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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109932

ABSTRACT

Throughout the pandemic, serological assays have been revealed as crucial for detecting previous exposures to the virus and determining the timing of antibody maintenance after vaccination or natural infection. This study aimed to develop an optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serology, which could be used in case of reagent shortages, such as that occurred in the beginning of this health emergency. As a result, we present a high-sensitive immunoassay for the determination of IgG levels in venous serum samples, using 2 µg/mL antigen (receptor-binding domain of the spike protein S1) for coating the plate and utilizing human samples at a dilution 1:1000. This method showed non-inferiority features versus a commercial kit, is less expensive, and has a higher spectrophotometric range that allows for a better quantification of the antibody titers. The optical density values before and after heating venous serum samples at 56 °C during 30 min was quite similar, showing that heat inactivation can be used to reduce the biohazardous risks while handling samples. Furthermore, we show that finger-stick capillary blood samples can also serve as a suitable source for IgG detection, bypassing the need for serum isolation and being suitable for point-of-care application (Pearson's coefficient correlation with capillary serum was 0.95, being statistically significant).

2.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-7, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of hospitalisation and death, but vaccine-induced IgG antibodies against the spike protein (IgG S) decline over time. Less is known about the nature of the vaccine-induced T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. METHODS: IgG antibodies against nucleocapsid protein (IgG N), IgG S, and T-cell response towards SARS-CoV-2 antigens were determined in samples taken between November 2020 and November 2021 from a cohort of healthcare workers at an Infectious Diseases Department. RT-PCR screening for SARS-CoV-2 was encouraged once every four weeks in addition to testing when symptomatic or identified through contact tracing. Vaccination data were collected at the end of the study. RESULTS: At inclusion, T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens was found in 10/15 (66.7%) of participants with a previous/current COVID-19 infection and in 9/54 (16.7%) of participants with no prior/current history of COVID-19 infection. All participants with complete follow-up (n = 59) received two doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during the study. All participants demonstrated detectable IgG (S) antibodies at the end of the study, in median 278 days (IQR 112) after the second vaccine dose. All but four participants displayed T-cell responses towards SARS-CoV-2 antigens. IgG S antibody levels correlated with time since the second vaccine dose. In addition, previous COVID-19 infection and the strength of the S1 T-cell response correlated with IgG S antibody levels. However, no correlation was demonstrated between the strength of the T-cell response and time since the second vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination induces robust T-cell responses that remain for at least nine months.

3.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099854

ABSTRACT

Analysing complex datasets while maintaining the interpretability and explainability of outcomes for clinicians and patients is challenging, not only in viral infections. These datasets often include a variety of heterogeneous clinical, demographic, laboratory, and personal data, and it is not a single factor but a combination of multiple factors that contribute to patient characterisation and host response. Therefore, multivariate approaches are needed to analyse these complex patient datasets, which are impossible to analyse with univariate comparisons (e.g., one immune cell subset versus one clinical factor). Using a SARS-CoV-2 infection as an example, we employed a patient similarity network (PSN) approach to assess the relationship between host immune factors and the clinical course of infection and performed visualisation and data interpretation. A PSN analysis of ~85 immunological (cellular and humoral) and ~70 clinical factors in 250 recruited patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were sampled four to eight weeks after a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection identified a minimal immune signature, as well as clinical and laboratory factors strongly associated with disease severity. Our study demonstrates the benefits of implementing multivariate network approaches to identify relevant factors and visualise their relationships in a SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the model is generally applicable to any complex dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099292

ABSTRACT

Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) and its association with different factors. This cross-sectional study observed HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients (non-COVID-19) and garment workers in the Chattogram metropolitan area (CMA, N = 748) from six hospitals and two garment factories. Qualitative and quantitative ELISA were used to identify and quantify antibodies (IgG) in the serum samples. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable statistical analysis were performed. Overall seroprevalence and among HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients, and garment workers were 66.99% (95% CI: 63.40-70.40%), 68.99% (95% CI: 63.8-73.7%), 81.37% (95% CI: 74.7-86.7%), and 50.56% (95% CI: 43.5-57.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence and mean titer was 44.47% (95% CI: 38.6-50.4%) and 53.71 DU/mL in the non-vaccinated population, respectively, while it was higher in the population who received a first dose (61.66%, 95% CI: 54.8-68.0%, 159.08 DU/mL) and both doses (100%, 95% CI: 98.4-100%, 255.46 DU/mL). This study emphasizes the role of vaccine in antibody production; the second dose of vaccine significantly increased the seroprevalence and titer and both were low in natural infection.

5.
mSphere ; : e0027922, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097930

ABSTRACT

With much of the world infected with or vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (commonly abbreviated SARS-CoV-2; abbreviated here SARS2), understanding the immune responses to the SARS2 spike (S) protein in different situations is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We studied the clinical, systemic, mucosal, and cellular responses to two doses of SARS2 mRNA vaccines in 62 individuals with and without prior SARS2 infection that were divided into three groups based on antibody serostatus prior to vaccination and/or degree of disease symptoms among those with prior SARS2 infection: antibody negative (naive), low symptomatic, and symptomatic. Antibody negative were subjects who were antibody negative (i.e., those with no prior infection). Low symptomatic subjects were those who were antibody negative and had minimal or no symptoms at time of SARS2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were those who were antibody positive and symptomatic at time of SARS2 infection. All three groups were then studied when they received their SARS2 mRNA vaccines. In the previously SARS2-infected (based on antibody test) low symptomatic and symptomatic groups, reactogenic symptoms related to a recall response were elicited after the first vaccination. Anti-S trimer IgA and IgG titers, and neutralizing antibody titers, peaked after the 1st vaccination in the previously SARS2-infected groups and were significantly higher than for the SARS2 antibody-negative group in the plasma and nasal samples at most time points. Nasal and plasma IgA antibody responses were significantly higher in the low symptomatic group than in the symptomatic group at most time points. After the first vaccination, differences in cellular immunity were not evident between groups, but the activation-induced cell marker (AIM+) CD4+ cell response correlated with durability of IgG humoral immunity against the SARS2 S protein. In those SARS2-infected subjects, severity of infection dictated plasma and nasal IgA responses in primary infection as well as response to vaccination (peak responses and durability), which could have implications for continued protection against reinfection. Lingering differences between the SARS2-infected and SARS2-naive up to 10 months postvaccination could explain the decreased reinfection rates in the SARS2-infected vaccinees recently reported and suggests that additional strategies (such as boosting of the SARS2-naive vaccinees) are needed to narrow the differences observed between these groups. IMPORTANCE This study on SARS2 vaccination in those with and without previous exposure to the virus demonstrates that severity of infection dictates IgA responses in primary infection as well as response to vaccination (peak responses and durability), which could have implications for continued protection against reinfection.

6.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(4): 100121, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095599

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination against COVID-19 was implemented very quickly, but the emergence of new variants that can evade the previous acquired immunological protection highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms involved in the immune response generated after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Objectives: Since most of our knowledge on the humoral immunity generated against SARS-CoV-2 has been obtained from studies with infected patients before vaccination, our goal here was to evaluate seroconversion and its correlation with the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in individuals who received the complete initial recommended vaccination schedule with three different vaccines. Study design: We analyzed serum IgG, IgA and total NAbs against the trimeric SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein or its receptor binding domain (RBD) in blood samples collected from 118 healthy individuals without known previous infection, before and after receiving the first and the second dose of CoronaVac (n = 18), ChAdOx-1 (n = 68) or BNT162b2 (n = 32) vaccines. Results: We found that although IgG titers were high in all sera collected after the two doses of these vaccines, NAbs amounts varies among the groups. In contrast, serum NAbs concentrations were much more comparable to the IgA levels, indicating that these antibodies would have a major neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: Altogether our data suggest that quantification of serum anti-S or anti-RBD IgA, rather than IgG, may be a valuable tool to screen NAbs and may be considered for surveillance of vaccine coverage.

7.
Bionatura ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091345

ABSTRACT

The pandemic controlling COVID-19 can cause the deaths of more than 4 million worldwide. Recently the production of the more effective vaccine genetically modified is the suitable solution for managing acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV-2 was a talented emergency use license by FDA by a company of Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA the CRP and D dimer important blood markers for diagnosis and severity of this disease. The specific antibody SARS-CoV-2 IgG was the measurement titer after (14-20). After the intake first dose of vaccine by VIDAS® (BioMérieux, Marcy-L'Etoile, France), all volunteers have done screening examination by rapid test for detection not exposure to the previous infection, who had negative to SARS-CoV-2 IgG, after the second dose of vaccine, the specific IgG examination by using ELFA technique. CRP and D-dimer were used to monitor the blood markers to assess any side effects (side effects of the vaccine on the lung inflammatory and clotting system), measured after 48h of taking the vaccine in both doses. Ninety-four were included in this study (54 female and 40 male) and divided into two age groups. All the subjects had SARS-CoV-2 IgG after (10 and 20) days following the first dose and (10 and 20) days following the booster dose. The results were shown a non-significant difference in age between males and females. The mean value of the IgG titer against CoV antigen after 2nd dose of immunization is significantly higher than the corresponding value after the 1st dose. There is a non-significant correlation between the ages of immunized subjects with the IgG titer after receiving the second dose of the mRNA vaccine. The titer of IgG increased after the 2nd dose of vaccination while the C-reactive protein significantly decreased. The Pfizer mRNA vaccine gives an excellent active immune response to produce IgG after the booster dose, and results have not recorded any effect of the vaccine on the activity of blood inflammatory markers. © 2022 by the authors.

8.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090357

ABSTRACT

In the SCOPE study, we monitored SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a national sample of residents and staff from Belgian nursing homes. Here, we report the seroprevalence among infected and infection-naive residents and staff after the primary COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Among 1554 vaccinated nursing home residents and 1082 vaccinated staff from 69 nursing homes in Belgium, we assessed the proportion having SARS-CoV-2 antibodies approximately two (April 2021), four (June 2021), and six months (August 2021) after a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We measured the seroprevalence using SARS-CoV-2 antibody rapid tests and collected socio-demographic and COVID-19 medical data using an online questionnaire. Two months after vaccination (baseline), we found a seroprevalence of 91% (95% CI: 89-93) among vaccinated residents and 99% (95% CI: 98-99) among vaccinated staff. Six months after vaccination, the seroprevalence significantly decreased to 68% (95% CI: 64-72) among residents and to 89% (95% CI; 86-91) among staff (p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was more likely to decrease among infection-naive residents, older residents, or residents with a high care dependency level. These findings emphasize the need for close monitoring of nursing home residents, as a substantial part of this population fails to mount a persistent antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Belgium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Immunization Programs , Antibodies, Viral , Nursing Homes , Vaccination
9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 989879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089866

ABSTRACT

China experienced another widespread Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak recently caused by the Omicron variant, which is less severe but far more contagious than the other COVID-19 variants, leading local governments to focus efforts on eliminating the spread of the disease. Previous studies showed that after "recovering" from the virus, some patients could re-test positive for COVID-19 with nucleic acid tests, challenging the control of disease spread. In this study, we aimed to analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of re-positive COVID-19 patients in Northeast China. We retrospectively analyzed data from confirmed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) re-positive COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin Province, China, from March to June 2022. Detailed clinical symptoms, medical history, anti-Corona Virus (CoV) IgG and IgM levels, and CoV nucleic acid cycle threshold (Ct) values during the re-positive period were collected and analyzed. A total of 180 patients were included in this study, including 62 asymptomatic cases and 118 mild cases. The cohort included 113 men and 67 women, with an average age of 45.73 years. The median time between recovery from the virus and re-positivity was 13 days. Our results showed that the proportion of re-positive patients with symptoms was lower, and the nucleic acid test-positive duration was shorter during the re-positive period. Furthermore, in patients with underlying disease, the proportion of patients with symptoms was higher, anti-CoV IgG levels were lower, and the total disease duration was longer. In conclusion, during the re-positive period, the symptoms were milder, and the CoV nucleic acid test-positive course was shorter. The concomitant underlying disease is an important factor associated with clinical symptoms, and the overall course of COVID-19 re-positive patients may be associated with lower anti-CoV IgG levels. Large-scale and multicenter studies are recommended to better understand the pathophysiology of recurrence in patients with COVID-19.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1015002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089844

ABSTRACT

Infants exposed to caregivers infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have heightened infection risks relative to older children due to their more intensive care and feeding needs. However, there has been limited research on COVID-19 outcomes in exposed infants beyond the neonatal period. Between June 2020 - March 2021, we conducted interviews and collected capillary dried blood spots from 46 SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers and their infants (aged 1-36 months) for up to two months following maternal infection onset (COVID+ group, 87% breastfeeding). Comparative data were also collected from 26 breastfeeding mothers with no known SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposures (breastfeeding control group), and 11 mothers who tested SARS-CoV-2 negative after experiencing symptoms or close contact exposure (COVID- group, 73% breastfeeding). Dried blood spots were assayed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG and IgA positivity and anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2 IgG concentrations. Within the COVID+ group, the mean probability of seropositivity among infant samples was lower than that of corresponding maternal samples (0.54 and 0.87, respectively, for IgG; 0.33 and 0.85, respectively, for IgA), with likelihood of infant infection positively associated with the number of maternal symptoms and other household infections reported. COVID+ mothers reported a lower incidence of COVID-19 symptoms among their infants as compared to themselves and other household adults, and infants had similar PCR positivity rates as other household children. No samples returned by COVID- mothers or their infants tested antibody positive. Among the breastfeeding control group, 44% of mothers but none of their infants tested antibody positive in at least one sample. Results support previous research demonstrating minimal risks to infants following maternal COVID-19 infection, including for breastfeeding infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Female , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089485

ABSTRACT

OBEJCTIVES: Serosurveys can be used to monitor COVID-19 seroprevalence and conduct surveillance. Dried blood spot (DBS), used increasingly as a valuable sample to assay severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies (Ab), has several advantages, particularly in infants, due to the limited amount of blood required and its utility in testing a large number of samples in a limited time-frame. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG Ab prevalence in newborn DBS in the Trentino region of Italy, during the time period January 2020 - December 2021. METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were determined in DBS by means of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac IgG ELISA assay (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany). RESULTS: Analyses included 2,400 DBS from newborns (54% M, 46% F), samples being collected 2-3 days after birth. The first DBS that tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was found in March 2020 and, up to May 2020, only 4 positive results were detected overall. Starting from June 2020, the positivity thresholds increased according to the epidemiological waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, with a robust increment in the winters of 2020 and 2021. The percentage of positive DBS rose from 0 to 6% to 10-47%, in 2020 and 2021, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates DBS is a suitable tool for both epidemiological purposes and surveillance in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly in newborns and pregnant women, saving blood waste and sparing patients any discomfort.

12.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-7, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breakthrough infections post-COVID-19 vaccination occur with the emerging variants of the SARS-CoV virus which might be either due to the newer variants escaping immune response or the waning of antibodies over time. However, there is lack of long-term follow-up evidence on the waning of immune response following inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted on serum samples of individuals who had received two doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccine. Individual's antibody responses were evaluated based on IgG anti-S and neutralizing antibodies measurements. Antibody samples were categorized into four groups, defined by the time interval from the individual's receipt of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine: <30 days, 30-90 days, 91-180 days and >180 days. RESULTS: A total of 6668 serum samples from inactivated BBIBP-CorV vaccine recipients were analyzed for IgG anti-S and neutralizing antibodies. 571 (8.6%) samples were tested during the first 29 days interval post vaccination, 3642 (54.6%) were tested during 30-90 days interval, 2173 (32.6%) samples were tested during 91 to 180 days interval and 282(4.2%) were tested at >180 days interval post vaccination. We found that more than 50% of the individuals had antibody titers below the average cut-off range at the 91-180 days interval post vaccination. Older age (>60 years), male gender, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, immunodeficiencies and increased interval post vaccination emerged as independent risk factors associated with lower immune response. CONCLUSION: Inactivated BBIBP-CorV vaccine recipients, based on age, gender and associated comorbid conditions might need booster doses at an earlier interval than the currently followed six months interval.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086338
14.
Small Methods ; : e2200932, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085203

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies are shown to be effective therapeutics for providing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) protection. However, recurrent variants arise and facilitate significant escape from current antibody therapeutics. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a unique platform to increase antibody breadth and to reduce neutralization escape. Herein, a novel immunoglobulin G-variable domains of heavy-chain-only antibody (IgG-VHH) format bsAb derived from a potent human antibody R15-F7 and a humanized nanobody P14-F8-35 are rationally engineered. The resulting bsAb SYZJ001 efficiently neutralizes wild-type SARS-CoV-2 as well as the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants, with superior efficacy to its parental antibodies. Cryo-electron microscopy structural analysis reveals that R15-F7 and P14-F8-35 bind to nonoverlapping epitopes within the RBD and sterically hindered ACE2 receptor binding. Most importantly, SYZJ001 shows potent prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in three established mouse models. Collectively, the current results demonstrate that the novel bsAb format is feasible and effective, suggesting great potential as an inspiring antiviral strategy.

15.
Analytical Biochemistry ; : 114929, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083051

ABSTRACT

Detection and quantification of antibodies, especially immunoglobulin G (IgG), is a cornerstone of ELISAs, many diagnostics, and the development of antibody-based drugs. Current state-of-the-art immunoassay techniques for antibody detection require species-specific secondary antibodies and carefully-controlled bioconjugations. Poor conjugation efficiency degrades assay performance and increases the risk of clinical false positives due to non-specific binding. We developed a generic, highly-sensitive platform for IgG quantification by fusing the IgG-Fc binding Z domain of Staphylococcal Protein A with the ultrabright bioluminescence reporter Nanoluc-luciferase (Nluc). We demonstrated the application of this fusion protein in a sandwich IgG detection immunoassay using surface-bound antigens to capture target IgG and protein A-Nanoluc fusion as the detector. We optimized the platform's sensitivity by incorporating multiple repeats of the Z domain into the fusion protein constructs. Using rabbit and mouse anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein IgGs as model analytes, we performed ELISAs in two different formats, either with SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein as the capture antigen or with polyclonal chicken IgY as the capture antibody. Using standard laboratory equipment, the platform enabled the quantitation of antibody analytes at concentrations as low as 10 pg/mL (67 fM).

16.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346256

ABSTRACT

Background: This study provides novel data on the COVID-19 seroprevalence dynamics between July to December 2020 in the adult urban population of Albania, when the Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 virus was still prevailing in this country. Methods: Data were collected June 27 - July 3 and December 21 - 28, 2020, using two independent randomly selected samples of individuals 20-70 years old residing in Metropolitan Tirana, Albania. Study participants were randomly selected from lists of residents in four primary health care centers in Tirana City. Serological testing was performed using ELISA to determine IgG antibodies anti-S1-SARS-CoV-2. Results: In early July, the proportion of individuals classified as seropositive was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.3% - 10.7%). This proportion rose 6.5 times by late December 2020, reaching 48.2% (95% CI: 44.8% - 51.7%). The increasing seroprevalence rates reported in our study mirror the trend of detected COVID 19 cases from June to December 2020 in Albania. However, they demonstrate a much higher cumulative incidence of the SARS-COV-2 infection in the community than the reported COVID-19 cases. Conclusion: The rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence observed in Tirana City by the end of 2020 was likely a result of several factors, including the very low infection exposure between March-May 2020 when the entire city was in a lockdown, followed by the high susceptibility of the population due to naïve immunity. Despite high observed seroprevalence at the end of December 2020, COVID-19 incidence continued to increase in Albania through 2021 following the Alpha variant surge.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082123

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a crucial need for rapid, straightforward collection and testing of biological samples. Serological antibody assays can analyze patient blood samples to confirm immune response following mRNA vaccine administration or to verify past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While blood tests provide vital information for clinical analysis and epidemiology, sample collection is not trivial; this process requires a visit to the doctor's office, a professionally trained phlebotomist to draw several milliliters of blood, processing to yield plasma or serum, and necessitates appropriate cold chain storage to preserve the specimen. A novel whole blood collection kit (truCOLLECT) allows for a lancet-based, decentralized capillary blood collection of metered low volumes and eliminates the need for refrigerated transport and storage through the process of active desiccation. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (total and neutralizing) and nucleocapsid protein antibody titers in plasma samples obtained via venipuncture were compared to antibodies extracted from desiccated whole blood using Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA). Paired plasma versus desiccated blood extracts yields Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.98; 95% CI [0.96, 0.99] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies, 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.99] for neutralizing antibodies, and 0.97; 95% CI [0.94, 0.99] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein antibodies. These data suggest that serology testing using desiccated and stabilized whole blood samples can be a convenient and cost-effective alternative to phlebotomy.

18.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082006

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus or infection with SARS-CoV-2 will lead to the development of IgG antibodies against the S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, even despite having high levels of IgG antibodies against the S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, (re-)infection may occur. We thus examined 2994 consecutive blood samples of outpatients from the Berlin-Brandenburg area in Germany in which IgG antibodies against the S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 virus antibodies were determined from the same sample. When analyzing the entire study population (2994 outpatients), we saw that S1 IgG antibodies (women: 223.98 ± 3.81; men: 207.80 ± 4.59; p = 0.014) and neutralizing antibodies (women: 66.65 ± 0.82; men: 62.88 ± 1.01; p = 0.021) are slightly higher in women than in men. Curve fitting revealed a good non-linear relationship between S1 IgG and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. However, 51 out of the 2994 blood samples from individual subjects were positive with regard to the neutralizing antibodies and at the same time negative for S1 IgG antibodies, and 112 out of the 2994 blood samples from individual subjects were negative with regard to the neutralizing antibodies and at the same time positive for S1 IgG antibodies. In conclusion, our study shows that there is a relevant number of patients who, despite developing significant titers of S1 antibodies, do not have relevant amounts of neutralizing antibody titers and are probably at high risk of (re-)infection.

19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081892

ABSTRACT

The focus of this study was to investigate the detection of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) in maternal serum and cord blood as the targeted samples by employing a lateral flow immunoassay combined with a spectrum reader (LFI-SR) and the correlation of Nab protection against different types of SARS-CoV-2. We enrolled 20 pregnant women who were vaccinated with the Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine during pregnancy and collected 40 samples during delivery. We used an LFI-SR for the level of spike protein receptor binding domain antibody (SRBD IgG) as Nabs and examined the correlation of the SRBD IgG concentration and Nab inhibition rates (NabIR) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The LFI-SR had high confidence for the SRBD IgG level (p < 0.0001). Better NabIR were found in wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (WT) compared to Delta-type (DT) and Omicron-type (OT). Women with two-dose vaccinations demonstrated greater NabIR than those with a single dose. The cut-off value of the SRBD IgG level by the LFI-SR for NabIR to DT (≥30%; ≥70%) was 60.15 and 150.21 ng/mL for mothers (both p = 0.005), and 156.31 (p = 0.011) and 230.20 ng/mL (p = 0.006) for babies, respectively. An additional vaccine booster may be considered for those mothers with SRBD IgG levels < 60.15 ng/mL, and close protection should be given for those neonates with SRBD IgG levels < 150.21 ng/mL, since there is no available vaccine for them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Pregnant Women , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Antibodies, Neutralizing
20.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081879

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) show higher rates of COVID-19 breakthrough infection than the general population, and nowadays, vaccination is the key preventative strategy. Nonetheless, SOTRs show lower vaccine efficacy for the prevention of severe COVID-19. Moreover, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has highlighted the need to improve vaccine-induced immune responses by the administration of repeated booster doses. In this study, we analyzed the humoral and cellular responses in a cohort of 25 SOTRs, including 15 never-infected SOTRs who received the fourth dose of the mRNA vaccine and 10 SOTRs who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection after the third dose. We analyzed the serum IgG and IgA levels through CLIA or ELISA, respectively, and the Spike-specific T cells by ELISpot assay. We report a significant increase in anti-Spike IgG and no differences in IgA secretion in both groups of patients before and after the booster dose or the natural infection. Still, we show higher IgA levels in recovered SOTRs compared to the fourth dose recipients. Conversely, we show the maintenance of a positive Spike-specific T-cell response in SOTRs who received the fourth dose, which, instead, was significantly increased in SOTRs who contracted the infection. Our results suggest that the booster, either through the fourth dose or natural infection, in vulnerable poor responder SOTRs, improves both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Transplant Recipients , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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