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1.
Shipin Kexue / Food Science ; 43(5):346-355, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20244871

ABSTRACT

As an important immuneoactive component in eggs, yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) shows great competitiveness in research and production due to its good stability, high safety, low cost, easy availability, strong immune activity, and no drug resistance. This article highlights the significant advantages of IgY as a good antibiotic substitute in the prevention and treatment of viral and bacterial diseases. Also, IgY has great potential in the regulation of nutrient metabolism balance, intestinal microflora and immune homeostasis by affecting key rate-limiting enzymes, and relevant receptors and inflammatory factors specifically. Proper diet and targeted delivery of foodborne IgY may be a new perspective on inflammation regulation, disease control, nutritional balance or homeostasis, and oral microencapsulated IgY is expected to be a new approach against increasing public health emergencies (such as COVID-19 pandemic).

2.
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana ; 56(3):293-301, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20241021

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019 the first cases of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia were reported in China. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) named it COVID-19 and in January 2020, it declared the international health emergency due to the worldwide rapid spread of the infection. The first cases in Argentina were detected in early March 2020. Molecular tests like RT PCR and LAMP were immediately used. Serological tests for antibody detection were approved a few months later;however, these are still not the preferred diagnostic method for the disease. In our laboratory, the latter began to be used during the first wave of COVID-19. With the results obtained in that moment, an observational retrospective study in a cohort of patients who came voluntarily to test for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and whose results were positive was performed. The notification rate to the Argentine Integrated System for Health Information (SISA for its acronym in Spanish) was calculated and antibody levels were evaluated, clustering them according to the following facts: if the event had been notified to the SISA and if they had a previous RT PCR/LAMP result, the symptoms experienced by these patients and the time elapsed between RT PCR/LAMP and antibody test results. It was not possible to demonstrate differences between patients with detectable and undetectable RT PCR/LAMP, neither with the type of declared symptoms nor with respect to the days elapsed post-infection. However, it was found that there was a significant difference between notified and non-notified patients, and a high rate of non-notified patients with positive antibodies. Therefore, antibodies level might be considered as a surrogate marker of SARS-CoV-2 contact when a diagnosis through molecular methods is not available.

3.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237070

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective study in the adult primary immunodeficiency clinic at UAB examining COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 antibody response from vaccination, natural infection, and immunoglobulin replacement from February 2021 to November 2022. Our goal was to determine if nucleocapsid and spike antibodies could be found in our PID patients and if these antibodies could be derived from natural infection, vaccination, or antibody replacement exclusively or combinatory. We hypothesized that increasing antibodies would be detected in our population as the COVID period extended. Two hundred and forty-five subjects were tracked over 336 clinic visits during this period. Our PID population included subjects with CVID, XLA, thymoma, hypogammaglobulinemia, IgA deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, specific antibody deficiency, Down syndrome, IgM deficiency, and patients with recurrent sinopulmonary infections. We had 196 females and 45 males in our study. In our patient population, 47% of our patient had known COVID-19 infection. Of those 47%, 21% of those infected patients had COVID-19 at least twice. Of those infected, three did not have COVID-19 spike antibodies and chose not to get vaccinated either. Two of those patients were not on IVIG and one was on Pangyza. Of those infected, 70% (n = 80) were on IgG infusions compared to those uninfected, 77% (n = 96) were on IgG infusions. Of interest, we had three XLA patients and all three had COVID-19 infection in the summer 2021. Two of them tested positive for nucleocapsid and spike antibodies in high titers and they were receiving Gammagard or Gamunex infusions, suggesting that these immunoglobulin preparations contain COVID-19 antibodies. We are still in the process of analyzing our data to see if diagnosis, IgG preparations, date of testing, B cell numbers, and drugs play a role in producing nucleocapsid antibodies and high spike antibody titers.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

4.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236652

ABSTRACT

Objective: The factors affecting the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies from mother to newborn and the duration of seropositivity rates in these infants have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in women infected in the pregnancy period and newborns born to these women and (2) to search the transplacental transfer ratio of spike-specific IgG. Method(s): Seventy pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their newborns were prospectively followed. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay was used for the detection of the in vitro quantitative determination of total antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Discussion(s): Spike-specific IgG was demonstrated in 89.1% (44 of 46) of pregnant women infected more than 14 days before delivery and in 92.6% (43 of 44) of their newborns. Median transfer ratio of spike-specific Ig was 0.87 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.34-0.90), 1.0 (IQR, 0.9-0.29), and 0.81 (IQR, 0.02-1.0) in first trimester (n = 4), second trimester (n = 14), and third trimester (n = 28) pregnant women, respectively. Antibody transfer ratio was correlated with time elapsed from infection (p < 0.001). Peak antibody transfer ratio above 1 was observed at a median 60 to 120 days after the infection from delivery. Antibody transfer ratio was high in pregnant women infected more than 60 days before delivery (p < 0.001). Transfer ratio was significantly higher in the severe-critically symptomatic women (n = 15) than the mild-moderately symptomatic women (n = 55) (p = 0.001). At 3 months, 18 of 25 infants (72%) had spike-specific IgG. Conclusion(s): Timing from infection to delivery and severity of maternal infection are critical in assessing the antibody generation and transport. Higher antibody transfer ratio can be detected in neonates when SARS-CoV-2 infection is present for more than 60 days before birth. Maternally derived antibody can persist for 3 months after birth.Copyright © 2023. The Author(s).

5.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 5(2):205-211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235917

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer are vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given the rising number of COVID-19 cases and relaxation of stringent COVID-19 protocols, assessment of the level of protective immunity to COVID-19 in patients with cancer has assumed importance. Objective(s): Our primary objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in patients with cancer. Material(s) and Method(s): We conducted a cross-sectional study on 100 patients with solid tumors attending our Oncology Department at the Believers Church Medical College, Kerala, India, between December 2020 and June 2021. Seroprevalence was assessed using the VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA). Additionally, we assessed the factors associated with seropositivity and collected data regarding the general experience of patients with cancer during the pandemic. Result(s): The median age of the participants was 62 years (IQR, 53-69.8);52 (52%) were males. The seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 11% (95% CI, 4.8-17.1). Age < 50 years was the only factor that was significantly associated with a higher rate of COVID-19 antibodies (77% vs 8.9% in patients >= 50 years;P = 0.007), and sex, smoking, and the use of alcohol did not show any association. The majority (77/100, 77%) of the patients were worried about contracting COVID-19 infection;some even deferred cancer-directed treatment because of the fear of visiting health care settings. Conclusion(s): Low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in unvaccinated patients with cancer is a matter of concern as it indicates that many of these patients are still vulnerable to infection. There is an urgent need to continue implementing strict safety measures in oncology centers and to encourage widespread COVID-19 vaccination to prevent the uncontrolled spread of COVID-19 among patients with cancer. (Funded by the institution, Believers Church Medical College, Kerala).Copyright © 2023 Neurology India, Neurological Society of India Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

6.
Nutrition & Food Science ; 53(4):738-751, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235436

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The nutritional and anthropometric status can be essential in determining their immune response to vaccines. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the association between diet quality and anthropometric indices with the side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titer among Kurdish adults. Design/methodology/approach: This cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted between December 2021 and February 2022. This paper included data on 115 adults, 20-89 years old, from the Kurdistan region. Dietary information was collected using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a plant-based healthy diet score. A blood test was performed to measure the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) titer after the vaccination's first and second doses. Findings: Overweight and obese subjects reported more local pain, myalgia, headache, local bruising and local reactions after receiving the first dose of the vaccine (p = 0.04). People on a less healthy diet reported more local pain, myalgia and headache (p = 0.04) and more local bruising and reactions (p = 0.01) after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. On the other hand, the authors observed that those with healthy dietary habits had more IgG titer after the first and second doses of vaccination than those with less healthy dietary habits (p = 0.001). Originality/valueThe results showed that participants with a healthy diet and normal weight status had fewer side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine than obese people and those with a less healthy diet.

7.
Germs ; 12(4):507-518, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234801

ABSTRACT

Introduction In this study, we aimed to monitor anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies positivity in healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with two doses of inactivated CoronaVac (Sinovac, China) vaccine. Methods Overall, 242 volunteer HCWs were included. Of the participants, 193 were HCWs without history of prior documented COVID-19 (Group 1), while 49 had history of prior documented COVID-19 before vaccination (Group 2). The participants were followed up for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies positivity at four different blood sampling time points (immediately before the second vaccine dose and at the 1st, 3rd months and 141-150 days after the second dose). We investigated the serum IgG class antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD region and IgG class antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method using commercial kits. Results We found positive serum anti-RBD IgG antibody in 76.4% of the participants (71% in Group 1;98% in Group 2) 28 days after the first dose. When the antibody levels of the groups were compared at the four blood sampling time points, Group 2 anti-RBD IgG levels were found to be significantly higher than those in Group 1 at all follow-up time points. Although anti-RBD IgG positivity persisted in 95.6% of all participants in the last blood sampling time point, a significant decrease was observed in antibody levels compared to the previous blood sampling time point. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibody was positive in 12 (6.2%) of participants in Group 1 and 32 (65.3%) in Group 2 at day 28 after the first dose. At the fourth blood sampling time point, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were found to be positive in a total of 20 (9.7%) subjects, 10 (6.1%) in Group 1 and 10 (23.8%) in Group 2. Conclusions In this study, it was determined that serum antibody levels decreased in both groups after the third month after the second dose in HCWs vaccinated with CoronaVac vaccine.Copyright © GERMS 2022.

8.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20232120

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been considered by the World Health Organization (WHO). We examined the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin antibodies in southwestern Iran in spring 2020. The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 is high in the general population, especially among health care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antigen in high-risk occupational and low-risk groups to investigate risk factors for serum positivity in Shiraz, southwestern Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on 366 participants (204 from high-risk and 162 from low-risk subjects). IgG and IgM antibodies were detected using Pishtaz Teb COVID-19 ELISA Kits to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-antigen in serum samples. After enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum prevalence, as well as IgG/IgM positive factors, was determined using logistic regression. Results: From July to September 2020 (a few months after reporting the first case of COVID-19 cases in Iran), out of 366 survived people, 72 (40.9%) were IgG positive, and 50 (27.5%) were IgM positive. The frequency of positive serology for IgG and IgM antibodies in individuals aged < 30 years was higher in the low-risk group than in the high-risk group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that headache (OR 0.312 [95% CI: 0.136 - 0.717]) and cough (OR 0.427 [95% CI: 0.182 - 1.004]) factors were associated with IgG or IgM positive serology. Conclusions: Between July and September 2020, the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antigen was high in Shiraz. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies in the high-risk group and their family as low risk was shown to increase viral infection due to close contact with COVID 19 patients than in the general population. Several factors were found to be related to the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antigen that needs to be considered by policymakers to determine what to do about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

9.
Medical Laboratory Journal ; 16(6):1-50, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20231478

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 8 articles that explore various latest research on COVID-19, including the clinical presentation of the disease, the role of inflammation, the development of new treatments, and the long-term effects of the infection. The topics covered include the evaluation of white blood cell parameters and their significance in COVID-19 patients in Western Maharashtra, India;the association between acute phase reactants and COVID-19 severity and mortality in a tertiary care hospital in India;the clinico-hematological profile of COVID-19 patients from an Indian perspective;the correlation between C-reactive protein test results and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients;the effective binding affinity of an inhibitor against the SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 helicase;the assessment of absolute neutrophil count in COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital;the analysis of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG response following the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine;and a case report discussing the diagnostic dilemma of hypoplastic acute myeloid leukemia in a COVID-19 patient.

10.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0276522, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233543

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to estimate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in the Howard County, Maryland, general population and demographic subpopulations attributable to natural infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and to identify self-reported social behaviors that may affect the likelihood of recent or past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cross-sectional, saliva-based serological study of 2,880 residents of Howard County, Maryland, was carried out from July through September 2021. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence was estimated by inferring infections among individuals according to anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobin G levels and calculating averages weighted by sample proportions of various demographics. Antibody levels between BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) recipients were compared. Antibody decay rate was calculated by fitting exponential decay curves to cross-sectional indirect immunoassay data. Regression analysis was carried out to identify demographic factors, social behaviors, and attitudes that may be linked to an increased likelihood of natural infection. The estimated overall prevalence of natural infection in Howard County, Maryland, was 11.9% (95% confidence interval, 9.2% to 15.1%), compared with 7% reported COVID-19 cases. Antibody prevalence indicating natural infection was highest among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants and lowest among non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Asian participants. Participants from census tracts with lower average household income also had higher natural infection rates. After accounting for multiple comparisons and correlations between participants, none of the behavior or attitude factors had significant effects on natural infection. At the same time, recipients of the mRNA-1273 vaccine had higher antibody levels than those of BNT162b2 vaccine recipients. Older study participants had overall lower antibody levels compared with younger study participants. The true prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is higher than the number of reported COVID-19 cases in Howard County, Maryland. A disproportionate impact of infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 positivity was observed across different ethnic/racial subpopulations and incomes, and differences in antibody levels across different demographics were identified. Taken together, this information may inform public health policy to protect vulnerable populations. IMPORTANCE We employed a highly innovative noninvasive multiplex oral fluid SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay to ascertain our seroprevalence estimates. This laboratory-developed test has been applied in NCI's SeroNet consortium, possesses high sensitivity and specificity according to FDA Emergency Use Authorization guidelines, correlates strongly with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses, and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Pathology. It represents a broadly scalable public health tool to improve understanding of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 exposure and infection without drawing any blood. To our knowledge, this is the first application of a high-performance salivary SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay to estimate population-level seroprevalence, including identifying COVID-19 disparities. We also are the first to report differences in SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses by COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] and mRNA-1273 [Moderna]). Our findings demonstrate remarkable consistency with those of blood-based SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays in terms of differences in the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses between COVID-19 vaccines.

11.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240840

ABSTRACT

The humoral response after vaccination was evaluated in 1248 individuals who received different COVID-19 vaccine schedules. The study compared subjects primed with adenoviral ChAdOx1-S (ChAd) and boosted with BNT162b2 (BNT) mRNA vaccines (ChAd/BNT) to homologous dosing with BNT/BNT or ChAd/ChAd vaccines. Serum samples were collected at two, four and six months after vaccination, and anti-Spike IgG responses were determined. The heterologous vaccination induced a more robust immune response than the two homologous vaccinations. ChAd/BNT induced a stronger immune response than ChAd/ChAd at all time points, whereas the differences between ChAd/BNT and BNT/BNT decreased over time and were not significant at six months. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters associated with IgG decay were estimated by applying a first-order kinetics equation. ChAd/BNT vaccination was associated with the longest time of anti-S IgG negativization and with a slow decay of the titer over time. Finally, analyzing factors influencing the immune response by ANCOVA analysis, it was found that the vaccine schedule had a significant impact on both the IgG titer and kinetic parameters, and having a Body Mass Index (BMI) above the overweight threshold was associated with an impaired immune response. Overall, the heterologous ChAd/BNT vaccination may offer longer-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2 than homologous vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1201136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240735

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infectious virus that has caused significant outbreaks in the Middle East and beyond. Due to a highly mortality rate, easy transmission, and rapid spread of the MERS-CoV, it remains as a significant public health treat. There is currently no licensed vaccine available to protect against MERS-CoV. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether the proteolytic cleavage sites and fusion peptide domain of the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein could be a vaccine target to elicit the MERS-CoV S protein-specific antibody responses and confer immune protection against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that immunization of the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide domain using virus-like particle (VLP) induced the MERS-CoV S protein-specific IgG antibodies with capacity to neutralize pseudotyped MERS-CoV infection in vitro. Moreover, proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide VLP immunization showed a synergistic effect on the immune protection against MERS-CoV infection elicited by immunization with VLP expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. Additionally, immune evasion of MERS-CoV RBD variants from anti-RBD sera was significantly controlled by anti-proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide sera. Conclusion and discussion: Our study demonstrates the potential of VLP immunization targeting the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide and RBD domains of the MERS-CoV S protein for the development of effective treatments and vaccines against MERS-CoV and related variants.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Peptides , Peptide Hydrolases
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237761

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening childhood disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, manifested by the persistence of fever and multi-organ dysfunction, elevated inflammatory markers, and the lack of an alternative diagnosis. It is still unknown if vaccination can precipitate or abrogate MIS-C or if a natural infection preceding or occurring at the time of vaccination plays any role. We present one case of MIS-C in a 16-year-old girl who was fully immunized against COVID-19 (Pfizer), with the second dose received three weeks prior to onset of the disease. She had no history of COVID-19 disease or contact with COVID-19 patients. At admission, she was somnolent, pale, and dehydrated, with cyanotic lips and cold extremities; she was hypotensive with tachycardia and poorly palpable pulses. Initial laboratory results revealed elevated levels of inflammatory markers, and high level of SARS-CoV-2 IgG spike antibodies, while testing for SARS-CoV-2 acute infection and other inflammatory etiologies were negative. Vaccine-related MIS-C was suspected in our case due to the development of MIS-C three weeks following the second dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, the absence of previous infection or exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and a positive result for IgG anti-spike (S) antibodies.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237346

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess long COVID, and describe immunogenicity against Omicron variants following BNT162b2 vaccination. A prospective cohort study was conducted among children (aged 5-11) and adolescents (aged 12-17) who had SARS-CoV-2 infection from July to December 2021 (Delta predominant period). Long COVID symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at 3 months after infection. Immunogenicity was evaluated by using a surrogate virus-neutralizing antibody test (sVNT) against the Omicron variant. We enrolled 97 children and 57 adolescents. At 3 months, 30 children (31%) and 34 adolescents (60%) reported at least one long COVID symptom, with respiratory symptoms prevailing (25% children and 32% adolescents). The median time from infection to vaccination was 3 months in adolescents and 7 months in children. At 1 month following vaccination, in children who received one-dose and two-dose BNT162b2 vaccines, the median (IQR) sVNT against Omicron was 86.2% inhibition (71.1-91.8) and 79.2% inhibition (61.5-88.9), respectively (p = 0.26). Among adolescents who received one-dose and two-dose BNT162b2 vaccines, the median (IQR) sVNT against Omicron was 64.4% inhibition (46.8-88.8) and 68.8% inhibition (65.0-91.2) (p = 0.64). Adolescents had a higher prevalence of long COVID than children. Immunogenicity against the Omicron variant after vaccination was high and did not vary between one or two doses of the vaccine in either children or adolescents.

15.
Allergy ; 78(6): 1717-1718, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236849
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2215677, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236782

ABSTRACT

Certain aspects of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) developed in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are still uncharacterized. Serum or plasma samples from healthy donor recipients of either vaccine (BNT162b2 n = 53, mRNA-1273 n = 49; age 23-67), and individuals naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 106; age 18-82) were collected 0-2 months post-infection or 1- and 4 months after second dose of vaccination. Anti-Spike antibody levels and avidity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, vaccination induced higher circulating anti-Spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels and avidity compared to infection at similar time intervals. Both vaccines produced similar anti-Spike IgG concentrations at 1 month, while mRNA-1273 demonstrated significantly higher circulating antibody concentrations after 4 months. mRNA-1273 induced significantly higher avidity at month 1 compared to BNT162b2 across all age groups. However, the 23-34 age group was the only group to maintain statistical significance by 4 months. Male BNT162b2 recipients were approaching statistically significant lower anti-Spike IgG avidity compared to females by month 4. These findings demonstrate enhanced anti-Spike IgG levels and avidity following vaccination compared to natural infection. In addition, the mRNA-1273 vaccine induced higher antibody levels by 4 months compared to BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Infant , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Cureus ; 15(4): e38124, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236399

ABSTRACT

A 36-year-old lady presented with fever, cough, maculopapular rash, painless sialadenitis, episcleritis, and arthralgia of more than 10 months, occurring in episodes since she tested positive for COVID-19 in 2020. Her symptoms were well controlled with corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy. Her clinical presentation and findings on bronchoscopy resembled that of sarcoidosis. However, the bronchial biopsy histopathology ruled out sarcoidosis. An increased serum immunoglobulin G4 level and its possible association with COVID-19 raises the question of whether the possibility of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) could be entertained.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244100

ABSTRACT

Less than a year after the global emergence of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a novel vaccine platform based on mRNA technology was introduced to the market. Globally, around 13.38 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses of diverse platforms have been administered. To date, 72.3% of the total population has been injected at least once with a COVID-19 vaccine. As the immunity provided by these vaccines rapidly wanes, their ability to prevent hospitalization and severe disease in individuals with comorbidities has recently been questioned, and increasing evidence has shown that, as with many other vaccines, they do not produce sterilizing immunity, allowing people to suffer frequent re-infections. Additionally, recent investigations have found abnormally high levels of IgG4 in people who were administered two or more injections of the mRNA vaccines. HIV, Malaria, and Pertussis vaccines have also been reported to induce higher-than-normal IgG4 synthesis. Overall, there are three critical factors determining the class switch to IgG4 antibodies: excessive antigen concentration, repeated vaccination, and the type of vaccine used. It has been suggested that an increase in IgG4 levels could have a protecting role by preventing immune over-activation, similar to that occurring during successful allergen-specific immunotherapy by inhibiting IgE-induced effects. However, emerging evidence suggests that the reported increase in IgG4 levels detected after repeated vaccination with the mRNA vaccines may not be a protective mechanism; rather, it constitutes an immune tolerance mechanism to the spike protein that could promote unopposed SARS-CoV2 infection and replication by suppressing natural antiviral responses. Increased IgG4 synthesis due to repeated mRNA vaccination with high antigen concentrations may also cause autoimmune diseases, and promote cancer growth and autoimmune myocarditis in susceptible individuals.

19.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 4009-4018, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal pertussis immunization using Tdap vaccine is recommended in many countries to protect newborns from severe post-natal infection. Immunological changes during pregnancy may influence the response to vaccines. The quality of IgG and memory B cell responses to Tdap immunization in pregnant women has not yet been described. METHODS: The impact of pregnancy on the response to Tdap vaccination was assessed by comparing humoral immune responses in 42 pregnant and 39 non-pregnant women. The levels of serum pertussis antigens and tetanus toxoid-specific IgG, IgG subclasses, IgG Fc-mediated effector functions, as well as memory B cell frequencies were assessed before and at several time points after vaccination. RESULTS: Tdap immunization induced similar levels of pertussis and tetanus-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Pregnant women produced IgG promoting complement deposition, and neutrophils and macrophages phagocytosis at levels comparable to non-pregnant women. They were also able to expand pertussis and tetanus-specific memory B cells at similar frequencies as non-pregnant women, suggesting equivalent "boostability". Higher levels of vaccine-specific IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgG Fc-mediated effector functions were detected in cord blood as compared to maternal blood, indicating efficient transport across the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pregnancy does not affect the quality of effector IgG and memory B cell responses to Tdap immunization and that polyfunctional IgG are efficiently transferred across the placenta. REGISTRY'S URL AND THE TRIAL'S REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.Gov (NCT03519373).


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , Memory B Cells , Tetanus/prevention & control , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
20.
Elife ; 122023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243150

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are widely used for diagnosis and therapy. Given the unique dimeric structure of IgG, we hypothesized that, by genetically fusing a homodimeric protein (catenator) to the C-terminus of IgG, reversible catenation of antibody molecules could be induced on a surface where target antigen molecules are abundant, and that it could be an effective way to greatly enhance the antigen-binding avidity. A thermodynamic simulation showed that quite low homodimerization affinity of a catenator, e.g. dissociation constant of 100 µM, can enhance nanomolar antigen-binding avidity to a picomolar level, and that the fold enhancement sharply depends on the density of the antigen. In a proof-of-concept experiment where antigen molecules are immobilized on a biosensor tip, the C-terminal fusion of a pair of weakly homodimerizing proteins to three different antibodies enhanced the antigen-binding avidity by at least 110 or 304 folds from the intrinsic binding avidity. Compared with the mother antibody, Obinutuzumab(Y101L) which targets CD20, the same antibody with fused catenators exhibited significantly enhanced binding to SU-DHL5 cells. Together, the homodimerization-induced antibody catenation would be a new powerful approach to improve antibody applications, including the detection of scarce biomarkers and targeted anticancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Antigens , Immunoglobulin G , Antibody Affinity
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