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1.
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086242
2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(11): 2277-2289, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between people with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there was no statistically significant difference in the probability of contracting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the risk of adverse outcomes in IBD patients after virus infection remains unclear. METHODS: Eligible studies conducted from January 1, 2020 to March 17, 2022 were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Information was collected in tables from the included studies. Random-effects and fixed-effects models were used as measures for the pooled estimates. All data were estimated by R version 4.1.3. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included. The risk ratio (RR) of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients with IBD increased by 32% (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.06-1.66) relative to COVID-19 patients without IBD. The RR of mortality was higher in COVID-19 patients with IBD from Europe (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.11-2.67) than in those that were not from Europe (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.79-1.26; χ2 = 4.67; P = 0.03). Patients with ulcerative colitis were at higher risk of adverse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection than patients with Crohn's disease patients (RR1.38; 95% CI 1.27-1.50). The IBD drugs treatment was associated with the risk of adverse outcomes, the pooled odds ratio (OR) of mesalazine (1.79; 95% CI 1.59-2.02), immunomodulators (1.30; 95% CI 1.10-1.53), and anti-TNF (0.47; 95% CI 0.41-0.53) were assessed. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with IBD had an increased risk of adverse outcomes than those without IBD, whereas anti-TNF treatment might reduce the risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 933996, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065573

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Few data exist regarding the immunogenicity of the third dose of BNT162b2 relative to the second dose in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on different immunosuppressive therapies. We investigated the immunogenicity of BNT162b2 vaccine booster dose in patients with IBD on infliximab combination therapy. Method: This is a prospective single-center observational study conducted from January 1, 2022 to February 28, 2022. Patients were recruited at the time of attendance at the infusion center. Eligibility criteria included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD who are receiving infliximab with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Patients who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (second dose group) were compared to patients who had received three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine [third dose (booster) group]. Patients were excluded if they were infected or had symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) previously since the start of the pandemic or received other vaccines than the BNT162b2. Our primary outcome was the concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies 40-45 weeks from the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with IBD receiving infliximab combination therapy. Medians with interquartile range (IQR) were calculated. Results: In total, 162 patients with IBD and receiving infliximab combination therapy were recruited, and the number of patients in both the second dose group and third dose (booster) group was 81. Mean age was 35 years old in both groups. Median (IQR) SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly lower after the second dose [125 BAU/ml (43, 192)] compared to patients who received the third booster dose [207 BAU/ml (181, 234)] (P = 0.003). Neutralizing antibody levels were also lower after the second dose [80% (21, 95)] compared to patients who received the third booster dose [96% (93, 99)] (P ≤ 0.001). The percentage of patients who achieved positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the third (booster) dose group was 96.3%, whereas it was 86.4% in the second dose group. The percentage of participants who received the third (booster) dose and achieved a positive SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody level was 100%, whereas it was 88.9% in the participants who received the second dose only. Conclusion: Most patients with IBD on infliximab combination therapy had positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody concentrations 40-45 weeks post BNT162b2 vaccination. However, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody concentrations were lower in patients who received two doses only compared to patients who received a third dose. A longer follow-up study is needed to evaluate decay in antibodies over time.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 881027, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032791

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination has been effective in protecting against severe COVID-19 infections and related mortality. It is recommended for all individuals including patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, safety data are lacking in this group of patients. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the short- and long-term vaccine related adverse events (AEs) in patients with IBD. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study investigating short- and long-term AEs related to the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with IBD (study group) after the first and second dose compared to healthy participants (control group). Patients were recruited at the time of attendance to the clinic or infusion rooms. Short term (<3 weeks) localized and systemic AEs were assessed via questionnaire. Follow-up phone-based survey was made to collect data on long term (up to 24 weeks) AEs. Results: A total of 408 patients answered the questionnaires, 204 patients in each group, the study and control group. No serious adverse events were reported in either the study or the control group after the first or the second dose. Participants in the control group reported more frequent pain at the injection site than those in the study group after the first dose [58 (57%) vs. 38 (37%) respectively, P = 0.005]. After the second dose, tiredness was reported more frequently in the control group [49 (48%)] compared to the study group [25 (24%) (P < 0.001)]. At 20-24 weeks post vaccination, 386 out of 408 (94.6%) patients were willing to participate in the follow-up phone based questionnaire [196 (96.1%) in the study group vs. 190 (93.1%) in the control group]. In both groups, none of the patients reported local, systemic, or severe adverse events (0 out of 386) at week 20-24 post second dose. Conclusion: The BNT162b2 vaccine is safe in patients with IBD. No severe or long-term adverse events were reported in our study. The frequency of local and systemic adverse events after the second dose was generally higher among healthy participants compared to patients with IBD. Further studies including a larger cohort with a longer follow-up duration are needed to assess for possible rare adverse events.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 984981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029976

ABSTRACT

Therapies based on orally administrated nucleic acids have significant potential for the treatment of infectious diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and infectious and acute contagious diseases like coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is because nucleic acids could precisely regulate susceptibility genes in regulating the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression related to the infections. Unfortunately, gene delivery remains a major hurdle due to multiple intracellular and extracellular barriers. This review thoroughly discusses the challenges of nanoparticle-based nucleic acid gene deliveries and strategies for overcoming delivery barriers to the inflammatory sites. Oral nucleic acid delivery case studies were also present as vital examples of applications in infectious diseases such as IBD and COVID-19.

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e29186, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients use social media as an alternative information source, where they share information and provide social support. Although large amounts of health-related data are posted on Twitter and other social networking platforms each day, research using social media data to understand chronic conditions and patients' lifestyles is limited. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we contributed to closing this gap by providing a framework for identifying patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on Twitter and learning from their personal experiences. We enabled the analysis of patients' tweets by building a classifier of Twitter users that distinguishes patients from other entities. This study aimed to uncover the potential of using Twitter data to promote the well-being of patients with IBD by relying on the wisdom of the crowd to identify healthy lifestyles. We sought to leverage posts describing patients' daily activities and their influence on their well-being to characterize lifestyle-related treatments. METHODS: In the first stage of the study, a machine learning method combining social network analysis and natural language processing was used to automatically classify users as patients or not. We considered 3 types of features: the user's behavior on Twitter, the content of the user's tweets, and the social structure of the user's network. We compared the performances of several classification algorithms within 2 classification approaches. One classified each tweet and deduced the user's class from their tweet-level classification. The other aggregated tweet-level features to user-level features and classified the users themselves. Different classification algorithms were examined and compared using 4 measures: precision, recall, F1 score, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In the second stage, a classifier from the first stage was used to collect patients' tweets describing the different lifestyles patients adopt to deal with their disease. Using IBM Watson Service for entity sentiment analysis, we calculated the average sentiment of 420 lifestyle-related words that patients with IBD use when describing their daily routine. RESULTS: Both classification approaches showed promising results. Although the precision rates were slightly higher for the tweet-level approach, the recall and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the user-level approach were significantly better. Sentiment analysis of tweets written by patients with IBD identified frequently mentioned lifestyles and their influence on patients' well-being. The findings reinforced what is known about suitable nutrition for IBD as several foods known to cause inflammation were pointed out in negative sentiment, whereas relaxing activities and anti-inflammatory foods surfaced in a positive context. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a pipeline for identifying patients with IBD on Twitter and collecting their tweets to analyze the experimental knowledge they share. These methods can be adapted to other diseases and enhance medical research on chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Social Media , Chronic Disease , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Gut ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020118

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to carry an increased risk of colon cancer and national protocols for endoscopic surveillance are in place. [...]we propose the patient factors to consider when withdrawal of surveillance may be contemplated. Alternative strategies, such as the qFIT and virtual colonoscopy (either via CT or capsule), have not been used in IBD surveillance. qFIT, which measures the concentration of degraded haemoglobin and is raised in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with active inflammation,12 13 has not been validated as a marker of IBD-related dysplasia. A faecal calprotectin threshold of >250 [micro]g/g to indicate disease activity is based on consensus and published evidence. 31-33 A three-point colonoscopy indicates a 45-minute procedure. 1st DR, first degree relative;CRC, colorectal cancer;FH, family history;IBD, inflammatory bowel disease;PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis;qFIT, quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Test for haemoglobin The Gastroenterology GIRFT report has recommended the use of stool biomarkers to aid in the prioritisation of colonoscopy procedures on waiting lists.

8.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(10): 1243-1252, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from trials that led to the approval of anti-COVID-19 vaccines and are worthy of real-life studies providing information on the safety of these vaccines in this clinical setting. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed to estimate BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine local and systemic adverse events (AEs) incidence related to administration in patients with inflammatory bowel disease through a questionnaire administered at the first, second, and third doses. Disease activity by Mayo Partial Score and Harvey-Bradshaw Index was also evaluated. RESULTS: Eighty patients with a median age of 47.5 years were initially enrolled. The local AEs rate was 26.25%, 58.75%, and 28.37% at the first, second, and third doses of the vaccine, respectively. In contrast, the systemic AEs rate was 52.2%, 48.75%, and 43.24%. Clinic-demographic predictor variables for AEs were not identified. Vaccination did not affect disease activity and no statistically significant difference in disease activity index scores was observed between the three doses. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: This vaccine was safe in a population of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and, therefore, could be safely administered in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Middle Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Biological Therapy
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988050

ABSTRACT

Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often relies on biological and immunomodulatory agents for remission through immunosuppression, raising concerns regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine's effectiveness. The emergent variants have hindered the vaccine neutralization capacity, and whether the third vaccine dose can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants in this population remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the humoral response of SARS-CoV-2 variants in patients with IBD 60 days after the third vaccine dose [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna)]. Fifty-six subjects with IBD and 12 healthy subjects were recruited. Ninety percent of patients with IBD (49/56) received biologics and/or immunomodulatory therapy. Twenty-four subjects with IBD did not develop effective neutralizing capability against the Omicron variant. Seventy percent (17/24) of those subjects received anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy [10 = adalimumab, 7 = infliximab], two of which had a history of COVID-19 infection, and one subject did not develop immune neutralization against three other variants: Gamma, Epsilon, and Kappa. All subjects in the control group developed detectable antibodies and effective neutralization against all seven SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study shows that patients with IBD might not be protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants, and more extensive studies are needed to evaluate optimal immunity.

10.
Gut ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has variable efficacy in treating UC. Recently, oral lyophilised FMT was found to induce remission in patients with UC, with one donor having 100% efficacy compared with a second donor (36% efficacy). We characterised differences in the gut microbiota of these two donors with the aim of improving FMT donor selection. DESIGN: Faecal samples from the two donors were collected over a period of 44 (donor 1) or 70 (donor 2) weeks. The microbiome and metabolome were profiled using shotgun metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics RESULTS: Gut microbiome long-term stability was highly evident in the effective donor. Donor microbiota species evenness was a robust feature associated with clinical efficacy across two clinical trials of FMT in UC, leading to increased donor species engraftment in patients. Alpha diversity and beta diversity of donor gut microbiotas significantly differed. 90 bacterial species and one archaeon were differentially abundant between donors, 44 of which were >0.1% in relative abundance. 17/44 species were enriched in the effective donor, 11 of which (64.7%) were assembled into high-quality genomes that were prevalent (≥75% samples) in that donor, and six showed evidence of engraftment in patients. Taxonomic differences between donors translated to substantial microbial functional differences that were validated using metabolomics. CONCLUSION: Donor microbiota stability and species evenness were identified as novel metrics that were associated with therapeutic efficacy in UC, beyond individual microbial species or metabolites. These metrics may represent community resilience that translates to better engraftment in the host. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619000611123.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination has been effective in preventing COVID-19 infections and related mortality. However, waning immunity after two-dose vaccination prompted health authorities to recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine to boost immunity. The aim of our study was to assess willingness to receive a third (booster) dose among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at an IBD tertiary care center. Patients were recruited at the infusion room from 1 January 2022 to 31 March 2022. The primary outcome was the prevalence of a third (booster) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in infliximab- or vedolizumab-treated patients with IBD. The secondary outcome evaluated whether the prevalence of a third (booster) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine differed based on type of COVID-19 vaccine, gender, age, type of biologic therapy, and citizenship. RESULTS: In total, 499 patients with IBD were included in this study. The median age was 34.5 years, and 60% had ulcerative colitis (UC). Among the study participants, 302 (60.5%) patients were vaccinated with BNT162b2, and 197 (39.5%) were vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Of the total number of participants, 400 (80.2%) were receiving infliximab, and 99 (19.8%) were receiving vedolizumab. Overall, 290 (58.1%) of the included patients were willing to receive the third (booster) dose. Patients vaccinated with BNT162b2 were more likely to be willing to receive a booster dose compared to patients vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (201 (66.5%) vs. 103 (52.0%), p = 0.014). Infliximab-treated patients were more likely to be willing to receive a booster dose compared to patients receiving vedolizumab (310 (77.5%) vs. 62 (62.6%), p = 0.002). There was no statistical difference in willingness to receive a booster dose in terms of age, nationality, or gender. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of patients with IBD willing to receive or having already received a third (booster) dose of BNT162b2 vaccine was lower compared to the general population. In addition, patients who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccines were more likely to be willing to receive a third (booster) dose compared to patients who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Patients treated with infliximab were more likely to be willing to receive a third (booster) dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

12.
Curr Res Pharmacol Drug Discov ; 3: 100101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944730

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require the use of immunosuppressant medications that increase infection risk, leading to concerns over the safe use of IBD medications during the Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objectives: To summarize available evidence on the safety and appropriate use of IBD medications during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in regard to risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization, respiratory failure, or death for patients on IBD therapeutics. Conclusions: The majority of IBD medications are safe to continue during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a few notable exceptions. Patients with IBD who do not have COVID-19 should continue their prescribed IBD therapies, although steroids are associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes and should be weaned when possible. Corticosteroids should be tapered and discontinued when possible in patients with IBD who test positive for COVID-19 as well. Patients with IBD who test positive for COVID-19 should hold biologics, thiopurines, methotrexate, and tofacitinib for at least 2 weeks, and those who have symptoms should not restart these medications until symptom resolution. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all patients with IBD should continue to follow public health guidance including social distancing, masking, and COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(11): 5029-5033, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and underrepresented minorities (URMs) historically have below average vaccination rates. URMs have increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. We surveyed IBD patients to assess COVID vaccination attitudes, particularly among URMs. METHODS: In May and June 2021, all 822 adult patients with IBD, medically homed at a tertiary IBD referral center and safety net hospital, and with access to the electronic patient portal, were sent an electronic survey assessing their attitudes regarding COVID-19 vaccination. An additional 115 without access to the patient portal were contacted by phone. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The primary outcome was vaccination hesitancy, defined as: likely will become vaccinated later this year, but not immediately; unsure if they will get the vaccine; or do not want the vaccine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of factors associated with vaccination intent. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.6 years (SD 15.1). 210/1029 patients responded to the survey: 150/822 (18.2%) electronically and 60/115 (52.2%) by phone. Overall vaccine hesitancy rate was 11.9%, significantly higher in younger (aOR for 10-year increments, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.90, p = 0.011), Hispanic (aOR, 7.67; 95% CI, 2.99-21.3, p < 0.0002), and Black patients (aOR, 3.52; 95% CI 1.11-11.1, p = 0.050). Safety concerns were the most cited reasons for vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: URM patients were more vaccine hesitant. Future studies should further explore factors leading to lower vaccination rates among these groups and strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parents , Safety-net Providers , Vaccination , Vaccines , Healthcare Disparities , Ethnic and Racial Minorities
14.
Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench ; 15(2): 158-163, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1940023

ABSTRACT

Aim: Analysis of networks of digestive disorder and their relationship with Covid-19 based on systems biology methods, evaluation similarity, and usefulness of networks to give a new treatment approach. Background: Digestive disorders are typically complex diseases associated with high treatment costs. They are related to the immune system and inflammation. With the outbreak of Covid-19, this disease was shown to have signs like diarrhea. Some signs of Covid-19 are similar to those of digestive disorders, like IBD and diarrhea. Both of them are accompanied by inflammation and induce disorders in the digestive system. Methods: DisGeNET and STRING databases were sources of disease genes and constructing networks and were used to construct the network of digestive diseases and Covid-19. Three plugins of Cytoscape software, namely ClusterONE, ClueGO, and CluePedia, were used to analyze cluster networks and enrichment pathways. To describe the interaction of proteins, information from KEGG pathway and Reactome was used. Results: According to the results, IBD, gastritis, and diarrhea have common pathways. The CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, TLR4, and MBL2 molecules were identified as inflammatory molecules in all networks. Conclusion: It seems that detecting genes and pathways can be useful in applying new approaches for treating these diseases.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928705

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) present higher risk for infection and suboptimal response upon vaccination. The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccination is still largely unknown in adolescents or young adults affected by IBD (pIBD). We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162B2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 27 pIBD, as compared to 30 healthy controls (HC). Immunogenicity was measured by anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG (anti-S and anti-trim Ab) before vaccination, after 21 days (T21) and 7 days after the second dose (T28). The safety profile was investigated by close monitoring and self-reported adverse events. Vaccination was well tolerated, and short-term adverse events reported were only mild to moderate. Three out of twenty-seven patients showed IBD flare after vaccination, but no causal relationship could be established. Overall, pIBD showed a good humoral response upon vaccination compared to HC; however, pIBD on anti-TNFα treatment showed lower anti-S Ab titers compared to patients receiving other immune-suppressive regimens (p = 0.0413 at first dose and p = 0.0301 at second dose). These data show that pIBD present a good safety and immunogenicity profile following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Additional studies on the impact of specific immune-suppressive regimens, such as anti TNFα, on immunogenicity should be further investigated on larger cohorts.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917882

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has affected the entire planet. The objectives of our study were to compare responses to the vaccine (Pfizer-Biontech COMIRNATY) in a population of patients with intestinal bowel syndrome undergoing different biological therapies or conventional therapy. The study recruited 390 patients who received the first vaccination dose during the dedicated vaccination campaign for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of CD or UC and complete vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (Comirnaty) vaccine. The exclusion criteria were other significant diseases or important therapies under way or contraindications to vaccination according to the European drug surveillance recommendations. Linear rank models were run to assess the association between the different therapies and S1/S2 antibodies at three different times. The models showed that in patients with IBD receiving Vedolizumab a significant increase in mean IgG levels was observed, independently of other therapies and confounding factors (ß: 57.45, 95% CI 19.62 to 19.00). This study confirmed the complete antibody response to vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with IBD undergoing biological therapy-particularly Vedolizumab treatment-but also a reduced immune response due to concomitant steroid therapy.

17.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 13(e1): e35-e43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902037

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic long-term relapsing and remitting disorder including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The aim of therapy is to induce and maintain remission. Anti-TNF therapies dramatically improved clinical outcomes but primary failure or secondary loss is a common problem as well as potential side effects potentially limiting efficacy and long-term use. The advent of new targeted agents with the potential for greater safety is welcomed in IBD and offers the potential for different agents as the disease becomes refractory or even combination therapies to maximise effectiveness without compromising safety in the future. More data are required to understand the best positioning in pathways and longer-term safety effects.

18.
JGH Open ; 6(6): 388-394, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898848

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Nonspecific ileitis is inflammation of the ileum without specific diagnostic features. A minority may go on to develop Crohn's disease, but optimal pathways of further investigation have not been established. This study aimed to identify a cohort of patients with nonspecific ileitis and to determine the value of ileal histology and gastrointestinal ultrasound in identifying/excluding Crohn's disease. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective analysis, all patients having nonspecific ileitis at colonoscopy from January 2010 to August 2021 were identified. Clinical associations with those subsequently diagnosed with Crohn's disease were examined with specific reference to ileal histology and gastrointestinal ultrasound. Results: Of 29 638 procedures, 147 patients (0.5%) had nonspecific ileitis. Crohn's disease was subsequently diagnosed in 8 patients (5.4%) at a median of 148 (range 27-603) days after colonoscopy. The presence of chronic inflammation on ileal biopsies was more common in those subsequently diagnosed with Crohn's disease (63% vs 20%; P = 0.0145). On gastrointestinal ultrasound, none of the 26 patients with normal bowel wall thickness (<3 mm) were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn's disease, and repeat ultrasound in 15 patients 1 year later showed no change. Of the nine patients with abnormal sonographic findings, three were diagnostic for Crohn's disease. Repeat ultrasound revealed Crohn's disease in two, while four had resolution of the abnormal findings. Conclusion: Although ileal histology was of limited value in identifying patients with nonspecific ileitis who were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn's disease, gastrointestinal ultrasound was highly informative. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the value of gastrointestinal ultrasound as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in this setting.

19.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221101722, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886893

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine is thought to be the most effective preventive method of controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Some patients with immune-related diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, however, may hesitate to be vaccinated for various reasons. Although several guidelines recommend vaccinating all IBD patients with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, there is still a lack of real-world data on the safety of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and COVID-19 vaccination rate in IBD patients. In this study, we investigated the reasons for hesitancy in COVID-19 vaccination, the COVID-19 vaccination rate, and the safety of SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccination in patients with IBD. Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 418 participants with IBD were enrolled to calculate the vaccination rates. A total of 232 patients with IBD who did not receive SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were recruited to investigate the reasons for hesitation. A follow-up survey of 151 IBD patients and 188 healthy participants who had received the SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccination was conducted to analyze adverse reactions. Results: The COVID-19 vaccination rate was 49.3% and almost half of the participants were 'Concerned about the safety of the vaccine (such as adverse reactions) due to IBD'. After SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, adverse reactions were mild or moderate. The adverse reactions in the IBD and non-IBD populations were roughly the same, and IBD medications did not increase the risk of adverse reactions. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccination rates in IBD patients are still low and a significant proportion of patients are hesitant about the vaccine because of safety concerns. SARS-CoV-2-inactivated vaccination in patients with IBD appears to be safe.

20.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth ; 10(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870963

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently need long-term medical treatment. Mobile apps promise to complement and improve IBD management, but so far there has been no scientific analysis of their quality. Objective: This study evaluated the quality of German mobile apps targeting IBD patients and physicians treating IBD patients using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Methods: The German Apple App Store and Google Play Store were systematically searched to identify German IBD mobile apps for patient and physician use. MARS was used by 6 physicians (3 using Android smartphones and 3 using iPhones) to independently assess app quality. Apps were randomly assigned so that the 4 apps with the most downloads were rated by all raters and the remaining apps were rated by 1 Android and 1 iOS user. Results: In total, we identified 1764 apps in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. After removing apps that were not related to IBD (n=1386) or not available in German (n=317), 61 apps remained. After removing duplicates (n=3) and apps for congresses (n=7), journals (n=4), and clinical studies (n=6), as well as excluding apps that were available in only 1 of the 2 app stores (n=20) and apps that could only be used with an additional device (n=7), we included a total of 14 apps. The app “CED Dokumentation und Tipps” had the highest overall median MARS score at 4.11/5. On the whole, the median MARS scores of the 14 apps ranged between 2.38/5 and 4.11/5. As there was no significant difference between iPhone and Android raters, we used the Wilcoxon comparison test to calculate P values. Conclusions: The MARS ratings showed that the quality of German IBD apps varied. We also discovered a discrepancy between app store ratings and MARS ratings, highlighting the difficulty of assessing perceived app quality. Despite promising results from international studies, there is little evidence for the clinical benefits of German IBD apps. Clinical studies and patient inclusion in the app development process are needed to effectively implement mobile apps in routine care.

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