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1.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165926

ABSTRACT

Background A third dose of the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine leads to a significant increase in antibody levels, however, concerns regarding the long-term persistence of this response exist. We assessed the humoral response for one year following vaccination. Methods A prospective study among immunocompetent healthcare workers (HCW) who received three doses of BNT162b2. anti-spike antibody titers were measured at six predefined timepoints, from before the second vaccine dose, and up to one year afterwards, which is 4–6 months after the third dose. HCW with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded. Results Seventy-six HCW had all the six serological measurements. Antibody titers significantly increased shortly following the third vaccine dose, and while declining, remained higher from all previous measurements for up to six months. Conclusions A third dose of BNT162b2 leads to a profound humoral response, which remains significantly higher than previous measurements, even after 6 months.

2.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; : 100661, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165673

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIRD) patients are at high risk of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the medium-term effects of immunosuppressants on vaccine efficacy are unknown. We investigated the duration of humoral responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) wild-type and Omicron variant in AIRD patients administered with two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) vaccine. Methods Serum-neutralizing antibody (NAb) and anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)/spike antibody levels were measured. Short- and medium-term effects of immunosuppressants were analyzed pre-vaccination (Term 1) and 14–42 days (Term 2) and 100–200 days (Term 3) after the second vaccination. Findings From Feb 1, 2021, to Feb 28, 2022, 439 AIRD patients and 146 healthy controls were investigated. The seropositivity rate and log10-NAb titers were significantly lower in AIRD patients than in controls at Terms 2 and 3. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFis) at Term 3, and older age, glucocorticoids, and abatacept at Terms 2 and 3 were risk factors for reduced responses. Anti-Omicron RBD/spike IgG levels strongly correlated with NAb titers. Interpretation Glucocorticoids, TNFis, and abatacept treatments negatively affect the longevity of humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, including Omicron, after two vaccine doses. These findings may inform the timing of additional vaccination for AIRD patients. Funding Cloud Funding of Peace Winds Japan;Center of Innovation Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan;Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI;Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development;Kansai Economic Federation;Mitsubishi Zaidan;and Research Grant from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development—Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology.

3.
Nefrología ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159618

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has negatively impacted on patients of the whole CKD spectrum, causing high rates of morbi-mortality. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines opened a new era, but patients with CKD (including kidney transplant, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) were systematically excluded from pivotal clinical trials. The Spanish Society of Nephrology promoted the multicentric national SENCOVAC study aimed at assessing immunological responses after vaccination in patients with CKD. During the first year after vaccination, patients with non-dialysis CKD and those on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis presented good anti-Spike antibody responses to vaccination, especially after receiving the third and fourth doses. However, kidney transplant recipients presented suboptimal responses after any vaccination schedule (initial, third and fourth dose). Especially worrisome is the situation of a patients with a persistently negative humoral response that do not seroconvert after boosters. In this regard, monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 have been approved for high-risk patients, although they may become obsolete as the viral genome evolves. The present report reviews the current status of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the CKD spectrum with emphasis on lessons learned from the SENCOVAC study. Predictors of humoral response, including vaccination schedules and types of vaccines, as well as the integration of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antiviral agents are discussed.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136715

ABSTRACT

Data for COVID-19 vaccine response in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are very limited. In a study of 28 patients with ITP, anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike antibody titres were measured after vaccination. The seroconversion rate for ITP patients was 91.3%, comparable to that in healthy controls (HCs). However, the antibody titre in ITP patients was significantly lower than that in HCs and declined with ageing. Furthermore, the antibody titre in ITP patients who received a minimum prednisolone dose of at least 5 mg/day at any time-point at or after initial vaccination was lower than that in other patients.

5.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133172

ABSTRACT

The onset and spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have created an unprecedented universal crisis. Although vaccines have been developed against the parental SARS-CoV-2, outbreaks of the disease still occur through the appearance of different variants, suggesting a continuous need for improved and effective therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we developed a novel nanovesicle presenting Spike protein on the surface of the dendritic cell-derived extracellular vesicles (DEVs) for use as a potential vaccine platform against SARS-CoV-2. DEVs express peptide/MHC-I (pMHC-I) complexes, CCR-7, on their surface. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the Spike-activated DEVs were tested in mice and compared with free Spike protein. A 1/10 Spike equivalent dose of DEVs showed a superior potency in inducing anti-Spike IgG titers in blood of mice when compared to dendritic cells or free Spike protein treatment. Moreover, DEV-induced sera effectively reduced viral infection by 55-60% within 15 days of booster dose administration. Furthermore, a 1/10 Spike equivalent dose of DEV-treated mice was found to be equally effective in inducing CD19+CD38+ T-cells in the spleen and lymph node; CD8 cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph node; and CD4+CD25+ T-cells in the spleen and lymph node after 90 days of treatment. Thus, our results support the immunogenic nature of DEVs, demonstrating that a low dose of DEVs induces antibodies to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, therefore warranting further investigations.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143738

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, including the third vaccination in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) patients is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the humoral immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the changes in durability until 20-28 weeks after the initial vaccine series in PIBD patients on immunosuppressive drugs. The safety of the initial vaccine series and the booster effect of the third vaccination were also evaluated. A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted, and 63 participants (anti-TNFα: 11; non-anti-TNFα: 31; 5-ASA: 21), with a mean age of 15.2 (range 9.6-17.9) years, were enrolled. All PIBD patients were seroconverted, with no serious short-term AEs. PIBD patients on anti-TNFα had significantly lower antibody titers than those on other medications at all measurement points. Furthermore, antibody titers waned over time with anti-TNFα and were significantly lower at 20-28 weeks than at 3-9 weeks after a two-vaccine series. In all 10 patients (anti-TNFα: 5; non-anti-TNFα including 5-ASA: 5), the third vaccination led to antibody concentrations significantly higher than those at the same time point after the second vaccination. PIBD patients on anti-TNFα need to remain vigilant about COVID-19 even after two vaccinations, and a third vaccination may be considered.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 910987, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142048

ABSTRACT

Background: While anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination success in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) after two doses and 1273-mRNA was associated with higher seroconversion rates compared to BNT162b2-mRNA in our "DIA-Vacc Study" (NCT04799808), it remains unclear whether this may also be the case in non-responding KTR after a third vaccination dose. Materials and Methods: Non-responding KTR (after two mRNA vaccinations) were investigated 4.5-6 months after study enrollment at first vaccination. One hundred sixty-six of 193 received a third vaccination between 3.5 and 5 months after the initial study enrollment and were always investigated 4 weeks later, exploring humoral immune response (ELISA) and specific cellular responses (interferon-γ release assay). Sixty-seven of 193 measurements in KTR were done immediately before the third vaccination or in KTR without further vaccination at 4.5-6 months. Results: Of 193 KTR with no initial immune response 4 weeks after the second vaccination, 106/87 were immunized twice with 1273-mRNA/BNT162b2-mRNA, respectively. Additional mRNA booster vaccination led to positive seroconversion rates of 30-50%, while 16% of the initial non-responders demonstrated a delayed seroconversion without any booster vaccination. Using logistic regression analysis, a positive IgG response after the third vaccination was 23% more likely if the primary vaccine type was 1273-mRNA compared to BNT162b2-mRNA (OR = 4.420, 95% CI [1.208-16.173], p = 0.025). Primary vaccine type, a weak anti-SpikeS1 IgG response 4 weeks after second vaccination (3.2-35.2 BAU/ml, p < 0.001) and a lack of MMF/MPA as part of the immunosuppressive treatment (trend, p = 0.06) but no other variables studied correlated with seroconversion success. Conclusion: This observational study adds important evidence toward using 1273-mRNA as the primary mRNA vaccine type for immunosuppressed KTR.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 1007-1017, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121014

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for new vaccine platforms to rapidly develop solutions against emerging pathogens. In particular, some plant viruses offer several advantages for developing subunit vaccines, such as high expression rates in E. coli, high immunogenicity and safety, and absence of pre-immunity that could interfere with the vaccine's efficacy. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a model system that has been extensively characterized, with key advantages for its use as an epitope carrier. In the present study, three relevant epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were genetically inserted into the CCMV CP and expressed in E. coli cultures, resulting in the CCMV1, CCMV2, and CCMV3 chimeras. The recombinant CP mutants were purified from the formed inclusion bodies and refolded, and their immunogenicity as a subunit vaccine was assessed in BALB/c mice. The three mutants are immunogenic as they induce high IgG antibody titers that recognize the recombinant full-length S protein. This study supports the application of CCMV CP as an attractive carrier for the clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it suggests that VLPs assembled from these chimeric proteins could result in antigens with better immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Bromovirus , COVID-19 , Animals , Bromovirus/genetics , Bromovirus/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Chimera/metabolism , Epitopes , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1033804, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119876

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies have shown a reduction in the effectiveness of primary COVID-19 vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases. However, limited data is available regarding the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose, especially on cellular response. The study aimed to assess the humoral and cellular immunogenicity of a booster dose in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). Patients and methods: 49 IA and 47 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were included in a prospective cohort study. Both groups completed primary COVID-19 vaccination and after more than 180 days received a BNT162b2 booster shot. Humoral responses (level of IgG antibodies) and cellular responses (IFN-γ production) were assessed before and after 4 weeks from the booster dose of the vaccine. Results: After the booster dose, all participants showed an increased humoral response, although significantly reduced antibody levels were observed in IA patients compared to HC (p=0.004). The cellular response was significantly lower both before (p<0.001) and after (p<0.001) the booster dose in IA patients as compared to HC. Among the immunomodulatory drugs, only biological and targeted synthetic drugs lowered the humoral response after booster vaccination. However, the cellular response was decreased after all immunomodulatory drugs except IL-17 inhibitors and sulfasalazine. Conclusion: Our data indicate that patients with rheumatic diseases present lower humoral and cellular responses after the COVID-19 booster vaccine in comparison to HC. This may translate into a recommendation for subsequent booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine for rheumatic patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109950

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response developed after receiving the full vaccination schedule against COVID-19 is impaired in individuals who received anti-CD20 therapy 6-9 months before vaccination. However, there is little information about the cellular immune responses elicited in these individuals. In this study, we analyzed the humoral and cellular immune responses in 18 individuals with hematological disease who received the last dose of rituximab 13.8 months (IQR 9.4-19) before the booster dose. One month after receiving the booster dose, the seroconversion rate in the rituximab-treated cohort increased from 83.3% to 88.9% and titers of specific IgGs against SARS-CoV-2 increased 1.53-fold (p = 0.0098), while the levels of neutralizing antibodies increased 3.03-fold (p = 0.0381). However, the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from rituximab-treated individuals remained unchanged, and both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and direct cellular cytotoxicity (CDD) were reduced 1.7-fold (p = 0.0047) and 2.0-fold (p = 0.0086), respectively, in comparison with healthy donors. Breakthrough infections rate was higher in our cohort of rituximab-treated individuals (33.33%), although most of the infected patients (83.4%) developed a mild form of COVID-19. In conclusion, our findings confirm a benefit in the humoral, but not in the cellular, immune response in rituximab-treated individuals after receiving a booster dose of an mRNA-based vaccine against COVID-19.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109771

ABSTRACT

Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
13.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; : 104371, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND : It remains unclear how vaccine doses and combinations of vaccination and infection affect the magnitude and quality of immune responses, particularly against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants in subjects with immune-related disorders, such as people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Several studies have evaluated the duration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune protection in healthy individuals;however clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in pwMS receiving disease-modifying therapies (DMTs).  METHODS : In this prospective study, we evaluated the humoral response to the third (3rd) BNT162b2 vaccine (booster) dose in a monocentric cohort of pwMS undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Quantitative determination of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre was carried out by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay in 65 pwMS and 9 healthy controls, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, these measurements were also compared to their relative levels at 21 days (T1) and ∼ 6 months (T2) after the second (2nd) vaccination. RESULTS : We observed that the humoral response to the booster dose in Interferon β-1a-, Dimethyl fumarate- and Teriflunomide-treated pwMS is comparable to healthy controls, while increased in Cladribine-treated pwMS. Additionally, the 3rd dose elicits a seroconversion in the 100% of pwMS under Fingolimod and in the 65% of those under Ocrelizumab. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis showed that treatment with Interferon β-1a, Dimethyl fumarate and Cladribine positively associates with an increased humoral response. CONCLUSIONS : Taken together this evidence strongly indicates the importance of the booster dose to enhance SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity especially in immunocompromised subjects, such as pwMS under DMTs.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082259

ABSTRACT

Most of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are based on parenteral immunization targeting the S protein. Although protective, such vaccines could be optimized by inducing effective immune responses (neutralizing IgA responses) at the mucosal surfaces, allowing them to block the virus at the earliest stage of the infectious cycle. Herein a recombinant chimeric antigen called LTB-RBD is described, which comprises the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli and a segment of the RBD from SARS-CoV-2 (aa 439-504, carrying B and T cell epitopes) from the Wuhan sequence and the variant of concern (VOC)-delta. Since LTB is a mucosal adjuvant, targeting the GM1 receptor at the surface and facilitating antigen translocation to the submucosa, this candidate will help in designing mucosal vaccines (i.e., oral or intranasal formulations). LTB-RBD was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by IMAC and IMAC-anionic exchange chromatography. The yields in terms of pure LTB-RBD were 1.2 mg per liter of culture for the Wuhan sequence and 3.5 mg per liter for the delta variant. The E. coli-made LTB-RBD induced seric IgG responses and IgA responses in the mouth and feces of mice when subcutaneously administered and intestinal and mouth IgA responses when administered nasally. The expression and purification protocols developed for LTB-RBD constitute a robust system to produce vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, offering a low-cost production system with no tags and with ease of adaptation to new variants. The E. coli-made LTB-RBD will be the basis for developing mucosal vaccine candidates capable of inducing sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082012

ABSTRACT

This study assessed humoral response to the third BNT162b2 dose among healthcare workers (HCW). This prospective cohort study of HCW tested for anti-spike antibodies (LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay) at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after receiving the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose (tests 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). A third (booster) vaccination dose was introduced before test 4. Linear regression model was used to determine the humoral response following vaccine doses. For each serology test, changes in log-transformed antibody concentrations over time, adjusted for age, sex, underlying diseases, steroid treatment, and smoking were described using the general linear mix model. Serology tests were performed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the second vaccine dose in 1113, 1058, 986, and 939 participants, respectively. The third dose was received by 964 participants before the 9-month tests, 797 of whom participated in the 9- and 12-month serology tests. A significant inverse correlation was noted between time from third dose and antibody concentrations (Spearman correlation -0.395; p < 0.001). Age (p < 0.0001; CI 95% -0.005--0.004), heart disease (p < 0.0001; CI 95% -0.177--0.052), immunodeficiency (p < 0.0001; CI 95% 0.251--0.106), and smoking (p < 0.0001; CI 95% -0.122--0.040) were significantly associated with decreased antibody concentrations. Female sex (p = 0.03; CI 95% 0.013-0.066) was associated with increased antibody concentrations. The third booster dose had a better effect on immunogenicity, with higher antibody concentrations among tested HCW. Heart disease, smoking, and other known risk factors were associated with decreased antibody concentrations.

16.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081992

ABSTRACT

Complementing the adult seroprevalence data collected at the time of the rapid SARS-CoV-2 mass vaccination in the district of Schwaz in 2021, we set out to establish the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the pediatric population of the district. A total of 369 children, mean age 9.9 (SD 3.4), participated in the study, answering a structured questionnaire on the history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, household contacts, symptoms and history of vaccination. We determined binding and neutralizing antibody levels using plasma samples provided. We estimated the overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general pediatric population at the time of the study using the census data from Statistik Austria and daily reports of officially confirmed cases. Excluding study participants who reported a history of PCR-confirmed infection, the age-standardized seroprevalence of previously unknown SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general pediatric population of the district was 27% (95% CI: 26.1-27.8). Adding this to the officially documented cases, the true overall prevalence was 32.8% (95% CI: 31.9-33.6) in contrast to the officially documented 8.0% (95% CI: 7.5-8.5) by June 2021. This translated into a proportion of 75.7% (95% CI: 74.4-77.0) of cases being officially undocumented, suggesting a high extent of silent SARS-CoV-2 infections in the pediatric population and possibly silent transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080493

ABSTRACT

The literature suggests that real-world data on the effectiveness and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine depend on the characteristics of the vaccinated volunteers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibody responses and kinetics, established association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and adverse reactions after complete vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine. A single-center prospective case series study was conducted with 112 eligible volunteers who were institutionalized elderly and health care workers with had a negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test prior to receiving the first dose of vaccine. At least one serological antibody test after each dose of vaccine was performed. Volunteers with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test before vaccination were excluded. A chemiluminescent immunoassay anti-S1 antibody assay performed a serological evaluation. Both vaccine doses elicited positive IgG antibodies 3799.0 ± 2503.0 AU/mL and 8212.0 ± 4731.0 AU/mL after 20 days of the first and second doses of BNT162b2, respectively. Comirnaty® vaccine induced an immune response with antibody production against SARS-CoV-2 in 100% of participants, regardless of age (Spearman rho = -0.10, p-value = 0.312), body mass index (Spearman rho = 0.05, p-value = 0.640), blood group first dose (p-value for Kruskal-Wallis test = 0.093) and second dose (p-value for Kruskal-Wallis test = 0. 268), number of drugs (Spearman rho = -0.07, p-value = 0.490), and number of chronic diseases first dose (p-value for Kruskal-Wallis test = 0.632) and second dose (p-value for Kruskal-Wallis test = 0.510). IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were intensely elevated after the second administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine. The higher the titer of anti-peptide IgG antibodies generated after the first dose of vaccine, the higher the titer generated by the second dose of vaccine (Spearman rho = 0.86, p-value < 0.001) and the total antibody titer (Spearman rho = 0.93, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, no serious adverse effects were reported among participants, although mild to moderate adverse effects (local or systemic) were reported after both doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, being more frequent after the first dose of the vaccine. No participants showed a positive PCR. The BNT162b2 vaccine induces a robust and rapid antibody response regardless of participant characteristics. The second dose might be especially important because of the increased immunogenicity it produces and the possible temporal distancing of the interval between doses. In general, the vaccines were well tolerated.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071951

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) present an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, at least after the initial vaccination and booster dose. Until now, the effect of a fourth dose has not been established. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term dynamics of the humoral response of PD patients to multiple doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, focusing on the effect of the fourth dose. METHODS: This is an analysis of the prospective and multicentric SENCOVAC study. We included patients on PD without additional immunosuppression that had received at least 3 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine doses. We evaluated anti-spike antibody titers after the initial vaccination, third and fourth doses, using prespecified fixed assessments (i.e., baseline, 28 days, 3, 6, and 12 months after completing the initial vaccine schedule). Breakthrough infections were also collected. RESULTS: We included 164 patients on PD (69% males, 62 ± 13 years old). In patients who had received only two doses, the rates of positive humoral response progressively decreased from 96% at 28 days to 80% at 6 months, as did with anti-spike antibody titers. At 6 months, 102 (62%) patients had received the third vaccine dose. Patients with the third dose had higher rates of positive humoral response (p = 0.01) and higher anti-spike antibody titers (p < 0.001) at 6 months than those with only 2 doses. At 12 months, the whole cohort had received 3 vaccine doses, and 44 (27%) patients had an additional fourth dose. The fourth dose was not associated to higher rates of positive humoral response (100 vs. 97%, p = 0.466) or to statistically significant differences in anti-spike antibody titers as compared to three doses (p = 0.371) at 12 months. Prior antibody titers were the only predictor for subsequent higher anti-spike antibody titer (B 0.53 [95%CI 0.27-0.78], p < 0.001). The 2 (1.2%) patients that developed COVID-19 during follow-up had mild disease. CONCLUSIONS: PD presents an acceptable humoral response with three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that improve the progressive loss of anti-spike antibody titers following two vaccine doses.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066626

ABSTRACT

Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients have impaired immunological responses to pathogens and vaccines. In this study, we compared the humoral response to HBV and COVID-19 vaccines in a cohort of MHD patients. Demographic and clinical characteristics of vaccine responders and non-responders were also compared, and the association between the humoral responses to both vaccines was evaluated. The cohort included 94 MHD patients who were vaccinated at least once for HBV and twice for COVID-19. Among the 94 patients, 28 (29.8%) did not develop protective titers to HBV. Hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure were more common in non-responders. Among MHD patients, 85% had positive IgG anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 levels 6 months after two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/Biotech) vaccine. Age and immunosuppressive therapy were the main predictors of humoral response to COVID-19 vaccine. We did not find any association between non-responders to HBV and non-responders to COVID-19 vaccine. There was no difference in IgG anti-spike titers between HBV responders and non-responders (505 ± 644 vs. 504 ± 781, p = 0.9) Our results suggest that reduced humoral response to hepatitis B is not associated with reduced response to COVID-19 vaccine. Different risk-factors were associated with poor immune response to HBV and to COVID-19 vaccines.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066612

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer) was the first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine approved by the European Medicines Agency. We monitored the long-term humoral responses of healthcare workers (HCWs) who received three vaccine doses. A total of 59 healthcare workers were studied: 47 were never SARS-CoV-2-infected (naïve-HCWs), and 12 (infected-HCWs) recovered from COVID-19 before the first vaccine. Serum and saliva were collected at baseline (before the first dose), just before the second dose, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose, and 10 days after the third vaccine. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA were evaluated in serum and saliva, respectively, and the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) was analyzed in serum. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG peaked one month after the second vaccine in naïve-HCWs but right before this timepoint in infected-HCWs. IgG titers significantly decreased during follow-up and at month 9 were still detectable in 50% of naïve-HCWs and 90% of infected-HCWs. NAb were significantly decreased 6 months after the second vaccine in naïve-HCWs and 9 months after this dose in infected-HCWs. Salivary SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA titers were significantly higher in infected-HCWs and were undetectable 9 months after the second vaccine in 43% of the naïve-HCWs alone. The third vaccine greatly increased humoral IgG and mucosal IgA in both groups. Two BNT162b2 doses induced strong systemic and humoral immune responses; to note, these responses weakened over time, although they are more prolonged in individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. The third vaccine dose quickly boosts systemic and mucosal humoral responses.

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