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1.
The Open Public Health Journal ; 15(e187494452206130), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2154490

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Every postpartum mother is recommended to breastfeed her baby because breast milk is the main need of newborns. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on life in various aspects, including on the breastfeeding mothers, especially if they suffer from COVID-19 infection. Aim: The study aims to provide comprehensive evidence regarding potential virus transmission and antibody transfer through breastmilk and the experiences of mothers related to breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Infectious Diseases Now ; 51(5 Suppl):S1-S148, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2124316

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 70 s of papers presented at the conference. Topics discussed are: emergence of zoonoses;characteristics of volunteers registered on the national platform dedicated to COVID-19 vaccine trials;description of antibiotic prescription support systems available in French;multicenter and retrospective study evaluating the impact of antibiotic treatment modalities of urinary colonization before urological surgery;tick-borne meningoencephalitis epidemic in France, 2020;persistence and protection of neutralizing antibodies 12 months after SARS-COV-2 infection in elderly subjects;cold and dry winter conditions favor the transmission of SARS-CoV-2;high-flow oxygen therapy in conventional hospitalization for infectious diseases in the time of CoVID-19;risk of tuberculosis disease among professionals and volunteers supporting people in precarious situations and migrants.

3.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 62(4):763-776, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2146872

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has generated considerable efforts in the development of vaccines, to verify their effectiveness, clinical trials are required and use them in the population worldwide. A systematic literature review (RSL) of COVID-19 and its impact on vaccine development was carried out from 2019 to 2022. The search strategy managed to obtain 8,646 articles, chosen from the 6 research sources (Wiley Online Library, Taylor & Francis, THE LANCET Infectious Diseases, National Library of Medicine, Nature Portfolio and Oxford Academic), then a 4-stage filter was performed with 2 exclusion criteria each, leaving only 78 articles, which were used to answer three research questions posed. In the scientific articles analyzed, the most referenced laboratories that developed Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Sinovac, Sinopharm and Sputnik V vaccines were identified, the use of nanotechnology in the design of the vaccines was identified, mainly using messenger RNA, viral vector and protein subunits, depending on the case with adjuvants that enhance immunogenicity. The studies demonstrated good effectiveness, in the different prioritized groups and thanks to the dosage of the immunizations against COVID-19, the number of serious cases and therefore the mortality rate have been prevented. However, health promotion and education is recommended for the general population to encourage acceptance.

4.
International Journal of Life Sciences ; 10(2):109-120, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2125881

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has invaded the whole world despite all necessary precautions. Several strategies and restrictions have been imposed to overcome the disease since the outbreak of covid19. To tackle this epidemic, getting vaccinated is the only effective way. Several vaccine types have been tested for covid19, including nucleic acid-based, protein-based, and whole virus-based vaccines. The clinical trial phase of several vaccines is underway, however;twenty vaccines have been used on a wide scale throughout the world, out of which six vaccines are granted in India. The current article is mainly focused on vaccines approved for use, their trials, and efficacy, and how they have been used during the pandemic to shed light on disease control.

5.
Ataturk Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi / Ataturk University Journal of Agricultural Faculty ; 53(3):147-154, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2113732

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel coronavirus, which is called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been responsible for the highly rapid spread of COVID-19 disease, globally. Until now, 535 million people were affected and 6.3 million people died due to this outbreak throughout the World. Although the lethality of this disease is lower than the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome, severe complications of this disease are attributed to "cytokine storm" that is the reason for the severe lung damage. The cytokine storm causes systemic inflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, stroke, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. As a result of these symptoms, there are pivotal studies about vaccination, drug, and medication to prevent severe complications and treat patients with COVID-19. Besides these studies, some research shows that nutrients are able to manage the cytokine storm such as many types of vitamins, trace elements, and omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have specific roles in the inflammatory process. Omega 3 fatty acids have a role in the improvement of the inflammatory balance. They interact with viral infection in disparate stages such as viral entry and replication. This study highlights the roles of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of the COVID-19. In addition, omega 3 fatty acids show anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and increase survival rates in patients infected with COVID-19.

6.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2111870

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contains 6 articles that discuss how the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 was presented in different media sources (traditional e.g. UK newspapers vs. social e.g. Twitter) and assess the level of misinformation associated with this issue by comparing media content to evidence-based guidelines, regulation of the partitioning of ALA between PUFA synthesis and oxidation to oxylipins, analyse the associations and effects of anthropometric and body composition parameters on CRF in BC survivors during adjuvant endocrine therapy, assess the accuracy, timing and frequency of MUST recorded for patients admitted to 4 long-stay medical wards, investigate if supplement use or nutrient intake was associated with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores among Australians with ME/CFS, and examine the possible protective effects of chia seed on cafeteria-diet induced obesity in rats and to determine PPARa/P, SREBP1c, UCP2 and FADS2 gene expressions in the adipose tissue.

7.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE1):E1-E58, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044707

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 48 articles that discuss development and validation of a novel quality assessment tool to measure the quality of nutrition information online;longitudinal association between takeaway food environment and secondary school adolescents BMI and body fat percentage;dietary practices, beliefs, and behaviours among adults with inflammatory bowel disease;postpartum depression in Irish mothers and associations with infant feeding practices;the impact of dietary saturated fat replacement with unsaturated fat on the plasma lipidome and cardiometabolic disease risk;ole of brain serotonin in age-related decline in physical activity in mice;ey stakeholder perceptions of food allergies within the airline industry;sleep quality of higher education students during COVID-19 and its association with diet quality and lifestyle behaviours.

8.
Shiraz E Medical Journal ; 23(9), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040309

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of anxiety and depression is high in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. As RA patients tend to be immunodeficient, they are at greater risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection due to their scheduled hospital appointments. Therefore, they have become more anxious and worried during COVID-19 pandemic, and some patients recently have canceled or postponed their treatment. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of stress, anxiety, and depression due to COVID-19 outbreak on non-compliance to treatment among RA patients.

9.
Veterinarski Glasnik ; 74(1):1-17, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039613

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been recognized in veterinary virology for a long time and comprise a large group of RNA viruses responsible for enteric, respiratory, hepatic, and neurologic diseases in a variety of animal species and humans. These viruses are very adaptable considering their highly error-prone replication process and recombination ability, resulting in remarkable mutability and efficient expansion of their host range and tissue tropism. Scope and Approach. In the recent past, after the outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, CoVs became a research focus in the scientific community. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raised more questions concerning the threats posed by these viruses. Several significant examples of coronaviruses jumping the species barrier and changing their tropism have been reported in the past, and novel viruses of both animals and humans have appeared as a consequence. This paper reviews some of the examples of CoV mutability and the most notable animal coronaviruses of veterinary relevance. Key Findings and Conclusions. There is still no proof that the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to humans from domestic animals, and its recent cross-species jump is currently being intensively researched. Intensified and diverse human activities that lead to the disruption of ecosystems contribute to the increased risk of contact with animals that might represent virus reservoirs. The need for constant surveillance of CoVs and expanded studies of their virological traits, mutation mechanisms, diversity, prophylactic and therapeutic measures highlight the key role of both veterinarians and medical doctors in order to preserve the health of the human population.

10.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039236

ABSTRACT

The international tourist destination of Bali reported its first case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19 in March 2020. To better understand the extent of exposure of Bali's 4.3 million inhabitants to the COVID-19 virus, we performed two repeated cross-sectional serosurveys stratified by urban and rural areas. We used a highly specific multiplex assay that detects antibodies to three different viral antigens. We also assessed demographic and social risk factors and history of symptoms. Our results show that the virus was widespread in Bali by late 2020, with 16.73% (95% CI 12.22-21.12) of the population having been infected by that time. We saw no differences in seroprevalence between urban and rural areas, possibly due to extensive population mixing, and similar levels of seroprevalence by gender and among age groups, except for lower seroprevalence in the very young. We observed no difference in seroprevalence between our two closely spaced surveys. Individuals reporting symptoms in the past six months were about twice as likely to be seropositive as those not reporting symptoms. Based upon official statistics for laboratory diagnosed cases for the six months prior to the survey, we estimate that for every reported case an additional 52 cases, at least, were undetected. Our results support the hypothesis that by late 2020 the virus was widespread in Bali, but largely undetected by surveillance.

11.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039233

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive data on transmission mitigation behaviors and both SARS-CoV-2 infection and serostatus are needed from large, community-based cohorts to identify COVID-19 risk factors and the impact of public health measures. We conducted a longitudinal, population-based study in the East Bay Area of Northern California. From July 2020-March 2021, approximately 5,500 adults were recruited and followed over three data collection rounds to investigate the association between geographic and demographic characteristics and transmission mitigation behavior with SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. We estimated the populated-adjusted prevalence of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination, and self-reported COVID-19 test positivity. Population-adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was low, increasing from 1.03% (95% CI: 0.50-1.96) in Round 1 (July-September 2020), to 1.37% (95% CI: 0.75-2.39) in Round 2 (October-December 2020), to 2.18% (95% CI: 1.48-3.17) in Round 3 (February-March 2021). Population-adjusted seroprevalence of COVID-19 vaccination was 21.64% (95% CI: 19.20-24.34) in Round 3, with White individuals having 4.35% (95% CI: 0.35-8.32) higher COVID-19 vaccine seroprevalence than individuals identifying as African American or Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Hispanic, two or more races, or other. No evidence for an association between transmission mitigation behavior and seroprevalence was observed. Despite >99% of participants reporting wearing masks individuals identifying as African American or Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Hispanic, two or more races, or other, as well as those in lower-income households, and lower-educated individuals had the highest SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and lowest vaccination seroprevalence. Results demonstrate that more effective policies are needed to address these disparities and inequities.

12.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(2):157-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034280

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors and infectious diseases are closely related, mathematical models seek to explain these interactions, however, the same analytical practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that can result in analytical challenges.

13.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):72-74, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034129

ABSTRACT

This article describes the differences between the influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic and the immunological and virus-host cell characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Zoonoses ; 2(19), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025752

ABSTRACT

Since the International Health Regulations National Focal Point for the United Kingdom alerted the WHO of ten cases of acute severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children on April 5, 2022, relevant cases have been reported worldwide. These patients had acute hepatitis (negative for hepatitis viruses A-E) and elevated aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminase (ALT) exceeding 500 U/L. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and/or adenovirus type F41 have been detected in some cases. This unknown hepatitis has been hypothesized to be induced by a viral reservoir of novel coronavirus superantigen, which repeatedly stimulates the intestines and leads to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which causes immune abnormalities in the presence of human adenovirus. Although this hypothesis has not been confirmed by any in vivo experimental or clinical studies, it may provide ideas for possible intervention strategies.

15.
Zoonoses ; 1(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025749

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), especially the sweeping spread of the delta variant, and differing public health management strategies, have rendered global eradication of SARS-CoV-2 unlikely. The currently available COVID-19 vaccines, including the inactivated whole virus vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and adenovirus-vectored vaccines, are effective in protecting people from severe disease and death from COVID-19, but they may not confer good mucosal immunity to prevent the establishment of infection and subsequent viral shedding and transmission. Mucosal vaccines delivered via intranasal route may provide a promising direction, which, if given as a third dose after a two-dose series of intramuscular vaccination, likely promotes mucosal immunity in addition to boosting the systemic cell-mediated immunity and antibody response. However, immunity induced by vaccination, and natural infection as well, is likely to wane followed by re-infection as in the case of human coronaviruses OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1. It is a challenge to prevent and control COVID-19 worldwide with the increasing number of VOCs associated with increased transmissibility and changing antigenicity. Nevertheless, we may seek to end the current pandemic situation through mass vaccination and gradual relaxation of non-pharmaceutical measures, which would limit the incidence of severe COVID-19. Repeated doses of booster vaccine will likely be required, similar to influenza virus, especially for the elderly and the immunocompromised patients who are most vulnerable to infection.

16.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021486

ABSTRACT

Background: There are limited data regarding the safety and immunogenicity of the Sinopharm/BBIBP-CorV vaccine in pregnancy. Therefore, we sought to investigate the antibody responses and maternal and fetal adverse events following this vaccine in pregnant mothers in Sri Lanka. Methods and findings: SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) specific total antibodies and ACE2 blocking antibodies were measured by ELISA in pregnant mothers (n = 94) who received the vaccine in the first (n = 2), second (n = 57) and third (n = 33) trimester of pregnancy. Data regarding adverse events and fetal and maternal outcomes were obtained from the women once they delivered. No adverse maternal or fetal complications reported such as miscarriage, thrombotic events, hypertensive disorders, fetal death, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies were reported. 58/94 (61.7%) had RBD binding antibodies and were found to be seropositive at the time of recruitment. All women seroconverted after the second dose and 31/36 previously uninfected women and 57/58 previously infected women gave a positive response to ACE2 blocking antibodies. The RBD binding antibody levels (p = 0.0002) and ACE2 blocking antibodies (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in previously infected individuals post-second dose compared to uninfected individuals. Conclusions: The Sinopharm/ BBIBP-CorV vaccine appeared safe and induced high seroconversion rates and ACE2 blocking antibodies in pregnant mothers in the second and third trimester in pregnancy. However, the RBD binding antibodies and ACE2 blocking antibodies post-second dose were significantly higher in previously infected pregnant mothers post-second dose, suggesting that two doses of the vaccine are likely to be less immunogenic in previously unexposed individuals.

17.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021479

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in children during the global COVID-19 pandemic has been underestimated due to lack of testing and the relatively mild symptoms in adolescents. Understanding the exposure rates in the pediatric population is essential as children are the last to receive vaccines and can act as a source for SARS-CoV-2 mutants that may threaten vaccine escape. This cross-sectional study aims to quantify the prevalence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies in children in a major city in Me'xico in the Spring of 2021 and determine if there are any demographic or socioeconomic correlating factors. We obtained socioeconomic information and blood samples from 1,005 children from 50 neighborhood clusters in Me' rida, Yucata' n, Me' xico. We then tested the sera of these participants for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies using lateral flow immunochromatography. We found that 25.5% of children in our cohort were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and there was no correlation between age and antibody prevalence. Children that lived with large families were statistically more likely to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Spatial analyses identified two hotspots of high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the west of the city. These results indicate that a large urban population of unvaccinated children has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and that a major correlating factor was the number of people within the child's household with a minor correlation with particular geographical hotspots. There is also a larger population of children that may be susceptible to future infection upon easing of social distancing measures. These findings suggest that in future pandemic scenarios, limited public health resources can be best utilized on children living in large households in urban areas.

18.
Pharmacognosy Reviews ; 16(32):62-69, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002632

ABSTRACT

Edible vaccines are created from transgenic plants and animals and contain immunostimulant. Edible vaccines, to put it simply, are medications generated from plants or animals. In underdeveloped countries, oral vaccines are less expensive and more widely available. Researchers came up with the idea of edible vaccines, in which edible plant pieces are employed as a vaccine factory. To make edible vaccinations, scientists put desired genes into plants and then force the plants to generate the proteins expressed in the genes. Transgenic plants are the result of transformation, whereas transformation is the act of converting plants. The edible vaccination promotes mucosal immunity. Dendritic cells in the gut can assist native T cells activate and differentiate into follicular T-helpers (Tfh). T and B cells will respond precisely to a reliable, digestible immunization. Potato, tomato, banana, carrots, tobacco, papaya, algae, and a variety of other plants are utilised as alternative agents for standard vaccinations. Malaria, cholera, hepatitis, rabies, measles, rotavirus, diarrhoea cancer treatments and treatment of covid-19 are among the illnesses for which plant-based vaccines have been created. It takes time and dedication to develop and sell edible vaccinations. Many edible vaccines for animal and human ailments have been developed and have gone through various levels of clinical testing. The importance of plant-based vaccinations is emphasized in this article.

19.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):445-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994243

ABSTRACT

Immunobiotics, a group of probiotics, have the effect of anti-infection by regulating immune function, which can be added in in foods or used to make adjuvants or medicines (biologics). Immunobiotics can stimulate the mucosal immune system of the body, regulate innate and acquired immunity and exert non-specific anti-microbial (bacterial and viral) infection effects through oral, nasal mucosa, sublingual and other routes, but the immune regulation function of immunobiotics is species-specific. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum GUANKE stimulated the increase and maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies in mice even 6 months after immunization. When L. plantarum GUANKE was given immediately after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the level of SARS-COV-2 specific neutralizing antibody in bronchoalveolar lavage increased by 8 times in mice, which improved the local and systematic cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 of mice. Clinical studies have found that immunobiotics have the auxiliary effect in the treatment of COVID-19 by mitigating the symptoms and increase the level of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody of the patients. It is necessary to conduct research and evaluation for the appropriate guideline of immunobiotics use as erly as possible to provide a new option for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

20.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 761(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1960943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to investigate and identifying the possible source of virus in animals and identifying the vector media of the disease and the methods of its spread and working hard to search for a successful vaccine for immunization against infection, in addition to establishing specialized units to predict new versions of the virus in the years to come.

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