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1.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1034-1039, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058576

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 disease, which was declared pandemic by WHO on the 11th of March 2020, has affected more than 200 countries worldwide and adversely affected whole areas of life. Aim: Our aim in this study is to investigate whether scientists in countries with low mortality rates and a higher reported number of COVID-19 cases among OECD countries sufficiently share their scientific knowledge. Methodology: A literature search was conducted with the keywords, "COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, Coronavirus" in scientific databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Medline to find the number of published articles conducted by scientists in OECD countries between the period 01 March 2020 to 01 July 2020. To define the number of academic population of the countries, the number of residents in tertiary education levels of OECD countries was obtained from the educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds report published on the OECD website. Results: In regards to the countries with the lowest fatality rates, India (n:1578), Australia (n:1097), and Korea (n:876) are the top three countries that have contributed to the scientific literature with the most published studies on COVID-19 issue. Conclusions: Concerning the current scientific data, about 2,000 papers regarding COVID-19 disease have been registered in the PubMed database since the early beginning of this year. The number of scientific publications is not consistent with the rate of tertiary education levels. Besides, the number of observed cases, and the data-sharing policies of the countries are determinants of the number of scientific publications.

2.
31st Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering, EAEEIE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973466

ABSTRACT

During the period of the Covid-19 pandemic, the traditional education structure as we know it has been largely transformed due to lockdowns and social distancing. This study is a detailed description of how a normally face-to-face undergraduate course in digital design with laboratory sessions at the University of Iceland was transformed into a fully online based course. We show the essentialities required to transform the lectures and laboratory sessions from local to online. Furthermore, we compare the students' performance during the online teaching with that of previous students who participated in local teaching. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
31st Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering, EAEEIE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973460

ABSTRACT

The ability to offer courses over the Internet between remote teacher(s) and students enhances curricula and can improve quality in university work regarding both teaching and research. This is particularly true for small universities that struggle to offer comprehensive curricula due to lack of professors and students. In the spring semester of 2021, the University of Iceland offered a course on the Internet of Things taught by a professor emeritus in Atlanta, Georgia, assisted by a local professor. The lectures were given on Zoom and all assignments and exams were given over the Internet. In this paper, this course's framework will be described, how it was implemented and what was accomplished. The authors will also share their thoughts on the future of this kind of university work that has to some extent developed due to the Covid situation. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
The Lancet ; 400(10349):352-353, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1972385

ABSTRACT

(Photo by TOLGA AKMEN / various sources / AFP) / TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY ROLAND JACKSON (Photo by TOLGA AKMEN/Tolga Akmen/AFP via Getty Images) Tolga Akmen/Getty Images The impact of inflation and the cost-of-living crisis, affecting countries across the world, is but the third recent major crisis to have a negative impact on health equity—the other two were the global financial crisis of 2007–09 and the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. The government elected in 2010, in the wake of the global financial crisis, presented austerity and control of the public finances as the number one priority. The rate of rise of life expectancy slowed dramatically—the slowdown in the UK was more marked than in any other high-income country, apart from Iceland and the USA;health inequalities increased, and life expectancy for the poorest people in the UK declined. Data from the International Monetary Fund show government revenue as a share of GDP to be 52% in Finland and France, 50% in Sweden, 46% in Germany, and only 36% in the UK.

5.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S73, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955959

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of antidepressants seems to be increasing in most countries worldwide, probably due to the increasing burden of stressful life (1). Apart from their therapeutic application, antidepressants are sometimes used as lifestyle drugs. Monitoring antidepressant usage is crucial to prevent unnecessary consumption and avoid adverse effects and additional costs (2). Objectives: The aim of this work was to study trends in antidepressants utilization in various European countries, and to note changes in their usage between the years 2013 and 2019, before the outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. Methods: Data on antidepressants consumption in 20 European countries were collected from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data bases. Antidepressants consumption was expressed in Defined Daily Doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day, and calculations referred to years 2013 and 2019. Changes in antidepressants use during this six-year period in each European country were assessed. The statistical package SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for calculations. Results: There was a huge variation in antidepressants usage among the 20 countries of our study. The mean consumption of antidepressants was 52.67 DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day in 2013 (range 10.2-113.7 DDDs) and 62.51 DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day in 2019 (range 17.6-146.0 DDDs), with a mean increase of 9.84 DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (18.68%) in just six years. The countries with the highest consumption of antidepressants in 2013 were Iceland (113.7 DDDs), Portugal (87.5 DDDs), Sweden (84.3 DDDs), Belgium (72.1 DDDs), Finland (69.4 DDDs) and Spain (65.2 DDDs). The countries with the highest consumption of antidepressants in 2019 were Iceland (146.0 DDDs), Portugal (123.7 DDDs), Sweden (102.7 DDDs), Spain (83.6 DDDs) and Belgium (81.9 DDDs). The countries with the lowest consumption of antidepressants in 2013 were Latvia (10.2 DDDs), Estonia (21.4 DDDs), Lithuania (24.7 DDDs), and Hungary (27,5 DDDs). The countries with the lowest consumption of antidepressants in 2019 were Latvia (17.6 DDDs), Hungary (29.5 DDDs), Estonia (34,8 DDDs) and Lithuania (35,4 DDDs). The use of antidepressants was increased in all European countries in the study period. There was only one exception: Finland, being one the countries with the highest consumption of antidepressants, reduced their use by 13%. In the countries with the lowest consumption of antidepressants (Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania), the increase in antidepressants usage was higher than 40%. A similarly high increase (41.37%) was also observed in Portugal, which was second in antidepressant use in both years studied (2013 and 2019). The Countries with the lowest increase (less than 5%) were Austria, Norway and Luxemburg, which displayed an average consumption of antidepressants in the study period. Conclusion: There was a huge variation in antidepressants use among the 20 European countries of our study. A trend for increase in antidepressants use was observed in almost all countries during the six-year study period.

6.
World Economy and International Relations ; 66(7):33-42, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934819

ABSTRACT

Iceland was affected by the 2008 financial crisis more than any other European state, as its financial sector virtually collapsed. In 2020 Reykjavik again faced the economic crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic, which, according to government forecasts, should have caused the largest decline in GDP and exports of goods and services for half a century. In this article, the author intends to explore the history of formation and the current state of the Icelandic economy, as well as the state policy on the development of its main export industries – ​fishing, aluminium production and tourism. The paper also provides an assessment of the nature of the new economic crisis impact on the country’s key industries and of the prospects for recovery and further growth of the economy after quarantine restrictions removed. The current crisis has less affected the Icelandic fishing and aluminium industry, which are quite stable and provide production volumes close to its maximum values, but has severely hit its tourism, as the industry has lost more than 2/3 of the export earnings. However, the decline in number of tourists began even before the pandemic and was due to the fact that Icelandic air companies lost about 53% of their maximum carrying capacity. Nevertheless, the crisis created preconditions for the early recovery of the Icelandic tourism industry: national currency got weaker, the unemployment grew, the cost of labor decreased, but, unlike during the 2008 crisis, the tourism infrastructure was actively developing. In conclusion, the author suggests that the crisis will push Iceland to look for new sources of economic growth, which could be based on developing energy and science intensive industries (e.g. data centers, crypto mining farms, bioengineering and biomedicine centers, etc.). Moreover, the growing US-China rivalry over influence on Iceland could contribute to the latter’s economic development, as historical analysis shows that Reykjavik is more than able to competently use the contradictions between states pursuing great-power politics in order to obtain certain economic benefits. © 2022, Russian Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Acta Dermato-Venereologica ; 102(SUPPL 222):13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1917140

ABSTRACT

The most-reported occupational problems in institutions and private practicing dermatologists in Iceland were not irritative hand dermatitis but rather facial dermatitis related to facemasks. This presentation will also comment upon possible skin-related side effects of the mRNA Vaccines.

8.
Icelandic Review of Politics & Administration ; 18(1):1-26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918141

ABSTRACT

We present an analysis of the 2021 Althingi election in Iceland based on several key indicators obtained from the post-election voter survey of the Icelandic National Election Study (ICENES). The overall question we seek to address concerns the degree to which Icelandic politics have continued to move towards either recovery or transformation after the political and economic upheavals of 2008. The 2021 campaign and election were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the government enjoyed high support across the political spectrum for its handling of the outbreak and its economic consequences. The election resulted in the coalition parties increasing their vote share by 1.5 percentage points. Based on the ICENES data, we find that 45% of voters switched parties in 2021, compared with 2017, which is slightly lower than in previous elections. On the issue dimensions of state-market and integration-isolation, we observe a sharp return towards more pro-market and pro-integration attitudes, respectively. Trust in politicians and satisfaction with how democracy works continued to increase from an all-time low in 2009. We also observe that the youngest age groups continued to be least likely to vote, spent less time following the campaign and were more inclined to follow news on social media. We conclude that Icelandic politics seem to have reached a balance after the crisis, albeit a new balance that is characterised by a more fragmented party system than before.

9.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(1):680-693, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871896

ABSTRACT

Background: The high contagiousness of the SARS-CoV-2, the large proportion of the population at risk of serious illness which will require hospital care and, certainly, the necessary need to protect public health has led countries worldwide to quickly resolve measures. Aims: Public health policies regarding the COVID-19 pandemic management of Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Finland and Iceland. Methods: A narrative literature review was conducted. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the countries' health policies was carried out using three indicators: the Case Fatality Rate (CFR), the number of cases and the number of deaths per 100,000 people. Results: The very fast response of the governments, the strict lockdown, the quarantine measures, the travel restrictions, the systematic testing, tracing and epidemiological surveillance, the effective communication between officials and citizens, the government's response to COVID-19 focused on allowing the relevant experts to convey important information directly to the public, the testing of older people and health professionals and the mobile tracing applications compose the most important public health interventions. All these measures combined with the adoption and implementation by the citizens and with the organization of health systems, resulted in better management of the pandemic in the countries under study. Discussion: These measures have undoubtedly been important public health policies, which are a testament to future responses to such pandemics.

10.
International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation ; 11(2):112-124, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1860294

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in COVID-19 vaccine development, global immunization has proceeded slowly, with low-income countries being disadvantaged in the distribution of vaccines (York, 2020). Hence, a large portion of the global population will remain unprotected against the virus unless they strictly keep up with the prevention measures. To support the UN Sustainable Goal 3 and related targets of improving prevention efforts to promote good health and well-being, this paper shares participants' adherence to recommended prevention behaviors and their relationship to demographic characteristics, personal health beliefs, and well-being across a large, nonrandomized sample from over 60 countries. The findings indicate more variability in adherence to behaviors within countries than between them, with women and those with more education and subjective socioeconomic status being more compliant with prevention recommendations. Positive feelings toward one's ability to stay healthy impacted behavior more than fear of contracting the disease. Implications for the importance of prevention science to further positive behavior change supporting the UN Sustainable Goal of promoting health and well-being are highlighted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement Impact and Implications.-To advance the UN Sustainable Goal 3 of promoting health and well-being, particularly among those less economically advantaged countries, we require a better understanding of how to support healthy behaviors. This study furthers our knowledge of prevention science and informs how to target interventions to help people change their behaviors to improve their health and well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843093

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo test if patients recovering from COVID-19 are at increased risk of mental morbidities and to what extent such risk is exacerbated by illness severity.DesignPopulation-based cross-sectional study.SettingIceland.ParticipantsA total of 22 861 individuals were recruited through invitations to existing nationwide cohorts and a social media campaign from 24 April to 22 July 2020, of which 373 were patients recovering from COVID-19.Main outcome measuresSymptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD;modified Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5) above screening thresholds. Adjusting for multiple covariates and comorbidities, multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and mental morbidities.ResultsCompared with individuals without a diagnosis of COVID-19, patients recovering from COVID-19 had increased risk of depression (22.1% vs 16.2%;adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.82) and PTSD (19.5% vs 15.6%;aRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.75) but not anxiety (13.1% vs 11.3%;aRR 1.24, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.64). Elevated relative risks were limited to patients recovering from COVID-19 that were 40 years or older and were particularly high among individuals with university education. Among patients recovering from COVID-19, symptoms of depression were particularly common among those in the highest, compared with the lowest tertile of influenza-like symptom burden (47.1% vs 5.8%;aRR 6.42, 95% CI 2.77 to 14.87), among patients confined to bed for 7 days or longer compared with those never confined to bed (33.3% vs 10.9%;aRR 3.67, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.86) and among patients hospitalised for COVID-19 compared with those never admitted to hospital (48.1% vs 19.9%;aRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.44).ConclusionsSevere disease course is associated with increased risk of depression and PTSD among patients recovering from COVID-19.

12.
Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria: La Rivista della Salute Mentale ; 145(2):37-52, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1817910

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic crisis has caused, in addition to the serious effects on the health systems, a sharp slowdown in the Italian and European economy, mainly weighing on the weakest sections of the population with a worrying increase in economic and social inequalities. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study focuses on the link between socio-economic fragility and epidemic exposure to Covid-19 in Italy and Europe, with a triple objective: to monitor the main dimensions of increased inequalities within the economy and society through an academic literature review;to empirically understand the reasons for national differences in the spread and lethality of the Covid-19 virus at European level;to provide, on the basis of the results obtained in pursuing the previous two objectives, a key to understanding the main public policies for a healthier, more inclusive and sustainable Italy and Europe. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Italian) La crisi pandemica da Covid-19 ha determinato, oltre ai gravi effetti sul piano sanitario, un forte rallentamento dell'economia italiana ed europea, pesando principalmente sulle fasce piu deboli della popolazione con un preoccupante aumento delle disuguaglianze economico-sociali. Mediante un approccio multidisciplinare, questo studio si concentra sul collegamento tra la fragilita socio-economica e l'esposizione epidemica al Covid-19 in Italia ed Europa, con un triplice obiettivo: monitorare le principali dimensioni delle accresciute disuguaglianze all'interno dell'economia e della societa mediante un'analisi della letteratura scientifica;comprendere empiricamente le ragioni delle differenze nazionali nella diffusione e letalita del virus da Covid-19 a livello europeo;fornire, sulla base dei risultati ottenuti nel perseguimento dei precedenti due obiettivi, una chiave di lettura delle principali politiche pubbliche per un'Italia ed un'Europa piu sane, inclusive e sostenibili. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Energies ; 15(5):1900, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736868

ABSTRACT

Renewable energies have been the only sources recording a clear increase in total installed capacity, setting a record in new power capacity in 2020, despite the pandemic. The European Union Green Deal represents a strategy towards a sustainable economic model. In this framework, land-based geothermics has seen very limited development;however, offshore geothermics is almost completely absent in the discussion on energy source alternatives, even though it represents a real challenge for energy transition, including the production of green hydrogen. This article discusses an excursus on the activities carried out on offshore geothermal areas worldwide. We focused on the energy potential capacity of the Marsili volcanic seamount located over the bathial plain of the Tyrrhenian Basin, describing the detailed geological, geochemical, and geophysical investigations that have been carried out on that seamount since the 2000s. All the collected data have shown evidence supporting the existence of an exploitable geothermal system in the Marsili seamount consisting of a reservoir of supercritical geothermal fluids of about 100 km3. We discuss and evaluate the actual consistence of the impacts associated with the occurrence of potential risks. We also describe the necessary further steps towards the pilot well. An important breakthrough in the short-medium term that allows for an exit from the predominance of fossil sources may come from the development of energy production derived from offshore high-enthalpy geothermal fields, especially in areas such as the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. There is a natural clear predisposition for its exploitation combined with a low ecological footprint, which is the target objective of international agreements in the context of a blue economy strategy.

14.
Land ; 11(2):315, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715500

ABSTRACT

A protected area (PA) is essentially a governance system, a spatially defined area encompassing natural and/or cultural attributes, governed by a set of actors with different roles and institutional frameworks. There are many types of PA governance systems, guided by historical-, site-specific- and context-dependent factors. This study has the objective to advance understanding of PA governance systems, their diversity and the implications for management. We take the case of Iceland and five of its major PAs. We develop an analytical framework for the study of PA governance systems, investigating their evolutionary trajectories, conducting a comparative institutional analysis of their environmental governance systems (EGS), and assessing their management implications using nature-based tourism as a key variable. We find this framework effective and applicable beyond this study. We find great diversity in the five PA governance systems that has not come by chance but deliberately negotiated in their protracted establishment trajectories. At the individual park level, such PA diversity can be embraced as a sign of an adaptive approach to governance instead of a one-size-fits-all solution while at the national level, however, such fragmentation constitutes coordination challenges. Our analysis of the current portfolio of PA governance systems reveals they accommodate most of the needed management measures, but a problem remains concerning scattered and locked-in individual governance systems that do not support coordinated action and sharing of expertise and resources. This calls upon policy guidance with more formal coordination, such as a legal and national policy framework embracing PA governance diversity, but also securing more coordinated measures for day-to-day management.

15.
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety ; 13:15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1666549

ABSTRACT

The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) was established in 2012, following the implementation of a new comprehensive legislation in the EU. The committee is composed of members from the 27 member states, Norway and Iceland, additional experts from universities across Europe as well as health care and patient representatives. The mandate covers all aspects of risk management pre- and post-authorization, benefit/risk assessments and organization of public hearings. The toolkit comprises referrals, periodic safety update reports, risk management plans, signals, post-authorization safety studies, post-authorization efficacy studies and additional monitoring. The PRAC recommendations are forwarded to the CMD(h) and CHMP or formal adoption. With the emergence of the pandemic, the existing guidance has been supplemented with a pharmacovigilance plan aiming at effective data collection, detection and assessment of safety data. Additional guidance regarding the development of risk management plans had been issued. PRAC has contributed significantly to the work in the pre- and postauthorization phase, having provided advice regarding the risk management plans and having assessed numerous signals, safety reports and PASS protocols for the COVID-19 vaccines. All done in accordance with the basic PRAC principles of risk-based approach, involvement and transparency.

16.
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems ; 14:44-58, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1610073

ABSTRACT

The existing literature indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic has been disastrous for tourism across the globe and much of the focus now is on tourism recovery. WTTC estimates that destinations would take an average of 21.3 months to recover from a pandemic. Various market reports and research on the impact of COVID-19 on tourism have issued bleak forecasts regarding the future of global tourism but Iceland has disregarded this prediction. The European island nation has received much acclaim for its ability to control the spread of the virus without the need for an aggressive lockdown. Iceland holds the distinction of becoming the first European country to open its doors to tourists amid the outbreak when a vast majority of destinations worldwide are still on lockdown. The country has decided to allow tourists from the Schengen area to visit from June 15, 2020 and proposes to allow other tourists to visit from July 1, 2020. In the current scenario, where the state of public health is a barometer of destination attractiveness, a COVID free environment would be alluring to tourists who had postponed their travel plans due to the crisis. The Iceland DMO (Destination Marketing Organization) provides prospective tourists with general travel-related information, links to government notifications and also has an official website for Iceland and COVID-19. It has also established its social media presence on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube and Pinterest. We propose to evaluate the brand communication strategy of Iceland tourism using the PESO (Paid, Earned, Owned and Shared) framework. This evaluation will yield insights into platforms and types of media employed by the DMO with the intention of addressing the concerns of tourists. The strategies implemented by Iceland may be adopted by other destination DMOs to restart their tourism industry. © 2021 Publishing India Group. All rights reserved.

17.
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups ; 6(6):1786-1799, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1592571

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in speech-language pathology service provision in Iceland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Data were analyzed for 53 Icelandic speechlanguage pathologists (SLPs) who completed an online questionnaire between September and October 2020. Participants represented 54.1% of all SLPs practicing in Iceland. The questionnaire examined SLP employment status, populations served, and use of telepractice pre- COVID-19, during COVID-19, and after the first wave of COVID-19. Results: During COVID-19, speech-language pathology services in Iceland were reduced, but many SLPs were able to continue working in some capacity. Services to children and those with lifelong communication difficulties were most affected. There was an increase in the use of telepractice during the first wave of COVID-19, and the most frequently reported platform used was Kara Connect. Qualitative analysis of participants' free-text responses revealed that SLPs saw a range of advantages (themes: SLP service delivery and client accessibility) and disadvantages (themes: technology, personal, interpersonal, and clinical context) of telepractice. Conclusions: Telepractice provided a viable solution for maintaining clinical services in Iceland in response to restrictions on traditional in-person services. This survey provides a unique window into the practices of SLPs in a context that is underrepresented in the literature.

18.
Blood ; 138:154, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582196

ABSTRACT

Introduction Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have an increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) precedes MM and related disorders and affects 4.2% of the general population over the age of 50 years. MM and MGUS are associated with immune dysfunction that is believed to contribute to the development of severe COVID-19. Currently, no systematic data on MGUS and COVID-19 have been published. We conducted a large population-based cohort study to evaluate whether MGUS was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19. Methods Data on all SARS-CoV-2 test results and COVID-19 severity was acquired from the COVID-19 Outpatient Clinic at Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland. The first case of COVID-19 in Iceland was diagnosed on February 28 th, 2020. Since then, the Icelandic authorities have followed an aggressive strategy of SARS-CoV-2 testing and contact tracing. All SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were immediately contacted and those with active infection were enrolled into telehealth monitoring consisting of repeated standardized interviews conducted by a nurse or physician. If clinical deterioration was detected, patients were assessed in person at the COVID-19 Outpatient Clinic and admitted if needed. Study participants were included from the Iceland Screens Treats or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM). The study is an ongoing population-based screening study for MGUS and randomized trial of follow-up strategies. Out of the 148,708 Icelanders who were born 1976 and earlier and were alive on September 9 th 2016, 80,759 (54%) provided informed consent for study participation and 75,422 (94%) of those provided a blood sample for MGUS screening by serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) and free light chain (FLC) assay. MGUS was determined by current criteria using SPEP and FLC assay data. Individuals who had died, been diagnosed with MM and related disorders, or were undergoing treatment for smoldering MM prior to February 28 th were excluded. First, the association of MGUS and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. We used a test negative design and included participants who had been tested at least once for SARS-CoV-2 between February 28 th and December 31 st, 2020. The association of MGUS and a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was assessed using logistic regression, adjusted for sex and age. Next, the association of MGUS and severe COVID-19 was evaluated. Those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included unless they were hospitalized or living in a nursing home at diagnosis. Participants were followed until discharge from telehealth monitoring or until considered having severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was defined as the composite outcome of the need for outpatient visit or hospital admission and death and as the composite outcome of hospital admission and death. Logistic regression was then performed adjusting for sex and age. Results Of the 75,422 individuals screened for MGUS, 32,047 (42%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period of whom 1,754 had MGUS (5.5%). Those with MGUS were older (mean age 66.3 vs 59.1 p<0.001) and more likely to be male (50% vs 41% p<0.001). In total, 1,100 (3.4%) of the participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 of whom 65 had MGUS. After adjusting for sex and age, MGUS was not found to be associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.05;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.36;p=0.72;Table;Figure A). Of those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, a total of 230 had the composite outcome of requiring an outpatient visit or hospital admission, and death, and 117 had the composite outcome of hospital admission and death. After adjusting for age and sex, MGUS was not found to be associated with either endpoint (OR: 0.99;95%CI: 0.52-1.91;p=0.99 and OR: 1.13;95%CI: 0.52-2.46;p=0.76;Table;Figure B) Conclusions: In this large population-bas d study that included 75,422 individuals screened for MGUS, we did not find MGUS to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility or COVID-19 severity. This is contrary to MM which is preceded by MGUS. These findings suggest that immunosuppression in MGUS differs significantly from that of MM and are important since they can inform management and recommendations for individuals with MGUS. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Kampanis: The Binding Site: Current Employment. Hultcrantz: Intellisphere LLC: Consultancy;Daiichi Sankyo: Research Funding;Curio Science LLC: Consultancy;Amgen: Research Funding;GlaxoSmithKline: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Durie: Amgen, Celgene/Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, and Takeda: Consultancy;Amgen: Other: fees from non-CME/CE services. Harding: The Binding Site: Current Employment, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties. Landgren: Amgen: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria;Celgene: Research Funding;Janssen: Other: IDMC;Janssen: Research Funding;Takeda: Other: IDMC;Amgen: Research Funding;GSK: Honoraria. Kristinsson: Amgen: Research Funding;Celgene: Research Funding.

19.
Eskişehir Türk Dünyası Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Halk Sağlığı Dergisi ; 5:17-34, 2020.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1573144

ABSTRACT

Bu çalışmada Türkiye, Ítalya, Birleşik Krallık, Almanya, Güney Kore, ABD ve Ízlanda’nın SARS-CoV-2 test sayılarının ve stratejilerinin incelenmesi, bunun yanı sıra test sayısı ve stratejilerinin salgının seyrine etkisinin değerlendirilmesi ve bu yolla da test uygulamalarının salgın mücadelesindeki olası katkılarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yedi ülkenin gelişmişlik, eşitsizlik, gelir düzeyi, nüfus, sağlık harcaması, sağlık personeli sayısı, sağlık hizmetlerine erişime ilişkin verileri çeşitli veri tabanlarından elde edilmiştir. COVID-19 ile ilgili 15 günlük aralıklarla hesaplanan salgın istatistikleri, 1 Haziran 2020 itibariyle test sayısı, vaka ve ölüm sayılarını yansıtan değişkenler ve test stratejileri kullanılmıştır. Salgının 15., 30., 45. ve 60. günlerinde en fazla toplam vakaya sahip olan ülke Türkiye’dir. Milyon kişiye düşen test sayısı Ízlanda’da 15, 30, 45 ve 60. günlerde diğer ülkelerden daha fazladır. Toplam test sayısı içindeki pozitiflik yüzdeleri bakımından Türkiye 15. ve 30. günlerde, Ítalya ise 45. ve 60. günlerde birinci sıradadır. Vaka başına test sayısı 15. ve 30. günde Birleşik Krallık’ta, 45.günde Almanya’da, 60. günde ise Güney Kore’de en yüksektir. Güney Kore 1 vaka başına 80 test yapmıştır. Almanya’nın test kapsayıcılığı tüm bölgeler için geçerli olmasa da diğer ülkelerden daha geniştir. Milyon kişiye düşen toplam test sayısı açısından Ízlanda, Birleşik Krallık ve Ítalya;vaka başına test sayısı açısından ise Güney Kore, Ízlanda ve Almanya daha olumlu bir tablo çizmektedir. Almanya, Birleşik Krallık ve Güney Kore risk gruplarını daha büyük oranda kapsayan test stratejilerini uygulamaktadır. COVID-19’la mücadelede testlerin erken dönemde ve geniş kapsamlı kullanımı başarıyı getiren en önemli faktörlerdendir. Tanı koyma kapasitesi salgın kontrolünün anahtarıdır.Alternate : In this study, it is aimed to examine the number of SARS-CoV-2 tests and strategies of Turkey, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, the USA and Iceland, as well as to evaluate the impact of the number of tests and strategies on the course of the epidemic, and in this way to determine the possible contribution of test practices to the outbreak. Data of the seven countries on development, inequality, income level, population, health expenditure, number of health personnel, and access to health services were obtained from various databases. Outbreak statistics calculated at 15-day intervals regarding COVID-19, variables that reflect the number of tests, number of cases and deaths as of June 1, 2020 and test strategies were used. Turkey had the most total cases on the 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days of the outbreak. The number of tests per million people was higher in Iceland than the other countries on the 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days. In terms of positivity percentages in the total number of tests, Turkey was the first on the 15th and 30th days, while Italy is the first on the 45th and 60th days. The number of tests per case was highest in the UK on the 15th and 30th day, in Germany on the 45th day and in South Korea on the 60th day. South Korea conducted 80 tests per 1 case. The test coverage of Germany was wider than other countries, though not in all regions. In terms of the total number of tests per million people Iceland, the United Kingdom and Italy;in terms of the number of tests per case South Korea, Iceland and Germany seem more positive. Germany, UK and South Korea apply test strategies that cover risk groups to a greater extent. The early and wide-ranging use of tests in the fight against COVID-19 is one of the most important factors that bring success. The capacity to diagnose is the key to outbreak control.

20.
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology ; 5(6):340-346, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1560284

ABSTRACT

In this study, the ANN approach was applied to analyze COVID-19 new cases in Iceland. The employed data covers the period 1 January 2020 – 25 March 2021 and the out-of-sample period ranges over the period 26 March – 31 July 2021. The residuals and forecast evaluation criteria (Error, MSE and MAE) of the applied model indicate that the model is quite stable. The results of the study indicate that daily COVID-19 cases in Iceland are likely to remain between 0 and 100 cases per day over the out-of-sample period. Amongst other suggested policy directions, there is need for the government of Iceland to ensure adherence to safety guidelines while continuing to create awareness about the COVID-19 pandemic.

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