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1.
Gigiena i Sanitariya ; 101(7):741-748, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026787

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to odours of model food odourants can lead to a change in biochemical and immunological parameters that we previously used when examining the population in the area of food industry enterprises location using the method of quantitative olfacto-odorimetry. Methods. The specified concentrations of aerosols of three food flavours (orange, cognac and coffee) were supplied to the participants of the studies with a help of ECOMA T08 olfactometer. Quantitative composition of the aerosols was controlled by GC/MS. In participants saliva samples taken before, during and at the end of each experiment, the intensity of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the content of secretory IgA, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, the activity of α-amylase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase were determined. For data analysis, paired Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used with Bonferroni correction for the problem of multiple comparisons. Results. A reliable effect of the smell of food odourants was found on one indicator only – the activity of salivary α-amylase – when combining data from 5 separate experiments (n=45): 93.3[24.3;160.0] U/ml at the end of the experiments against background values of 109.9 [42.5;216.7] U/ml;, p=0.0096 with a significance level of p=0.05/3=0.017. A decrease in the average values of salivary α-amylase activity was shown to hide opposite changes in individual values: an increase in activity in people with low background values (below the median of the initial distribution) and an amplitude-dominant decrease – in people with high background values (above median). The revealed phenotypic polymorphism of α-amylase regulation contributes to one of relevant Post-COVID areas – the study of the ability of people to perceive odours and react to them. Limitations. The use of olfacto-odorimetry to study effect of odours on human health indicators is promising, but requires design of protocols with extended exposure time. Conclusion. A decrease in average values of salivary α-amylase activity with distinctive forestall of the upper quartile may be a sign of human reflex re sponse to the emission of odourous substances in the areas of food industry. © 2022 Izdatel'stvo Meditsina. All rights reserved.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022741

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is primarily an airborne infection of the upper respiratory tract, which on reaching the lungs causes the severe acute respiratory disease, COVID-19. Its first contact with the immune system, likely through the nasal passages and Waldeyer's ring of tonsils and adenoids, induces mucosal immune responses revealed by the production of secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies in saliva, nasal fluid, tears, and other secretions within 4 days of infection. Evidence is accumulating that these responses might limit the virus to the upper respiratory tract resulting in asymptomatic infection or only mild disease. The injectable systemic vaccines that have been successfully developed to prevent serious disease and its consequences do not induce antibodies in mucosal secretions of naive subjects, but they may recall SIgA antibody responses in secretions of previously infected subjects, thereby helping to explain enhanced resistance to repeated (breakthrough) infection. While many intranasally administered COVID vaccines have been found to induce potentially protective immune responses in experimental animals such as mice, few have demonstrated similar success in humans. Intranasal vaccines should have advantage over injectable vaccines in inducing SIgA antibodies in upper respiratory and oral secretions that would not only prevent initial acquisition of the virus, but also suppress community spread via aerosols and droplets generated from these secretions.

3.
4.
Cell Death & Disease ; 13(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016669

ABSTRACT

In addition to an inflammatory reaction, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients present lymphopenia, which we recently reported as being related to abnormal programmed cell death. As an efficient humoral response requires CD4 T-cell help, we hypothesized that the propensity of CD4 T cells to die may impact the quantity and quality of the humoral response in acutely infected individuals. In addition to specific immunoglobulins (Ig)A, IgM, and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and spike (S1) proteins, we assessed the quality of IgG response by measuring the avidity index. Because the S protein represents the main target for neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses, we also analyzed anti-S-specific IgG using S-transfected cells (S-Flow). Our results demonstrated that most COVID-19 patients have a predominant IgA anti-N humoral response during the early phase of infection. This specific humoral response preceded the anti-S1 in time and magnitude. The avidity index of anti-S1 IgG was low in acutely infected individuals compared to convalescent patients. We showed that the percentage of apoptotic CD4 T cells is inversely correlated with the levels of specific IgG antibodies. These lower levels were also correlated positively with plasma levels of CXCL10, a marker of disease severity, and soluble Fas ligand that contributes to T-cell death. Finally, we found lower S-Flow responses in patients with higher CD4 T-cell apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that individuals with high levels of CD4 T-cell apoptosis and CXCL10 have a poor ability to build an efficient anti-S response. Consequently, preventing CD4 T-cell death might be a strategy for improving humoral response during the acute phase, thereby reducing COVID-19 pathogenicity.

5.
Kidney Int ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2015782

ABSTRACT

Numerous cases of glomerulonephritis manifesting shortly after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have been reported, but causality remains unproven. Here, we studied the association between mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and new-onset glomerulonephritis using a nationwide retrospective cohort and a case-cohort design. Data from all Swiss pathology institutes processing native kidney biopsies served to calculate incidence of IgA nephropathy, pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy in the adult Swiss population. The observed incidence during the vaccination campaign (January to August 2021) was not different from the expected incidence calculated using a Bayesian model based on the years 2015 to 2019 (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95%-credible interval 0.73 -1.02) and did not cross the upper boundary of the 95% credible interval for any month. Among 111 patients 18 years and older with newly diagnosed glomerulonephritis between January and August 2021, 38.7% had received at least one vaccine dose before biopsy, compared to 39.5% of the general Swiss population matched for age and calendar-time. The estimated risk ratio for the development of new-onset biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis was not significant at 0.97 (95%-confidence interval 0.66-1.42) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals. Patients with glomerulonephritis manifesting within four weeks after vaccination did not differ clinically from those manifesting temporally unrelated to vaccination. Thus, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with new-onset glomerulonephritis in these two complementary studies with most temporal associations between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and glomerulonephritis likely coincidental.

6.
Future Virol ; 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009819

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old male admitted to the hospital for generalized weakness and fever. He was treated in hospital for 10 days due to COVID-19. He did not receive any immunosuppressive therapy during admission. One day after his discharge he experienced back pain and received analgesic therapy for 10 days. About one month later he experienced severe back pain and gross hematuria. He was admitted to hospital with acute kidney injury and new-onset lower extremity muscle weakness. His renal biopsy revealed IgA nephropathy and thoracic/cervical/lumbar-spine imaging showed an epidural abscess. This is a unique case report of a patient developing an epidural abscess and acute kidney injury together as a serious complication of COVID-19 infection.

7.
Clinics ; : 100105, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007614

ABSTRACT

Objectives Defense against respiratory viruses depends on an immune response present in the mucosa, as saliva IgA secretes antibodies. During the pandemic, such as influenza or SARS-CoV-2, most infected patients are asymptomatic but retain specific antibodies post-infection. The authors evaluated IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in the saliva of asymptomatic volunteers, validated with controls or vaccinated individuals. Methods The authors detected specific antibodies by validated conventional ELISA using natural SARS-CoV-2 antigens from infected Vero cells or capture-ELISA for influenza using natural antigens of the influenza vaccine. Results Saliva from influenza-vaccinated individuals had more IgA than paired serum, contrary to the findings for specific IgG. In COVID-19-vaccinated samples, specific IgA in saliva increased after vaccination, but IgG levels were high after the first dose. In saliva from the asymptomatic population (226), anti-Influenza IgG was found in 57.5% (130) of samples, higher than IgA, found in 35% (79) of samples. IgA results were similar for SARS-CoV-2, with IgA present in 30% (68) of samples, while IgG was less present, in 44.2% (100) of samples. The proportion of influenza IgG responders was higher than that for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, but both populations presented similar proportions of IgA responders, possibly due to variable memory B cell survival. For both viruses, the authors found an important proportion (> 10%) of IgA+IgG- samples, suggesting the occurrence of humoral immunity directed to the mucosa. Conclusion Specific antibodies for respiratory viruses in saliva are found in either infection or vaccination and are a convenient and sensitive diagnostic tool for host immune response.

8.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004588

ABSTRACT

To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a need to develop vaccines to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. One candidate is a nasal vaccine capable of inducing secretory IgA antibodies in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, the initial site of infection. However, regarding the development of COVID-19 vaccines, there is concern about the potential risk of inducing lung eosinophilic immunopathology as a vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease as a result of the T helper 2 (Th2)-dominant adaptive immune response. In this study, we investigated the protective effect against virus infection induced by intranasal vaccination of recombinant trimeric spike protein derived from SARS-CoV-2 adjuvanted with CpG oligonucleotides, ODN2006, in mouse model. The intranasal vaccine combined with ODN2006 successfully induced not only systemic spike-specific IgG antibodies, but also secretory IgA antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Secretory IgA antibodies showed high protective ability against SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants) compared to IgG antibodies in the serum. The nasal vaccine of this formulation induced a high number of IFN-γ-secreting cells in the draining cervical lymph nodes and a lower spike-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio compared to that of subcutaneous vaccination with alum as a typical Th2 adjuvant. These features are consistent with the induction of the Th1 adaptive immune response. In addition, mice intranasally vaccinated with ODN2006 showed less lung eosinophilic immunopathology after viral challenge than mice subcutaneously vaccinated with alum adjuvant. Our findings indicate that intranasal vaccine adjuvanted with ODN2006 could be a candidate that can prevent the infection of antigenically different variant viruses, reducing the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988044

ABSTRACT

It is currently unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination can also induce IgG and IgA against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in lactating parents. Here we prospectively analyzed human milk (HM) and blood samples from lactating parents to measure the temporal patterns of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific and anti-HCoV cross-reactive IgA and IgG responses. Two cohorts were analyzed: a vaccination cohort (n = 30) who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), and an infection cohort (n = 45) with COVID-19 disease. Longitudinal HM and fingerstick blood samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination or, for infected subjects, at 5 time-points 14-28 days after confirmed diagnosis. The anti-spike(S) and anti-nucleocapsid(N) IgA and IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were measured by multiplex immunoassay (mPlex-CoV). We found that vaccination significantly increased the anti-S IgA and IgG levels in HM. In contrast, while IgG levels increased after a second vaccine dose, blood and HM IgA started to decrease. Moreover, HM and blood anti-S IgG levels were significantly correlated, but anti-S IgA levels were not. SARS2 acute infection elicited anti-S IgG and IgA that showed much higher correlations between HM and blood compared to vaccination. Vaccination and infection were able to significantly increase the broadly cross-reactive IgG recognizing HCoVs in HM and blood than the IgA antibodies in HM and blood. In addition, the broader cross-reactivity of IgG in HM versus blood indicates that COVID-19 vaccination and infection might provide passive immunity through HM for the breastfed infants not only against SARS-CoV-2 but also against common cold coronaviruses.

10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100093, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982807

ABSTRACT

Human milk constitutes a secretion with unique functions of both nourishing the nursling and providing protection against enteric and respiratory infections, mainly due to its content of secretory IgA antibodies but also due to the presence of a plethora of bioactive factors. Specific IgA antibodies are produced locally by plasma cells derived from B lymphocytes that migrate from other mucosae to the mammary gland during lactation, particularly from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Therefore, here, the authors will provide a comprehensive review of the content and functions of different nutritional and bioactive anti-infectious components from breast milk, such as oligosaccharides, lactoferrin, haptocorrin, α-lactalbumin, k-casein, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, mucin, fatty acids, defensins, cytokines and chemokines, hormones and growth factors, complement proteins, leukocytes and nucleic acids, including microRNAs, among many others, and the induction of antibody responses in breast milk after maternal vaccination with several licensed vaccines, including the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine preparations used worldwide. Currently, in the midst of the pandemic, maternal vaccination has re-emerged as a crucial source of passive immunity to the neonate through the placenta and breastfeeding, considering that maternal vaccination can induce specific antibodies if performed during pregnancy and after delivery. There have been some reports in the literature about milk IgA antibodies induced by bacterial antigens or inactivated virus vaccines, such as anti-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, anti-influenza viruses, anti-pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide preparations. Regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, most studies demonstrate elevated levels of specific IgA and IgG antibodies in milk with virus-neutralizing ability after maternal vaccination, which represents an additional approach to improve the protection of the nursling during the entire breastfeeding period.

11.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(4): 348-365, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulin A vasculitis is historically more commonly found in children after certain viral infections such as Epstein-Barr, varicella virus, and parvovirus B19. COVID-19 has not been formally established in literature as a trigger for immunoglobulin A vasculitis. However, a main pathogenetic mechanism of COVID-19 is vascular damage, which makes it likely that vasculitis associated with COVID-19 (ie, COVID-19-mediated immunoglobulin A vasculitis) could be biologically plausible, with serious implications, especially for adults. The purpose of this review is to assist emergency nurses in gaining knowledge on the pathophysiology, symptoms, and treatment of COVID-19-mediated immunoglobulin A vasculitis. METHODS: A systematic search for case reports of COVID-19-associated immunoglobulin A vasculitis was conducted in the PubMed and Scopus electronic databases. The search terms used were COVID-19, coronavirus 2019, SARS COVID-19, and IgA vasculitis, case reports. The following were the inclusion criteria: publication dates between December 1, 2019, and December 1, 2021; full-text article, clinical case studies, and letters to the editor available electronically in English. The following were exclusion criteria: a summary of reports and newspaper publications. RESULTS: Only 13 clinical cases met the inclusion criteria. The median age of patients described in the case reports were 38.1 years. Of them, 3 children were less than 5 years old. Twelve patients were male. In 7 of 13 cases of immunoglobulin A vasculitis, renal involvement was found. DISCUSSION: The analysis of published clinical cases showed that COVID-19-associated immunoglobulin A vasculitis affected mostly adults and was characterized by a more severe course because of renal involvement. COVID-19 may be a possible trigger for immunoglobulin A-related disorders. More research is needed to better understand the relationship between immunoglobulin A vasculitis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , IgA Vasculitis , Vasculitis , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , IgA Vasculitis/complications , IgA Vasculitis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A , Male
12.
Bioscience Research ; 19(2):1098-1102, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1975956

ABSTRACT

Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy disease caused by an immune reaction to gliadin which is a component of gluten that affects the intestinal lamina and leads to its atrophy, which occurs when a celiac patient consumes gluten products. The symptoms are different from diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain after eating gluten, however, most of them are asymptomatic. Due to the low frequency of studies regarding celiac disease among youngsters in Saudi Arabia, thegoal of this study was to screen anti-gliadin IgA among students at the College of Applied Medical Sciences at Taif University. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 healthy participants from students at the College of Applied Medical Sciences at Taif University from March 3, 2022, to March 26, 2022. Some participants have confirmed to have food allergy or an immune disorder such as nut allergy, systemic lupus erythema, and wheat sensitivity. The anti-gliadin IgA test was performed by ELISA to assess anti-gliadin IgA titer on the serum of the students. 9 out of 182 were anti-gliadin IgA positive test. Most of the positive participants were females, and one was male, and all were healthy and confirmed to be undiagnosed previously with celiac disease neither their relatives. Moreover, they are not shown symptoms that are associated with their gluten intake. We found an association with many parameters of AGA positivity of the participants such as gender, BMI or COVID-19 infection and vaccine. This study provides a screening analysis of anti-gliadin IgA among students at College of Applied Medical Sciences at Taif University, and our results are similar to the prevalence of celiac disorder in Saudi Arabia. However, seropositivity for anti-gliadin IgA can be a marker for other enteropathies therefore other confirmatory tests should be performed.

13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973995

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcomes. Evidence suggests that dysregulated immune responses, including autoimmunity, are key pathogenic factors. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether IgA autoantibodies target lung-specific proteins and contribute to disease severity. METHODS: We collected 147 blood, 9 lung tissue, and 36 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from three tertiary hospitals in Switzerland and one in Germany. Severe COVID-19 was defined by the need to administer oxygen. We investigated the presence of IgA autoantibodies and their effects on pulmonary surfactant in COVID-19 using the following methods: immunofluorescence on tissue samples, immunoprecipitations followed by mass spectrometry on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays on blood samples, and surface tension measurements with medical surfactant. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: IgA autoantibodies targeting pulmonary surfactant proteins B and C were elevated in patients with severe COVID-19, but not in patients with influenza or bacterial pneumonia. Notably, pulmonary surfactant failed to reduce surface tension after incubation with either plasma or purified IgA from patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that patients with severe COVID-19 harbor IgA against pulmonary surfactant proteins B and C and that these antibodies block the function of lung surfactant, potentially contributing to alveolar collapse and poor oxygenation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

14.
QJM ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973246

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused significant economic and health damage worldwide. Rapid vaccination is one of the key strategies to curb severe illness and death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have received various COVID-19 vaccines, including mRNA vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and adenovirus-vectored vaccines, but the side effects and efficacy of most vaccines have not been extensively studied. Recently, there have been increasing reports of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) after COVID-19 vaccination, however, whether their relationship is causal or coincidental remains to be verified. Here, we summarize the latest clinical evidence of IgAN diagnosed by renal biopsy associated with the COVID-19 vaccine published by July 10, 2022 with the largest sample size, and propose a hypothesis for the pathogenesis between them. At the same time, the new opportunity presented by COVID-19 vaccine allows us to explore the mechanism of IgAN recurrence for the first time. Indeed, we recognize that large-scale COVID-19 vaccination has enormous benefits in preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to help guide the clinical assessment and management of IgA nephropathy post COVID-19 vaccination and to enrich the "multi-hit" theory of IgA nephropathy.

15.
CEN Case Rep ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971871

ABSTRACT

Exacerbations or de novo autoimmune/autoinflammatory disease have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. A young male presented with cutaneous IgA vasculitis with glomerular hematuria, diarrhea and pericarditis following his second COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. He also showed positivity for proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) and anti-cardiolipin antibody. Skin biopsy was compatible to IgA vasculitis. His purpura subsided and hematuria spontaneously disappeared. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications and prednisolone resolved the pericarditis. He had a history of persistent diarrhea, and colonic biopsies showed possible ulcerative colitis without vasculitis. Kidney biopsy after prednisolone therapy revealed minor glomerular abnormalities without any immune reactants and did not show vasculitis. After prednisolone treatment, PR3-ANCA decreased in a medium degree despite of improvement of symptoms and inflammatory data, suggesting that his PR3-ANCA may be associated with ulcerative colitis. The cause of the transient glomerular hematuria was unclear, however, it might be caused by focal glomerular active lesions (glomerular vasculitis) due to vaccine-induced IgA vasculitis with nephritis. This case highlights that COVID-19 mRNA vaccination can activate multiple autoimmune/autoinflammatory systems. The conditions might help us better understand the mutual mechanisms of the relevant disorders.

16.
CEN Case Rep ; 11(3): 376-379, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971870

ABSTRACT

There has been growing interest in reported cases of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) flare-up following administration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. Our patient is a previously healthy 17-year-old girl who presented with a 10-year history of microscopic hematuria. Because there were no abnormal findings in blood examination or ultrasonography, we followed her up twice per year as asymptomatic hematuria. Although she never developed gross hematuria when she had upper respiratory infections or received an influenza vaccine, she presented with gross hematuria and proteinuria within a few days after receiving the first dose of the Pfizer vaccine. We performed renal biopsy 2 weeks after the first vaccination. It revealed minor glomerular abnormalities with diffuse mesangial IgA deposits, and we diagnosed her with mild IgAN. Gross hematuria was detected after both the first and second doses, although it changed to microscopic hematuria within 1 week. Additionally, her proteinuria resolved spontaneously approximately 10 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Therefore, we opted to observe her without administering medication. The causation between COVID-19 vaccination and IgAN flare-up remains unclear. Several reports showed IgAN patients presenting gross hematuria following the second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines. However, our patient developed gross hematuria and proteinuria even after the first dose and without known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exposure. Nephrologists should inform both patients with IgAN and those with asymptomatic hematuria that this side effect can occur even after the first vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/chemically induced , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Hematuria/complications , Humans , Proteinuria/complications
17.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968081

ABSTRACT

We present a case of eosinophil-rich linear IgA bullous disease (LABD) following administration of an mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccine. A 66-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a 3-week history of a pruritic blistering rash characterized by fluid-filled bullae and multiple annular and polycyclic plaques. He was initially diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid based on a biopsy demonstrating a subepidermal blister with numerous eosinophils. However, direct immunofluorescence studies showed linear IgA and IgM deposition along the basement membrane zone with no immunoreactivity for C3 or IgG. Additionally, indirect immunofluorescence was positive for IgA basement membrane zone antibody. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with LABD and initiated on dapsone therapy with resolution of his lesions at three-month follow-up. This case illustrates the growing number of autoimmune blistering adverse cutaneous reactions from vaccination. Dermatopathologists should be aware that features of autoimmune blistering diseases can overlap and may not be distinguishable based on these histopathological findings alone. Confirmation with direct immunofluorescence and/or serological studies may be necessary for accurate diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
JAAD Case Rep ; 26: 27-29, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966833
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 880154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963456

ABSTRACT

Molecular assays on nasopharyngeal swabs act as a confirmatory test in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis. However, the technical requirements of nasopharyngeal sampling and molecular assays limit the testing capabilities. Recent studies suggest the use of saliva for the COVID-19 diagnostic test. In this study, 44 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen were enrolled. Saliva and serum specimens were obtained at different time points and the immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2 were measured. The results showed that saliva IgA presented a higher COI value than IgG and IgM. In matched saliva and serum samples, all saliva samples presented lower IgG levels than serum samples, and only one saliva sample presented a higher IgM level. The conversion rates of saliva IgA and the detection of viral nucleic acids were analyzed in the first and second weeks after hospitalization. The positive rates increased when combining saliva IgA and viral nucleic acid detection. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that saliva IgA could serve as a useful index for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Saliva
20.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956695

ABSTRACT

While our knowledge about the short-term side-effects of COVID-19 vaccination in adults has rapidly evolved, data about the long-term systemic side-effects and potential new onset autoimmune disorders has been limited. Here we present a case series of patients with new onset autoimmune skin conditions between 10 days and 4 weeks post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and discuss the underlying pathophysiological changes contributing to these side-effects. Exclusions included any patients who have previously tested positive for COVID-19 or had COVID-19 symptoms. Our cases include new onset discoid lupus, localized cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, linear IgA bullous disease, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, lichen planus pemphigoides, erosive lichen planus, psoriasis and vitiligo. In addition, we are reporting significant flare-up of pre-existing autoimmune skin conditions after a long period of remission. These include three cases of psoriasis, two cases of systemic lupus, one pemphigus vulgaris koebnerizing within a previous shingles site, and a case of pyoderma gangrenosum flare. The BNT162b2 vaccine is a potent activator of the T- and B-cell pathways. The production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL- 21 seems to play an important role in vaccine-induced immunological protection, which is also linked to germinal centre activation linked to autoimmune disorders. This report improves our knowledge regarding some rarer potential sideeffects associated with these new vaccines and highlights the importance of further studies.

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