Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 553
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 964512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099115

ABSTRACT

Recovered COVID-19 patients often display cardiac dysfunction, even after a mild infection. Most current histological results come from patients that are hospitalized and therefore represent more severe outcomes than most COVID-19 patients face. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the cardiac effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a hamster model. SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters developed diastolic dysfunction after recovering from COVID-19. Histologically, increased cardiomyocyte size was present at the peak of viral load and remained at all time points investigated. As this increase is too rapid for hypertrophic remodeling, we found instead that the heart was oedemic. Moreover, cardiomyocyte swelling is associated with the presence of ischemia. Fibrin-rich microthrombi and pericyte loss were observed at the peak of viral load, resulting in increased HIF1α in cardiomyocytes. Surprisingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection inhibited the translocation of HIF1α to the nucleus both in hamster hearts, in cultured cardiomyocytes, as well as in an epithelial cell line. We propose that the observed diastolic dysfunction is the consequence of cardiac oedema, downstream of microvascular cardiac ischemia. Additionally, our data suggest that inhibition of HIF1α translocation could contribute to an exaggerated response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Microvascular Research ; : 104454, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095842

ABSTRACT

Objective Subclinical life style disease can cause endothelial dysfunction associated with perfusion abnormalities and reduced vascular compliance. Subclinical elevated beta type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been associated with altered fluid shift from extra to intracellular space during acute hypoxia. Therefore we measured vascular response and BNP levels during acute hypoxia to study endothelial functions among healthy individuals. Methods Individuals were exposed to acute normobaric hypoxia of FiO2 = 0.15 for one hour in supine position and their pulmonary and systemic vascular response to hypoxia was compared. Individuals were divided into two groups based on either no response (Group 1) or rise in systolic pulmonary artery pressure to hypoxia (Group 2) and their BNP levels were compared. Results BNP was raised after hypoxia exposure in group 2 only from 18.52 ± 7 to 21.56 ± 10.82 pg/ml, p < 0.05. Group 2 also showed an increase in mean arterial pressure and no fall in total body water in response to acute hypoxia indicating decreased endothelial function compared to Group 1. Conclusion Rise in pulmonary artery pressure and BNP level in response to acute normobaric hypoxia indicates reduced endothelial function and can be used to screen subclinical lifestyle disease among healthy population.

3.
Int J Med Inform ; 169: 104911, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring systems have been developed during the COVID-19 pandemic enabling clinicians to remotely monitor physiological measures including pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and breathlessness in patients after discharge from hospital. These data may be leveraged to understand how symptoms vary over time in COVID-19 patients. There is also potential to use remote monitoring systems to predict clinical deterioration allowing early identification of patients in need of intervention. METHODS: A remote monitoring system was used to monitor 209 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the period following hospital discharge. This system consisted of a patient-facing app paired with a Bluetooth-enabled pulse oximeter (measuring SpO2 and HR) linked to a secure portal where data were available for clinical review. Breathlessness score was entered manually to the app. Clinical teams were alerted automatically when SpO2 < 94 %. In this study, data recorded during the initial ten days of monitoring were retrospectively examined, and a random forest model was developed to predict SpO2 < 94 % on a given day using SpO2 and HR data from the two previous days and day of discharge. RESULTS: Over the 10-day monitoring period, mean SpO2 and HR increased significantly, while breathlessness decreased. The coefficient of variation in SpO2, HR and breathlessness also decreased over the monitoring period. The model predicted SpO2 alerts (SpO2 < 94 %) with a mean cross-validated. sensitivity of 66 ± 18.57 %, specificity of 88.31 ± 10.97 % and area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.80 ± 0.11. Patient age and sex were not significantly associated with the occurrence of asymptomatic SpO2 alerts. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that SpO2 alerts (SpO2 < 94 %) on a given day can be predicted using SpO2 and heart rate data captured on the two preceding days via remote monitoring. The methods presented may help early identification of patients with COVID-19 at risk of clinical deterioration using remote monitoring.

4.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 506(1): 206-209, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088454

ABSTRACT

In the present manuscript we analyzed the influence of hypoxic response in Caco-2 cells on the expression of genes and miRNAs involved in the mechanisms of intracellular transport of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, especially endocytosis and transcytosis. With the use of RNA sequencing of Caco-2 cells treated with hypoxia-inducing oxyquinoline derivative, we showed two-fold increase in the expression of the main SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2. Expression of the non-canonical receptor TFRC was also elevated. We also observed a significant increase in the expression levels of genes from the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, which play a crucial role in the transcytosis: LDLR, LRP1, LRP4, and LRP5. Upregulation of LDLR was coupled with the downregulation of hsa-miR-148a-3p, which can directly bind to LDLR mRNA. Thus, the hypoxic response in Caco-2 cells includes upregulation of genes involved in the mechanisms of endocytosis and transcytosis of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Hypoxia , Endocytosis , Transcytosis , Humans , Caco-2 Cells , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 81(12): 988-995, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077800

ABSTRACT

The brain of a 58-year-old woman was included as a civilian control in an ongoing autopsy study of military traumatic brain injury (TBI). The woman died due to a polysubstance drug overdose, with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) serving as a contributing factor. Immunohistochemical stains for ß-amyloid (Aß), routinely performed for the TBI study, revealed numerous, unusual neocortical Aß deposits. We investigated the autopsied brains of 10 additional young patients (<60 years old) who died of COVID-19, and found similar Aß deposits in all, using two different Aß antibodies across three different medical centers. The deposits failed to stain with Thioflavin-S. To investigate whether or not these deposits formed uniquely to COVID-19, we applied Aß immunostains to the autopsied brains of COVID-19-negative adults who died with acute respiratory distress syndrome and infants with severe cardiac anomalies, and also biopsy samples from patients with subacute cerebral infarcts. Cortical Aß deposits were also found in these cases, suggesting a link to hypoxia. The fate of these deposits and their effects on function are unknown, but it is possible that they contribute to the neurocognitive sequelae observed in some COVID-19 patients. Our findings may also have broader implications concerning hypoxia and its role in Aß deposition in the brain.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Neocortex , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Neocortex/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Hypoxia/pathology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology
6.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071634

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-infected symptomatic patients often suffer from high fever and loss of appetite which are responsible for the deficit of fluids and of protein intake. Many patients admitted to the emergency room are, therefore, hypovolemic and hypoproteinemic and often suffer from respiratory distress accompanied by ground glass opacities in the CT scan of the lungs. Ischemic damage in the lung capillaries is responsible for the microscopic hallmark, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) characterized by hyaline membrane formation, fluid invasion of the alveoli, and progressive arrest of blood flow in the pulmonary vessels. The consequences are progressive congestion, increase in lung weight, and progressive hypoxia (progressive severity of ARDS). Sequestration of blood in the lungs worsens hypovolemia and ischemia in different organs. This is most probably responsible for the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the ischemic peripheral tissues, the release of acute-phase mediators, and for the persistence of elevated serum levels of positive acute-phase markers and of hypoalbuminemia. Autopsy studies have been performed mostly in patients who died in the ICU after SARS-CoV-2 infection because of progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the death certification charts, after respiratory insufficiency, hypovolemic heart failure should be mentioned as the main cause of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypovolemia , Lung/diagnostic imaging
7.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 6965-6976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070833

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to assess the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and oxygenation index on COVID-19 patients' mortality risk. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes from patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, from March to July 2020. We assessed exploratory associations between oxygenation index and Hb concentration at admission and clinical outcomes. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to evaluate the observed nonlinear relations and the classification and regression trees (CART) algorithm to assess the interaction effects. Results: We included 550 patients, of which 52% were male. The median age was 57 years old, and the most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (29%). The median value of SpO2/FiO2 was 424, and the median Hb concentration was 15 g/dL. The mortality was 15.1% (83 patients). Age, sex, and SpO2/FiO2, were independently associated with mortality. We described a nonlinear relationship between Hb concentration and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with mortality and an interaction effect between SpO2/FiO2 and Hb concentration. Patients with a similar oxygenation index had different mortality likelihoods based upon their Hb at admission. CART showed that patients with SpO2/FiO2 < 324, who were less than 81 years with an NLR >9.9, and Hb > 15 g/dl had the highest mortality risk (91%). Additionally, patients with SpO2/FiO2 > 324 but Hb of < 12 g/dl and a history of hypertension had a higher mortality likelihood (59%). In contrast, patients with SpO2/FiO2 > 324 and Hb of > 12 g/dl had the lowest mortality risk (9%). Conclusion: We found that a decreased SpO2/FiO2 increased mortality risk. Extreme values of Hb, either low or high, showed an increase in the likelihood of mortality. However, Hb concentration modified the SpO2/FiO2 effect on mortality; the probability of death in patients with low SpO2/FiO2 increased as Hb increased.

8.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(8):249-252, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068427

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 disease which has originated from the virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome also known as SARS-CoV-2. This disease was first come to knowledge from Wuhan, a city in China during late December. And has turned out to be a universal pandemic in the month of March 2020 as said by the organisation WHO. It is noted that the population who were affected by this virus are 2.6 million including 210 countries till 22nd April 2020 and the count still continues. COVID-19 or corona virus disease has caused a massive death number across the globe. It has mainly affected the respiratory system. Whereas it has also caused various complication to other organs as thromboembolic problems, myocardial ischemia. The exact mechanism behind this still unknown. It presents with lack of dyspnea and extremely low oxygen saturation level, which makes them exceptionally at higher risk. It could happen that coronavirus has a distinctive action on receptors involved in chemo sensitivity to oxygen, but well-established pathophysiological mechanisms can account for most, if not all, cases of silent hypoxemia. These mechanisms consist the way dyspnea and the respiratory centres reacts to low levels of oxygen, the way the Prevailing Carbon Dioxide tension (PaCO2) alters the brain's response to hypoxia, effects of disease and age on control of breathing, inaccuracy of pulse oximetry at low oxygen saturations, and temperature induced shifts in the oxygen dissociation curve. Oxygen saturation reading and lack of dyspnea are some factors which are alarming to physicians along with its outcome on the respiratory centres.

9.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1059, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063485

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term humoral and cellular immunity generated following SARS-CoV-2 infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Method(s): Patients included had an active graft of an organ transplant as an adult, a positive polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 after transplant, and had not received convalescent plasma, vaccination, or monoclonal antibody for SARS-CoV-2. Whole blood was obtained 6 months (+/- 1 month) after infection. Serology measured IgG and IgM titer to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain, reported as signal/ cut-off ratio (s/co). CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell reactivity was measured by Activation Induced Marker assays following stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Result(s): Of 25 subjects, 19 (76.0%) were hospitalized, 4 (16.0%) developed hypoxia, but none required mechanical ventilation. Biopsy-proven graft rejection occurred in 3 (12.0%), but none had graft loss. At 6 months, 8 (16%) had persistent symptoms and 2 (4.0%) were re-infected within one year. In the immunity study, 22 (88.0%) had reactive IgG testing and 11 (44.0%) had reactive IgM testing. Median IgG titer was 3.68 s/co (range 0.19-36.44) and IgM titer was 0.79 s/co (range 0.02-16.41). Virus-specific CD4+ T-cell reactivity was noted in 23 (92%), but only 10 (40.0%) had reactive CD8+ T-cell testing. Moderate correlation was observed between IgG and IgM titer (r=.51, p= 0.009) and between IgG titer and percent virus-specific CD4+ T-cells (r=.46, p=0.02). CD8+ T-cell reactivity was correlated with greater illness severity (p=0.043). Use of Tacrolimus, mycophenolate, or corticosteroids at time of infection was not associated with T-cell or antibody reactivity. Conclusion(s): In summary, this cohort of SOTR evaluated six months after noncritical COVID-19 illness demonstrated robust IgG and CD4+ T-cell responses, and CD8+ T-cell reactivity was correlated with higher disease severity.

10.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1066, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063484

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study our cohort of adult solid organ transplant recipients who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 to describe the incidence density of SARS-CoV-2 re-infection, as well as the clinical features and convalescent immunity profile. Method(s): Incidence density was calculated as the total cases of re-infection divided by total days after initial diagnosis with active graft. We included those with initial infection diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction before or after transplantation, and cycle threshold values were obtained when possible. Two recipients had immunity evaluated in the weeks prior to re-infection, by measuring IgG antibody titer to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain and virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell reactivity following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and using activation induced marker assays. Result(s): Out of 210 infected recipients, 5 (2.4%) developed re-infection, including two that had received full mRNA vaccination, but none developed hypoxia. The incidence density was 9.4 (95% confidence interval 3.9-22.6) cases/100,000 patient days. Two cases of re-infection had participated in our immunity study and had convalescent immunity data from a blood draw approximately six months after initial infection and prior to re-infection. Both mounted virus specific CD4 T cell responses prior to re-infection (1.19% and 0.28% of total CD4 T cells) and both had reactive IgG testing (1.30 and 4.99 signal/cut off ratio). Conclusion(s): This suggests that SOT recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain at high risk for re-infection even after generating reactive cellular and humoral immune responses.

11.
Hypertension. Conference: American Heart Association's Hypertension ; 79(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064365

ABSTRACT

Background Objective: What is the association between COVID-19 infection and QTc changes? Coronavirus SARS-COV2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors 2 (ACE2) on host cells to enter into human cells. These receptors are expressed on the heart cells among other major cells. This is one of the most accepted theories for direct cardiac cell injury of COVID-19disease and associated cardiorespiratory manifestations. COVID-19 infection leads to unstable myocardial cell membranes, by causing hypoxia, myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, and abnormal host immune response. This is the main reason behind Arrhythmia and EKG changes during COVID19 infection. But the specific effect on QTc has not been studied well so far, so our research try to study this connection. Method(s): This is an observational retrospective hospital chart review involving 320 adult participants diagnosed with COVID-19 infection at our facility. After applying the exclusion criteria, 130 participants remained, who were distributed into two groups. One group with long QTc and one group with normal QTc. Data was collected and demographics were recorded using Excel and SPSS, then compared using a student's t-test for independent groups. The quantitative data are summarized by the mean and standard deviation (SD). Statistical significance was taken as P <0.05. Result(s): A total of 63 participants (48.4% of total 130 participants) met the criteria for long QTc, and a total of 67 participants(51.5%) had normal QTc (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant mortality outcome (0.8% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.21). Conclusion(s): Our study showed 48.4% participants having an increase in QTc during COVID-19 infection, (20% of 320 total admissions). This observation is very important to help healthcare providers to gaina better understanding of this disease.

12.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(Supplement 2):115, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062727

ABSTRACT

Background: Glycine is an endogenous, non-essential, simple amino acid produced in the human body. A 1.5% solution is commonly used for irrigation in gynecologic and urologic procedures as it is a sterile, clear, non-irritating liquid. It is neutral, mildly acidic and nonpyrogenic, and as it is produced by the human body it does not cause allergic reactions. If an excessive amount is absorbed during a procedure it can result in electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypocalcemia. It can also result in transient vision disturbances, changes in heart rate, hypotension, hyperammonemia, or encephalopathy. Glycine has been used as a diluent in certain inhaled therapies for COVID-19 infections, such as epoprostenol. We describe a case where a 1.5% glycine solution was inadvertently used for humidified oxygen via high flow nasal cannula as opposed to distilled water. Case report: The patient was a 70-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital for hypoxia related to a COVID-19 infection with O2 saturations in the 70-80% range. He was placed on high flow nasal cannula to improve his oxygen levels. During his inpatient stay it was discovered that a 3-L bag of 1.5% glycine solution had been connected to the high flow nasal cannula instead of distilled water. This ran from Friday evening to the following Monday morning before the error was discovered. There was only 100mL of the glycine solution remaining in the bag when it was found. The patient continued to do well and had no new complaints during his stay. The case was called to the regional poison center which recommended monitoring electrolytes, watching for any possible respiratory symptoms and continuing supportive care. Initial lab work on admission showed a chemistry panel of Na 146, K 3.6, Cl 102, CO2 25.3, BUN 9, Cr 0.70, Glucose 106, Ca 9.3. Repeat lab work immediately after the mistake was found showed: Na 137, K 4.8 Cl 100, CO2 28, BUN 15, Cr 0.70, Glucose 129, Ca 9.0. On recommendations from poison control, electrolytes were monitored with repeat lab work 10 h after discontinuation of the glycine solution, showing: Na 135, K 4.3, Cl 97, CO2 26.8, Glucose 175, Ca 9.2. The patient did not develop any new complaints, had no reported altered mental status, epistaxis, nasal irritation or other symptoms related to the inhalation. He was eventually discharged home on oxygen for his persistent hypoxia related to his COVID-19 lung infection. Discussion(s): This case demonstrates that prolonged continuous inhalational exposure to a 1.5% glycine irrigation solution does not result in any mucosal irritation, metabolic or systemic toxic reactions, even though its pH is reportedly between 4.5 and 6.5. Thus, glycine solutions up to this concentration appear to be safely tolerated for its increasing use as an excipient for aerosolized medications. Conclusion(s): We describe a case where 1.5% glycine solution was inadvertently used in place of distilled water for humidified oxygen via high flow nasal cannula for approximately 3 days in a patient being treated for COVID-19 related pneumonia with no notable adverse effects.

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A2545-A2546, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060958

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Signs and Symptoms of Chest Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Vaping products have been rapidly gaining popularity, with studies showing increasing use, even among school-going children and adolescents. E-cigarette or Vaping Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) is defined as respiratory failure within 90 days of e-cigarette use with pulmonary infiltrates on imaging, in the absence of infectious or alternative causes of respiratory failure.[1] Vitamin E acetate, a thickening agent in THC containing e-cigarettes, is thought to be the main causative agent of EVALI and has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage samples in almost all cases of EVALI.[2] However, diagnosing EVALI in this era of COVID -19 is a challenge due to striking similarities in clinical symptoms and imaging findings. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old male with anxiety and polysubstance abuse, presented with headache, cough, low-grade fevers and chills of 1 week. In the ED, he was febrile to 102 F and hypoxic to 89% on room air and was started on 3 liters of oxygen. Labs showed leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Urine toxicology was positive for THC. Chest X-ray showed bilateral interstitial opacities. CT angio of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities. Despite 2 negative PCR tests, suspicion for COVID was high and the patient was initially started on dexamethasone and other supplements, along with antibiotic coverage for a possible bacterial etiology. Despite this, respiratory symptoms and hypoxia continued to worsen. Infectious work up including blood, sputum cultures with AFB staining, urine streptococcus and legionella tested negative. The patient however now revealed the regular use of THC containing vape and procuring the THC oil from a new street vendor. This prompted us to suspect vaping induced chemical pneumonitis. He was restarted on steroid therapy with methylprednisolone and within 1 week, had symptomatic improvement and resolution of hypoxia. The patient was eventually discharged on prednisone taper over 7-10 days. DISCUSSION: Our patient was initially treated for COVID pneumonia despite repeated negative PCR tests, as findings were suggestive of SARS-COV-2 infection. Fortunately, the patient eventually revealed about regular use of THC-oil vapes, making us consider a diagnosis of vaping induced chemical pneumonitis. The mainstay of treatment is steroid therapy and cessation of e-cigarette use. The severity of the pandemic has led to a low threshold for suspecting COVID, causing increased anchoring and availability bias, and potentially under-diagnosing conditions like EVALI which resemble COVID infection.[3] CONCLUSIONS: While it is important to have a low threshold for suspecting COVID-19, considering other mimics of COVID is prudent for providing treatment in an appropriate and timely manner. Detailed inquiry of e-cigarette use, particularly THC-oil containing vapes, duration of use and source of procurement, goes a long way in diagnosing of EVALI. Reference #1: EVALI and the Pulmonary Toxicity of Electronic Cigarettes: A Review Lydia Winnicka, MD and Mangalore Amith Shenoy, MD PMCID: PMC7351931 PMID: 32246394 Reference #2: Clinical presentation, treatment, and short-term outcomes of lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping: a prospective observational cohort study Denitza P Blagev 1, Dixie Harris 2, Angela C Dunn 3, David W Guidry 2, Colin K Grissom 4, Michael J Lanspa 5 PMID: 31711629 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32679-0 Reference #3: EVALI: A Mimicker of COVID-19 Mitchell M. Pitlick, MD,a Daenielle K. Lang, MD,a Anne M. Meehan, MBBCh, PhD,b and Christopher P. McCoy, MDb, PMCID: PMC8006188 PMID: 33817560 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kaushik Darbha No relevant relationships by Rashmikant Doshi No relevant relationships by Ishan Sahu No relevant relationships by sara samad

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2494, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060954

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Dyspne Mysteries SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Anti-synthetase (AS) syndrome is characterized by interstitial lung disease (ILD), arthritis, myositis, fever, or Raynaud's phenomenon in the presence of an AS autoantibody (1). At least 70% of patients with AS syndrome develop ILD (2), and it represents the major cause of mortality in these patients with a 10 year survival rate of 73%. In a small cohort study, the anti-PL-12 antibody subtype was found to be strongly associated with ILD (3). CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 year old female with a history of tobacco use disorder presented to the hospital with three months of recurrent subjective fevers, non-productive cough, and dyspnea on exertion. She denied arthralgias, muscle weakness and hemoptysis. She initially presented to her primary care physician with these symptoms and was prescribed amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The patient continued to be symptomatic and was treated empirically for COVID-19 pneumonia twice despite two negative COVID-19 tests and without any significant clinical improvement in her respiratory status. On admission, she was febrile, tachycardic, and had a new oxygen requirement with bilateral coarse breath sounds on exam. She had no leukocytosis and her COVID-19 test was negative. CT angiography of the chest showed extensive mixed reticular and airspace opacities with peribronchial predilection and peripheral sparing (figure 1). A bronchial alveolar lavage was notable only for neutrophilia (19%) and eosinophilia (4%). Rheumatological workup revealed elevated rheumatoid factor, positive antinuclear antibody (1:40), weakly positive anti–Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibody (50 AU/ml), undetectable anti-Jo-1 antibody and positive anti-PL-12 antibody. Pulmonary function testing revealed a TLC of 40% and DLCO of 28%, consistent with a restrictive pattern. Considering the patient's organizing pneumonia, positive antibodies, and findings of "mechanic's hands,” the patient was diagnosed with anti-synthetase syndrome with ILD. She was started on oral prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. On follow-up, she was noted to have symptomatic improvement and stable hypoxia without clinical signs of disease progression. DISCUSSION: During the coronavirus pandemic, the resemblance of COVID-19 pneumonia to other diseases, in the absence of conscious suspicion for other etiologies, can lead to anchoring and availability bias thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Additionally, anti-synthetase syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ILD even in the absence of arthritis and myositis, as respiratory symptoms are often the first presenting signs. CONCLUSIONS: Increased responsibility is required of diagnosticians to exercise due diligence and active recognition of COVID availability and anchor bias to avoid missing crucial diagnoses. Reference #1: Cojocaru, Manole, Inimioara Mihaela Cojocaru, and Bogdan Chicos. "New insights into antisynthetase syndrome.” Maedica 11.2 (2016): 130. Reference #2: Marco, Joanna L., and Bridget F. Collins. "Clinical manifestations and treatment of antisynthetase syndrome.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 34.4 (2020): 101503. Reference #3: Kalluri, Meena, et al. "Clinical profile of anti-PL-12 autoantibody: cohort study and review of the literature.” Chest 135.6 (2009): 1550-1556. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mario Flores No relevant relationships by David Jackson No relevant relationships by Lisa Saa No relevant relationships by Abu Baker Sheikh

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2492-A2493, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060953

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare illness characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the lung parenchyma. Cases often present with fever, severe dyspnea, bilateral infiltrates, and eosinophilia on BAL exams. The cause of eosinophilic pneumonia is unknown, but is thought to be related to inhalational exposure of an irritant or toxin. Most cases are responsive to steroid treatment. This case demonstrates acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient who recently recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 year old female with a history of multiple sclerosis, seizure disorder secondary to MS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and a distant history of tobacco smoking and opiate dependence on chronic suboxone therapy, presented with dyspnea secondary to respiratory failure. The patient was urged to present by her husband after findings of hypoxia to 79% on room air with cyanosis of the lips and fingers. She recently recovered from COVID-19 1 month prior, at which time she had symptoms of cough productive of red mucus, fever, and exhaustion;but states she never returned to her baseline. With ongoing hypoxia, the patient was intubated for mechanical ventilation. Subsequent bronchoscopy with BAL resulted in a elevated eosinophil count to 76%, with fungal elements and PCR positive for HSV-1. The patient was initiated on high dose glucocorticoid therapy in addition to Acyclovir and Voriconazole. A CT with IV contrast revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli involving the segmental and subsegmental branches throughout both lungs and extension into the right pulmonary artery;the patient was started on anticoagulation. Shortly after beginning glucocorticoid therapy, the patient had significant improvement and was able to be weaned off ventilation to simple nasal cannula. She was able to be safely discharged home with two liters of supplemental oxygen and steroid taper. DISCUSSION: Acute Eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare condition with an unknown acute disease process. The diagnostic criteria for acute eosinophilic pneumonia includes: a duration of febrile illness less than one month, hypoxia with an SpO2 <90%, diffuse pulmonary opacities, and otherwise absence of inciting causes of pulmonary eosinophilia (including asthma, atopic disease, or infection). Diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is attained after meeting clinical criteria with a BAL sample demonstrating an eosinophilia differential of >25%. The mainstay of treatment for this condition is glucocorticoid therapy with most cases resolving rapidly after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 200 cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia have been reported in medical literature. It is imperative to keep a wide differential as critical illness may be rapidly improved with appropriate therapy. The cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is largely unknown, it is unclear what role COVID-19 may have played in the development of this pneumonia. Reference #1: Allen J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr;27(2):142-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939517. PMID: 16612765. Reference #2: Nakagome K, Nagata M. Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 21;10(4):638. doi: 10.3390/biom10040638. PMID: 32326200;PMCID: PMC7226607. Reference #3: Yuzo Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of the previous literature, causes, diagnosis, and management, Allergology International, Volume 68, Issue 4, 2019, Pages 413-419, ISSN 1323-8930 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Tayler Acton No relevant relationships by Calli Bertschy No relevant relationships by Stewart Caskey No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande No relevant relationships by Tyler Houston No relevant relationships by Zenia Sattar No relevant relationships by Heather Villarreal

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2486, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060952

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: What Lessons Will We Take From the Pandemic? SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Post COVID pulmonary complications can be attributed to severe inflammatory response that can result in pulmonary fibrosis. It is somewhat predictable in patients with severe illness, advanced age and comorbidities. However, a little is known about pulmonary complications in younger patients with mild illness followed up at outpatient clinics. We aim to shed light on post COVID pulmonary complications in patients who did not require hospitalization but had significant outpatient visits. METHODS: This study is based upon a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to Pulmonology Clinic at Cayuga Medical Associates with respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 disease. Mild illness was defined as symptoms of dyspnea on exertion or fatigue or shortness of breath that have not required oxygen and lasted for less than or equal to two months. Moderate illness was defined as symptoms of mild illness lasting for more than two months without oxygen supplementation. Severe illness was defined as hypoxia requiring home oxygen. We have excluded the patients who were hospitalized for COVID pneumonia. RESULTS: Of 23 patients (56.52% female) with COVID illness seen at Pulmonology Clinic in one-year duration, 13.04% had COPD, 26.09% had asthma and 21.74% had OSA. Median age was 33 with mean BMI 27.61.13.04% were current smokers. 39.13% required a PFT among which 77.78% had normal results. 21.74% of the total patients who never had OSA as an underlying diagnosis, required sleep study, among which 60% had mild OSA and 20% had severe OSA. 13.04% were already on oral steroids for other diseases. Majority of the patients had normal chest x-ray findings. 39.13% had CT chest, majority of which showed normal findings and few with diffuse ground glass opacities. 8.70% developed palpitations along with respiratory symptoms. At six months follow up, 43.48% had mild illness who were managed with conservative management such as incentive spirometry, deep breathing techniques, prone positioning and as needed short acting bronchodilator treatments. 43.48% had moderate illness who were treated with short course of oral steroids in addition to conservative management. 13.04% had severe illness who required home oxygen up to 2 L for two months maximum. Most common pulmonary complaint was dyspnea on exertion, seen in 43.48%. 17.39% had fatigue. 21.74% had sleep apnea symptoms. Median duration of symptoms was two months. CONCLUSIONS: Our study outlines the incidence of post COVID pulmonary complications in patient group where these complications are least expected. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Post COVID pulmonary complications appear to be of significant concern in patients visiting outpatient clinics. The heterogeneity in management of those complications needs a serious attention. The feasibility and implementation strategy of post COVID-19-care-clinic with proper management guidelines should be brought to streamline practice. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sameer Acharya No relevant relationships by Ali AKRAM No relevant relationships by Samjhauta Bhattarai No relevant relationships by Lavanya Kodali

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A2351-A2352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060938

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Expanding Considerations in Management of Pulmonary Embolism SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Patients with COVID have an increased risk of thrombotic events including pulmonary embolism (PE). The primary objective of this study was to understand the differences in risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and outcomes in patients with PE who were COVID positive at time of admission compared to those who were not. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PE and activated by the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) at Spectrum Health hospital system between November 2019 through January 2022 were included. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics were compared between patients with COVID and without COVID. Continuous variables were evaluated by t-test and categorical variables by Chi square. Survival after PE was evaluated using Kaplan Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Of the 479 PERT-activated patients at our institution, 84 (17.5%) were diagnosed with COVID upon admission. Demographics such as age, gender, BMI, and race were similar between patients with and without COVID (all p>0.05). Patients with COVID were less likely to have PE risk factors such as recent surgery (4.8% vs 16.2%, p=0.011), recent trauma (0% vs 8.1%, p=0.014), and reduced mobility (10.7% vs 26.6%, p=0.003) although they were more likely to be recently hospitalized (19.1% vs 8.9%, p<0.001). Patients with COVID were more likely to have a fever (7.1% vs 2.5%, p=0.045), hypoxia (60.7% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), tachypnea (high respiratory rate/min of 28.2 vs 24.8, p<0.001), and lower O2 saturation (low O2 mean of 87.3 vs 90.5, p<0.001) upon presentation. Compared to non-COVID patients, mean troponin (116.5 vs 83.6 ng/ml, p=0.033) was higher in patients with COVID. There was DVT in 36.9% of COVID patients and 30.63% of non-COVID patients (p=0.321). Severity of PE was similar between COVID and non-COVID patients (massive: 18% vs. 15%;sub-massive: 70% vs. 75%, p=0.661). COVID and non-COVID patients had similar rates of thrombolysis (4.7% vs 2.3%) and catheter-based interventions (56% vs 59%). Patients with COVID had longer ICU (10 vs 5.2 days, p=0.001) and hospital stays (10 vs 6.1 days, p=0.006) compared to non-COVID patients. Major bleeding in the follow-up period was higher in the COVID group (10.7% vs 3.5%, p=0.01). There was no difference in mortality between COVID and non-COVID patients at 30 days, (11.9% vs 7.6%), 90 days (15.5% vs 10.4%), or 1 year (16.7% vs 13.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who presented with PE and COVID had less traditional risk factors for PE and were more hypoxemic and tachypneic at the time of PERT activation. They received similar treatment to non-COVID patients but had increased risk for major bleeding. There were no differences in short or intermediate term survival between COVID and non-COVID patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Similar severity, treatment, and mortality show promise for PE patients with COVID but bleeding complications require further investigation. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure submitted for Wael Berjaoui;Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Bristol Myers Squibb Please note: 2015 to present Added 04/17/2022 by Trevor Cummings, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2015 to present Added 04/17/2022 by Trevor Cummings, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Inari Medical Please note: 2020 to Present Added 04/16/2022 by Trevor Cummings, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Catherine Kelty Consultant relationship with Inari Medical Please note: July 2020 - present Added 04/02/2022 by Michael Knox, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by marzia leacche no disclosure submitted for Renzo Loyaga-Rendon;No relevant relationships by James Morrison No relevant relationships by Joseph Pitcher No relevant relationships by Nabin Shrestha Consultant relationship with Inari Medical Please note: 1/2021 to current Added 04/08/2022 by Erin VanDyke, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by Glenn VanOtteren

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A2300, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060934

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Cases of Nervous System and Thrombotic Complication Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Covid 19 virus has impacted nearly 450 million people across the globe;ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular symptoms, hematologic manifestations and multiorgan failure to death. Thrombotic events are one of its devastating complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and 30 pack years smoking history presented to the emergency room with hypoxia and altered mental status. On exam, his GCS was 8/15 and oxygen saturation was 85% on room air. He was subsequently intubated. CTA chest demonstrated bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities and left pulmonary embolism (PE). CT abdomen and pelvis showed multifocal infarcts in the right kidney with findings suggestive of renal artery thrombosis. Initial platelet count was 80,000/ul with creatinine of 3.9 mg/dl and creatine kinase (CK) of 3977 u/l. His INR was 1.4. Patient was not a candidate for thrombolysis given his thrombocytopenia. He was started on intravenous (IV) heparin and given IV hydration. On day 3 of his admission, he developed dry gangrene of the toes. Ankle brachial index of the right lower extremity (LE) was 1.16 and left LE was 0. Duplex ultrasonography of left LE showed mid to distal popliteal artery thrombus occluding below knee popliteal and tibial arteries. Echocardiogram showed ejection fraction of 55% and bubble study was negative for any intra atrial or pulmonary shunting. On day 4 of his admission, he developed oliguria and his gangrene got worse. His platelet counts decreased to 36,000/ul. Other pertinent labs showed INR 1.2, PT 15.3, PTT 34, D dimer 14.82, fibrinogen 498, CK 6434 mg/dl, hemoglobin 13.2 g/dl, haptoglobin 243 mg/dl and LDH 1041 U/l. Given his poor prognosis in the setting of ventilator dependent respiratory failure, multiple thrombosis and kidney failure requiring hemodialysis, the family decided to withdraw care. DISCUSSION: There are multiple hypotheses of thrombus formation in Covid 19 infection such as interleukin 6 and other cytokines induced endothelial injury, angiogenesis and elevated prothrombotic factors such as factor VIII and fibrinogen. Our patient had PE, renal artery thrombosis and popliteal artery thrombosis. Despite being on full dose anticoagulation, he developed gangrene of the toes. His lab results were not consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and he was not known to have any baseline hypercoagulable disorder. He did not have any intra cardiac shunts. Hence, it is most likely Covid 19 induced multiple arterial and venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of Covid 19 related thrombosis has become very challenging especially in the setting of multiple clots. It is crucial to have large multicenter studies to investigate vascular complications of Covid-19 and to formulate management strategies to ensure good patient outcomes. Reference #1: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa2015432 Reference #2: https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(21)01126-0/fulltext DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Devashish Desai No relevant relationships by Swe Swe Hlaing no disclosure on file for Jean Marie Koka;No relevant relationships by Hui Chong Lau No relevant relationships by Subha Saeed No relevant relationships by Anupam Sharma No relevant relationships by Muhammad Moiz Tahir

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A2274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060929

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Asthma SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic illness affecting 334 million people worldwide[1]. Asthma affects the respiratory gas exchange, which plays a significant role in acid-base balance. Acid-base disorders in asthma involve respiratory alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and AG acidosis[2]. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37 years old Hispanic male with a PMH of intermittent asthma presents with progressive dyspnea for three days, worse with activity and decreases with rest. He reported no [cough, fever, rhinorrhea, chest pain]. No orthopnea. He is vaccinated for COVID ( 2 Pfizer doses), has no sickness exposure, and works as a driver. The patient is not a smoker. Physical Exam: Blood pressure 124/72 mmHg. Heart Rate 100 PPM. Temperature 97.1 F.Respiratory Rate 21BPM.SPO2 90% General appearance: acute distress with nasal flaring. Heart: Normal S1, S2. RRR. Lung: Poor air entry with diffuse wheeze bilaterally. He was placed on a 6 LPM NC. CBC and differential were unremarkable. He was started on methylprednisone, Ceftriaxone, and azithromycin. The patient was started on inhaled Salbutamol and Budesonide. Chest X-ray was unremarkable, Chemistry was unremarkable except for elevated Lactic acid 4.7, There was no concern for reduced tissue perfusion or hypoxia, with no evidence of an infectious process because both viral and bacterial causes for pneumonia were excluded, and antibiotics were stopped. A serial lactic acid level trend was 4.5/4.3/ 4.1/ 4 on the first day, while on the next day, it was 3.1/ 2.9/ 2.7/ 2.5/ 3.5, we stopped trending his lactic acid level. He improved and was discharged on an oral taper steroid and inhaled steroids with a B2 agonist. DISCUSSION: There are two types of Lactic acidosis in patients with asthma: 1- Type-A results from impaired oxygen delivery to tissues and reduced tissue perfusion in severe acute asthma may be accompanied by reduced cardiac output. 2- Type B where oxygen delivery is normal, but the cellular function is impaired due to increased norepinephrine in plasma, increasing metabolic rate and lactate production, drugs like beta-agonists increase glycogenolysis leading to an increased pyruvate concentration;pyruvate is converted to lactic acid. B2 agonist increases lipolysis and increases Acetyl CoA, this increase in Acetyl CoA inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA, increasing pyruvate which will be converted to lactic acid[2], Theophylline is a non-selective 5'-phosphodiesterase inhibitor and potentiates the activity of ß-adrenergic agents by increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP, Glucocorticoids are also known to increase the ß-receptor's sensitivity to ß-adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSIONS: Providers are increasingly challenged by hyperlactatemia,it is not harmful but elevated Lactic acid levels and clearance rate is used for prognostication,hyperlactatemia might be misleading,and all possible causes of elevated lactic acid levels must be explored. Reference #1: 10.5334/aogh.2412 Reference #2: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040563 Reference #3: Edwin B. Liem, Stephen C. Mnookin, Michael E. Mahla;Albuterol-induced Lactic Acidosis. Anesthesiology 2003;99:505–506 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200308000-00036 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vasudev Malik Daliparty No relevant relationships by Abdallah Khashan No relevant relationships by Samer Talib No relevant relationships by MATTHEW YOTSUYA

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A2195, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060910

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Both COVID-19 infection and sarcoidosis have been associated with long-term systemic complications with current research attempting to link these two diseases based on inflammatory properties. This case presents a patient with previously biopsy proven asymptomatic sarcoidosis who progressed to symptomatic sarcoidosis following severe COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old previously active female with known asymptomatic, biopsy proven pulmonary sarcoidosis presented to hospital in February 2021 with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring treatment with Decadron and Remdesivir. She was discharged home on room air but continued to have fatigue, shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing. Due to persistent respiratory symptoms and new onset vomiting with anorexia, she sought evaluation in the emergency department in July 2021. She was febrile with blood work significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was found to have Anaplasmosis and despite adequate treatment continued to have persistent hypoxia with oxygen saturation of 82%. CT chest showed new areas of bilateral upper lobe predominant ground glass opacities and ill-defined soft tissue density in the subcarinal region. She was started on inhalers and underwent bronchoscopy with negative infectious disease work-up. She was discharged home on both inhalers and oral prednisone. Upon subsequent follow-up with pulmonology, she reported significant improvement in respiratory symptoms. Repeat CT chest after two of months of oral prednisone showed near resolution of all previous findings. After three of months of steroids, she began a prolonged steroid taper of one month. She reported absence of respiratory symptoms off of steroids. DISCUSSION: Current research is focusing on patients at greater risk of developing symptomatic sarcoidosis due to Th17 cells and the specific cytokines these cells produce. Several case reports suggest correlation between the inflammatory cascade induced by sarcoidosis and COVID-19 infection. One such case report suggests that COVID-19 infection can be a trigger for developing symptomatic pulmonary sarcoidosis. Our patient would be the first reported case of biopsy proven previously asymptomatic sarcoidosis developing into symptomatic sarcoidosis following severe COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, COVID-19 infection may not only predispose individuals to developing pulmonary sarcoid but may also contribute to the progression of once asymptomatic sarcoid to symptomatic sarcoid. Reference #1: Capaccione, K. M., McGroder, C., Garcia, C. K., Fedyna S., Sagi, A., & Salvatore, M. M. (2022). Covid-19-induced pulmonary sarcoid: A case report and review of the literature. Clinical Imaging, 83, 152-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.12.021 Reference #2: Chen, Edward S. "Reassessing Th1 versus Th17.1 in Sarcoidosis: New Tricks for Old Dogma.” The European Respiratory Journal, vol. 51, no. 3, 2018, p. 1800010. Reference #3: Xu, Zhe, et al. "Pathological Findings of COVID-19 Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, 2020, pp. 420–422. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Skylar Hartmann No relevant relationships by Jessica Wiseman

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL