pocket (OOP) healthcare payments. A sizeable body of defence economics literature has investigated the trade-off between military and public health expenditure, by testing the crowding-out or growth-stimulating hypothesis;does military expenditure scaling up crowd-out or promote governmental resources for social and welfare programs, including also state health financing?Design/methodology/approachIn this study, panel data from 2000 to 2018 for 129 countries is used to examine the impact of military expenditure on OOP healthcare payments. The dataset of countries is categorized into four income-groups based on World Bank's income-group classification. Dynamic panel data methodology is applied to meet study objectives.FindingsThe findings of this study indicate that military expenditure positively affects OOP payments in all the selected groups of countries, strongly supporting in this way the crowding-out hypothesis whereby increased military expenditure reduces the public financing on health. Study econometric results are robust since different and alternative changes in specifications and samples are applied in our analysis.Practical implicationsUnder the economic downturn backdrop for several economies in the previous decade and on the foreground of a potential limited governmental fiscal space related to the Covid-19 pandemic adverse economic effects, this study provides evidence that policy-makers have to adjust their government policy initiatives and prioritize Universal Health Coverage objectives. Consequently, the findings of this study reflect the necessity of governments as far as possible to moderate military expenditures and increase public financing on health in order to strengthen health care systems efficiency against households OOP spending for necessary healthcare utilization.Originality/valueDespite the fact that a sizeable body of defence economics literature has extensively examined the impact of military spending on total and public health expenditures, nevertheless to the best of our knowledge there is no empirical evidence of any direct effect of national defence spending on the main private financing component of health systems globally;the OOP healthcare payments.

19.
Educational Review ; 75(4):617-636, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2323365

ABSTRACT

While a controversial practice internationally, homeschooling is not uncommon in the United States' educational system. Although myriad reasons exist for choosing to homeschool one's children, a framework highlighting reactive versus proactive motivations has emerged to explain why some families choose to homeschool. Using prospective, longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten: 2010–2011 (ECLS-K:11), reports were gathered from 187 homeschooled children, their parents, and their teachers. Aspects of the ECLS-K:11 homeschoolers appear consistent with a reactive model of homeschooling. All ECLS-K:11 children initially began kindergarten in the traditional school system, but subsequently left that system prior to fifth grade to be homeschooled. When assessed shortly before leaving, these children were more likely to be absent and to have parents who did not endorse being very satisfied with their child's school compared to those who remained in the school system. Moreover, these issues appeared uniquely exacerbated just prior to departure from the school system. Additionally, although children who would go on to homeschool within the next year did not score differently on academic achievement tests than their traditionally schooled peers, they were more likely to experience bullying in the year before they began to homeschool. The ECSL-K:11's homeschooling sample is described, and conclusions drawn between it and literature descriptions of homeschoolers. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed, particularly given recent changes in the educational landscape. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Educational Review is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 92: 103736, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320884

ABSTRACT

Improving rural households' subjective well-being is an important element of economic and social revitalization in the post-epidemic period. Based on the survey data obtained from rural households in Hubei Province, the center of the outbreak in China, and its surrounding areas, this paper explores the impact mechanisms of the COVID-19 epidemic on subjective well-being from both economic and sociological perspectives with the help of structural equation modeling. The results show that COVID-19 significantly influenced rural households' subjective well-being in China. Furthermore, COVID-19 indirectly affected their subjective well-being by influencing optimism. The negative impact is moderated by government intervention and income resilience. Therefore, strengthening the emergency management capacity of local governments and encouraging the diversification of rural households' income sources are important strategies to effectively resolve epidemic shocks and improve the level of well-being.

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