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1.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706830

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in China in December 2019, COVID-19 remains the recent leading disease of concern drawing the public health attention globally. The disease is known of viral origin and zoonotic nature originating from animals. However, to date neither the source of the spillover nor the intermediate hosts are identified. Moreover, the public health situation is intermittently aggravated by identification of new animals susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially replicating the virus and maintaining intra and interspecies spread of the disease. Although the role of a given animal and/or its produce is important to map the disease pattern, continuous efforts should be undertaken to further understand the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, a vital step to establish effective disease prevention and control strategy. This manuscript attempted to review updates regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection at the human-animal interface with consideration to postulations on the genetic relatedness and origin of the different SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from different animal species. Also, the review addresses the possible role of different animal species and their produce in transmission of the disease. Also, the manuscript discussed the contamination potentiality of the virus and its environmental stability. Finally, we reviewed the currently instituted measures to prevent and manage the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The manuscript suggested the One Health based control measures that could prove of value for the near future.

2.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536580

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in China in December 2019, COVID-19 remains the recent leading disease of concern drawing the public health attention globally. The disease is known of viral origin and zoonotic nature originating from animals. However, to date neither the source of the spillover nor the intermediate hosts are identified. Moreover, the public health situation is intermittently aggravated by identification of new animals susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially replicating the virus and maintaining intra and interspecies spread of the disease. Although the role of a given animal and/or its produce is important to map the disease pattern, continuous efforts should be undertaken to further understand the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, a vital step to establish effective disease prevention and control strategy. This manuscript attempted to review updates regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection at the human-animal interface with consideration to postulations on the genetic relatedness and origin of the different SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from different animal species. Also, the review addresses the possible role of different animal species and their produce in transmission of the disease. Also, the manuscript discussed the contamination potentiality of the virus and its environmental stability. Finally, we reviewed the currently instituted measures to prevent and manage the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The manuscript suggested the One Health based control measures that could prove of value for the near future.

3.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 577-584, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468586

ABSTRACT

Increased human-animal interfaces impose threats on human life by creating scope for the emergence and resurgence of many infectious diseases. Over the last two decades, emergence of novel viral diseases such as SARS, influenza A/H1N1(09) pdm; MERS; Nipah virus disease; Ebola haemorrhagic fever and the current COVID-19 has resulted in massive outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics thereby causing profound losses of human life, health and economy. The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 200 countries, reporting a global case load of 167,878,000 with 2 per cent mortality as on May 26, 2021. This has highlighted the importance of reducing human- animal interfaces to prevent such zoonoses. Rapid deforestation, shrinking of boundaries between human and animal, crisis for natural habitation, increasing demands for wildlife products and threat of extinction compounded by biodiversity narrowing compel to increased human-animal conflict and contact. Large quantities of animal waste generated due to animal agriculture may also allow rapid selection, amplification, dissemination of zoonotic pathogens and facilitate zoonotic pathogen adaptation and hinder host evolution for resistance. Public health system faces challenges to contain such epidemics due to inadequate understanding, poor preparedness, lack of interdisciplinary approach in surveillance and control strategy and deficient political commitments. Because the management measures are beyond the purview of health system alone, policy-level adaptation in the transdisciplinary issues are required, emphasizing the engagement of multiple stakeholders towards wildlife protection, alternative land use, community empowerment for natural resource management and regulation on business of wildlife products to ensure comprehensive one health practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e22117, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810061

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors of society, from health and economics to socialization and travel. The level and extent of this impact are unprecedented. Although the cause of COVID-19 was quickly identified to be a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the world was poorly prepared for preventing its spread. One important pillar of preparedness is surveillance of the sources of emerging pathogens and responding appropriately to prevent their spread in the human population. The ever-increasing interaction between humans and animals is one leading factor in facilitating the emergence of new pathogens. In this viewpoint, we discuss the possibility of the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, highlight the importance of understanding human-animal interaction to improve preparedness for future outbreaks, and outline recommendations for prevention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
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