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1.
Microbiological Research ; : 127145, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956272

ABSTRACT

Background Data regarding humoral and cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in children are scarce. We analysed seroconversion rate, decrease of anti-RBD IgG antibodies over time and T-cell response in paediatric patients who suffered COVID-19. Methods Longitudinal study of paediatric patients COVID-19 diagnosed by positive molecular assay in nasopharyngeal swabs. Blood samples were drawn 1-2 months and 6-7 months after acute infection. Anti-RBD IgG were determined using the Alinity® SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott). Cellular immune response was analysed by T-SPOT® SARS-CoV-2 assay kit (Oxford Immunotec Ltd.). Results 27/39 (69,2%) patients seroconverted. Despite a significant decrease in antibody levels over time (p<0,01), no children seroreverted between first and second visits. Only 6/16 (37,2%) children under 6 years-old were seropositive compared to 21/23 (91,3%) over 6 years-old (p<0,01). Highest antibody levels were found in seropositive younger children (p=0,036). Thirteen (33,3%) children showed T-cell response. Among participants showing humoral response, no cellular response was detected in 14 (51,9%). Conclusions Anti-RBD IgG antibodies persistence at 6-7-months after SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed. A different IgG response was found depending on age. As measured by T-SPOT, most patients did not display cellular response 6-7 months after infection.

2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 3791-3800, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957124

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to threaten the human population with millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Vaccination campaigns undertaken by several countries have resulted in a notable decrease in hospitalization and deaths. However, with the emergence of new virus variants, it is critical to determine the longevity and the protection efficiency provided by the current authorized vaccines. Aim: The aims of this study are to provide data about the magnitude of immune responses in individuals fully vaccinated against COVID-19 in Riyadh province of Saudi Arabia. Also, to evaluate the continuity of specific IgG levels and compare the titers in individuals who have been received two doses of the matched and mixed vaccines, including Pfizer and AstraZeneca against SARS-CoV-2 during the period of three to six months. Moreover, we analyze the current state of immune response in terms of antibody responses in thepopulation postvaccination using homogenous or hetrogenous vaccine regimen. Methods: A total of 141 healthy volunteers were recruited to our study; blood (n=63) and the saliva samples (n=78) and were collected from fully vaccinated individuals in Riyadh city. We employed a specific ELISA assay in plasma and saliva of fully vaccinated individuals. Results: IgG levels varied with age groups with the highest concentration in the age group 19-29 years, but the age group (≥50) had the lowest IgG concentration. The IgG levels in both serum and saliva were higher after three months and start to wane after six months. Individuals who received mixed types of vaccines had significantly better response than Pfizer vaccine alone. Conclusion: The current study investigates the status of humoral responses in different age groups, in terms of antibody measurements. These data will help to evaluate the need for further COVID-19 vaccine doses and to what extent a two-dose regimen will protect vaccinated individuals.

3.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 25(7):73-79, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1955159

ABSTRACT

Currently, a large number of studies are aimed at studying the delayed post-infection consequences of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the child population. At the same time, data on the impact of COVID-19 on the functional state of the autonomic nervous system, which largely determines the formation of adaptive potential in children, is not enough. Purpose of the study. Based on the study of the parameters of spectral and variational analysis of standard cardiointervalography, to establish features of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system in unvaccinated against COVID-19 children aged 7-17 years, seropositive to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Material and methods. The observation group included 54 children with the presence of specific IgG to SARS-CoV-2, the comparison group included 24 children seronegative to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The presence of IgG class antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus proteins was determined using a set of reagents for enzyme immunoassay «SARS-CoV-2-IgG-Vector». A comparative study of the parameters of the spectral and variational analysis of standard cardiointervalography (CIG) and the results of laboratory studies was performed. Statistical and mathematical analysis was carried out using the Jamovi 1.6.23.0 application. Results. As a result of a comparative analysis of the main parameters of CIG, performed with a clinoorthostatic test, statistically significant intergroup differences were established in the structure of the frequency components of the CIG spectrum (p=0.025), however, statistically significant causal relationships between the statistical ranks of the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and quantitative parameters of CIG, as well as the structure of the spectrum power, rhythmogram class, the state of the initial vegetative tone and vegetative reactivity were not established (p=0.104-0.602). Conclusion. As a result of the study, which corresponds in accuracy to an approximate acquaintance, marker indicators of cardiointervalography for detecting post-covid disorders of the autonomic nervous system in unvaccinated children with seroconversion to the SARS-CoV-2 virus have not been established, which necessitates further study. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] В настоящее время большое количество исследований направлено на изучение отсроченных постинфекционных последствий новой коронавирусной инфекции (COVID-19) у детского населения. В то же время данных о влиянии перенесенной COVID-19 на функциональное состояние вегетативной нервной системы, во многом определяющей формирование адаптационного потенциала у детей, недостаточно. Цель исследования. На основании изучения параметров спектрального и вариационного анализа стандартной кардиоинтервалографии установить у невакцинированных против COVID-19 детей в возрасте 7-17 лет, серопозитивных к вирусу SARS-CoV-2, особенности функционального состояния вегетативной нервной системы. Материал и методы. В группу наблюдения включены 54 ребенка с наличием специфических иммуноглобулинов класса G (IgG) к SARS-CoV-2, в группу сравнения - 24 ребенка, серонегативных к вирусу SARS-CoV-2. Наличие антител класса IgG к белкам коронавируса SARS-CoV-2 определяли набором реагентов для иммуноферментного анализа «SARS-CoV-2-IgGВектор». Выполнено сравнительное исследование параметров спектрального и вариационного анализа стандартной кардиоинтервалографии (КИГ) и результатов лабораторных исследований. Статистический и математический анализ осуществлен с применением приложения Jamovi 1.6.23.0. Результаты. В результате сравнительного анализа основных параметров КИГ, выполненной с проведением клиноортостатической пробы, установлены статистически значимые межгрупповые различия в структуре частотных компонентов спектра КИГ (p=0,025), однако статистически значимые причинно-следственные связи между статистическими рангами иммунного ответа на вирус SARS-CoV-2 и количественными параметрами КИГ, а также структурой мощности спектра, классом ритмограммы, состоянием исходного вегетативного тонуса и вегетативной реактивности не установлены (p=0,104-0,602). Заключение. В результате исследования, соответствующего по точности ориентировочному знакомству, маркерные показатели кардиоинтервалографии для выявления постковидных нарушений вегетативной нервной системы у невакцинированных детей с сероконверсией к вирусу SARS-CoV-2 не установлены, что обусловливает необходимость дальнейшего изучения. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Profilakticheskaya Meditsina is the property of Media Sphere Publishing House and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 853410, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952413

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is one of the four endemic coronaviruses. It has been suggested that there is a difference in incidence, with PCR-confirmed HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 infections occurring more commonly, whereas HCoV-HKU1 is the least seen. Lower incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infection has also been observed in serological studies. The current study aimed to investigate antibody dynamics during PCR-confirmed HCoV-HKU1 infections using serum collected during infection and 1 month later. We expressed a new HCoV-HKU1 antigen consisting of both the linker and carboxy-terminal domain of the viral nucleocapsid protein and implemented it in ELISA. We also applied a spike-based Luminex assay on serum samples from PCR-confirmed infections by the four endemic HCoVs. At least half of HCoV-HKU1-infected subjects consistently showed no antibody rise via either assay, and some subjects even exhibited substantial antibody decline. Investigation of self-reported symptoms revealed that HCoV-HKU1-infected subjects rated their illness milder than subjects infected by other HCoVs. In conclusion, HCoV-HKU1 infections reported in this study displayed atypical antibody dynamics and milder symptoms when compared to the other endemic HCoVs.

5.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1681-1686, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951862

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally. Although the relationship between anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and COVID-19 severity has been reported, information is lacking regarding the seropositivity of patients with particular types of diseases, including hematological diseases. Methods In this single-center, retrospective study, we compared SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity between patients with hematological diseases and those with non-hematological diseases. Results In total, 77 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Of these, 30 had hematological disorders, and 47 had non-hematological disorders. The IgG antibody against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein was detected less frequently in patients with hematological diseases (60.0%) than in those with non-hematological diseases (91.5%; p=0.029). Rituximab use was significantly associated with seronegativity (p=0.010). Conclusion Patients with hematological diseases are less likely to develop anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than those with non-hematological diseases, which may explain the poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients in this high-risk group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a new highly sensitive assay to detect IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD in saliva samples. METHODS: A two-step sandwich type immunoassay based on the amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous technology was developed and an analytical validation was performed. As a part of this validation, the influence of factors, such as different sampling conditions (stimulated saliva and passive drool) and the correction of values by total protein content, in the ability of saliva to detect increases in antibodies after an immune stimulus and be an alternative to serum, was evaluated. For this purpose, paired samples of saliva and serum at different times after vaccination were used. RESULTS: Saliva concentrations were lower than serum, but both fluids showed similar kinetics, with higher correlations when saliva was obtained by passive flow and the results were not corrected by protein. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method showed a good analytical performance and can properly measure antibody concentrations in saliva of vaccinated individuals. However, saliva could have a lower sensitivity compared to serum at initial stages of the immune response and also when the antibody response decreased after a stimulus.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0124722, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950018

ABSTRACT

Previous COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection; how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during 27 July 2020 to 27 August 2020 from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were severalfold lower in the unvaccinated study population compared to published concentrations at 28 days postvaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63 to 86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection; ~30% of neutralizing and 1 to 14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. Our study not only supports observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination postinfection to maximize protection against COVID-19, but also provides a large data set of pre-COVID-19 vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations that will serve as an important comparator in the current setting of vaccine-induced and hybrid immunity. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and displace circulating virus strains, we recommend that standardized binding antibody assays that include spike protein-based antigens be utilized to estimate antibody concentrations correlated with protection from COVID-19. These estimates will be helpful in informing public health guidance, such as the need for additional COVID-19 vaccine booster doses to prevent symptomatic infection. IMPORTANCE Although COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from COVID-19, how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. We assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized assays on serum specimens collected from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable antibodies. We found that most unvaccinated persons with qualitative antibody evidence of prior infection had quantitative antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% VE against COVID-19. However, only a small proportion had antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% VE, suggesting that persons with prior COVID-19 would benefit from vaccination to maximize protective antibody concentrations against COVID-19.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron X ; 11: 100176, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944334

ABSTRACT

A novel test strategy is proposed with dual-modality detection techniques for COVID-19 antibody detection. The full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 was chemically immobilized on a glass surface to capture anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patient serum and was detected through either Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) or fluorescence imaging with labeled secondary antibodies. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with protein G were used as the probe and the bound GNP-G was detected through EIS measurements. Anti-human-IgG conjugated with the fluorescent tag Alexa Fluor 488 was used as the probe for fluorescence imaging. Clinical SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive serum and negative controls were used to validate both modalities. For fluorescence-based detection, a high sensitivity was noticed with a quantification range of 0.01-0.1 A.U.C. and a LOD of 0.004 A.U.C. This study demonstrates the possibility of utilizing different measurement techniques in conjunction for improved COVID-19 serology testing.

9.
Allergol Int ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of allergic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has not been clarified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential antigen in the components of vaccines. However, there is little evidence that allergy after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is related to PEG. Furthermore, the role of polysorbate (PS) as an antigen has also not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PEG and PS allergies are reasonable causes of allergic symptoms after vaccination by detecting PEG-specific and PS-specific antibodies. METHODS: Fourteen patients who developed immediate allergic reactions to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines and nineteen healthy controls who did not present allergic symptoms were recruited. Serum PEG-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PS-specific IgE and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Skin tests using PEG-2000 and PS-80 were applied to five patients and three controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of PEG-specific IgE and IgG in patients with immediate allergic reactions to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were higher than those in the control group. Serum levels of PS-specific IgE in patients with allergy to the vaccine were higher than those in patients of the control group. Intradermal tests using PEG verified the results for PEG-specific IgE and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PEG is one of the antigens in the allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Cross-reactivity between PEG and PS might be crucial for allergy to the vaccines. PEG-specific IgE and IgG may be useful in diagnosing allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.

10.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943201

ABSTRACT

Upon SARS CoV-2 infection, humoral immune system triggers production of anti-SARS CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies. Currently, antibodies against SARS CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain play a central role in disease protection, making them potential target for in vitro diagnostics applications. This study determines the expression level and sustainability of anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) SARS CoV-2 IgG in post COVID-19 patients. Anti-RBD SARS CoV-2 IgG antibodies in patient serum were analysed by standardised indirect ELISA using SARS CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain protein and HRP conjugated anti-human IgG antibody (anti-h IgG). The study was conducted using 35 adult patient samples with confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection. Additionally, correlation between antibody response after each stage and disease symptoms in post COVID-19 patients were studied. Maximum antibody titre was seen at Day 40 and decreased relatively to Day 180 in antibody positive samples when compared with controls. Overall, more IgG antibody expression is observed in patients who suffered from loss of smell and taste at Day 40. 71% of the positive subjects in this study showed high SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody concentration of above 10 ng/mL and 37% showed strong antibody concentration above 20 ng/mL at the peak of seroconversion.

11.
J Ginseng Res ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936774

ABSTRACT

Background: Pseudotyped virus systems that incorporate viral proteins have been widely employed for the rapid determination of the effectiveness and neutralizing activity of drug and vaccine candidates in biosafety level 2 facilities. We report an efficient method for producing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus with dual luciferase and fluorescent protein reporters. Moreover, using the established method, we also aimed to investigate whether Korean red ginseng (KRG), a valuable Korean herbal medicine, can attenuate infectivity of the pseudotyped virus. Methods: A pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2pv) was constructed and efficiently produced using lentivirus vector systems available in the public domain by the introduction of critical mutations in the cytoplasmic tail of the spike protein. KRG extract was dose-dependently treated to Calu-3 cells during SARS2-pv treatment to evaluate the protective activity against SARS-CoV-2. Results: The use of Calu-3 cells or the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in HEK293T cells enabled SARS-2pv infection of host cells. Coexpression of transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2), which is the activator of spike protein, with ACE2 dramatically elevated luciferase activity, confirming the importance of the TMPRSS2-mediated pathway during SARS-CoV-2 entry. Our pseudovirus assay also revealed that KRG elicited resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung cells, suggesting its beneficial health effect. Conclusion: The method demonstrated the production of SARS-2pv for the analysis of vaccine or drug candidates. When KRG was assessed by the method, it protected host cells from coronavirus infection. Further studies will be followed for demonstrating this potential benefit.

12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 215: 114563, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936099

ABSTRACT

Ultrasensitive, specific, and early identification of Coronavirus Disease (2019) (COVID-19) infection is critical to control virus spread and remains a global public health problem. Herein, we present a novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody with rapidity and ultrahigh sensitivity, in which a bipolar silica nanochannel array (bp-SNA) is fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for the first time to stably confine the ECL probe of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (Ru(bpy)32+) under dual electrostatic force. The bp-SNA consists of tightly packed bilayer silica nanochannel array (SNA) with asymmetric surface charges, namely an inner negatively charged SNA (n-SNA) and an outer positively charged SNA (p-SNA), serving as an "electrostatic lock" to enrich and stabilize the cationic Ru(bpy)32+ probe without leakage from the electrode surface. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody could be realized via immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the utmost of Ru(bpy)32+-confined solid-state ECL platform (Ru@bp-SNA). Upon the capture of target SARS-CoV-2 IgG by immune recognition, the formed immunocomplex will block the nanochannel, leading to the hindered diffusion of the co-reactant (tri-n-propylamine, TPrA) and further producing a decreased ECL signal. The developed solid-stated ECL immunosensor is able to determine SARS-CoV-2 IgG with a wide linear range (5 pg mL-1 to 1 µg mL-1), a low limit-of-detection (2.9 pg mL-1), and a short incubation time (30 min). Furthermore, accurate analysis of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in real serum samples is also obtained by the sensor.

13.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935701

ABSTRACT

The avidity (binding strength) of IgG directed towards the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein has been recognized as a central marker in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology. It seems to be linked to increased infection-neutralization potential and therefore might indicate protective immunity. Using a prototype line assay based on the established recomLine SARS-CoV-2 assay, supplemented with RBD of the delta and the omicron variant, differential avidity determination of IgG directed towards RBD of wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and distinct variants was possible within one assay. Our data confirm that natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or one vaccination step lead to low avidity IgG, whereas further vaccination steps gradually increase avidity to high values. High avidity is not reached by infection alone. After infection with WT SARS-CoV-2 or vaccination based on mRNA WT, the avidity of cross-reacting IgG directed towards RBD of the delta variant only showed marginal differences compared to IgG directed towards RBD WT. In contrast, the avidity of IgG cross-reacting with RBD of the omicron variant was always much lower than for IgG RBD WT, except after the third vaccination step. Therefore, parallel avidity testing of RBD WT and omicron seems to be mandatory for a significant assessment of protective immunity towards SARS-CoV-2.

14.
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ACADEMY OF ORAL MEDICINE AND RADIOLOGY ; 34(2):176-179, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939217

ABSTRACT

Background: Most studies of COVID vaccination focused on cell-mediated immunity and serum IgG antibodies, overlooking the role of anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing IgA antibodies in preventing viral infection. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine generates variable Anti-Spike IgG responses following one or two vaccine doses in almost all individuals for protection. Aim: The study aimed to quantify and estimate the Anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody response after the second dose of the Covishield vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs) over the time frame of one, three, and six months. Material and Methods: 30 HCWs who had received both doses of the Covishield vaccine were selected and divided into three groups based on the time elapsed after the second dose of vaccine for serological analysis. Post-vaccination antibody responses were measured using the SARS-CoV-2 IgG Quantitative assay (detection threshold: & GE;50 AU/ml) using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Kruskal-Walli's test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Result: Vaccination leads to measurable anti-spike IgG antibodies in HCWs. Only 1 individual was seronegative. The highest antibody titer was reported after one month of the second dose (3615.3 AU/ml). The lowest antibody titer (491.5 AU/ml) was seen after six months of the second dose of Covishield is statistically significant. Conclusion: Anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody determination is necessary for an immune response after vaccination. This titer decreases with time consequently as the duration after the second dose of the Covishield vaccine increases. This helps assess the requirement of a booster dose for effective immunity against coronavirus.

15.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939012

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing antibodies that bind endemic human coronaviruses (eHCoVs) can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, which is the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, but whether these responses influence SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under investigation and is particularly understudied in infants. In this study, we measured eHCoV and SARS-CoV-1 IgG antibody titers before and after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan women and their infants. Pre-existing eHCoV antibody binding titers were not consistently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in infants or mothers; however, we observed a very modest association between pre-existing HCoV-229E antibody levels and a lack of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants. After seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2, antibody binding titers to the endemic betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1, and the highly pathogenic betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-1, but not the endemic alphacoronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63, increased in the mothers. However, eHCoV antibody levels did not increase following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants, suggesting the increase seen in the mothers was not simply due to cross-reactivity to naively generated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In contrast, the levels of antibodies that could bind SARS-CoV-1 increased after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in both the mothers and infants, both of whom were unlikely to have had a prior SARS-CoV-1 infection, supporting prior findings that SARS-CoV-2 responses cross-react with SARS-CoV-1. In summary, we found evidence of increased eHCoV antibody levels following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the mothers but not the infants, suggesting eHCoV responses can be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 infection when a prior memory response has been established, and that pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies are not strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in mothers or infants.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938729

ABSTRACT

Makkah in Saudi Arabia hosts the largest annual religious event in the world. Despite the many strict rules enacted, including Hajj cancellation, city lockdowns, and social distancing, the region has the second highest number of new COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions that identify, isolate, and manage new cases could slow the infection rate. While RT-PCR is the current gold standard in SARS-CoV-2 identification, it yields false positive and negative results, which mandates the use of complementary serological tests. Here, we report the utility of serological assays during the acute phase of individuals with moderate and severe clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID19). Fifty participants with positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. Following RT-PCR diagnosis, serum samples from the same participants were analyzed using in-house ELISA (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and microneutralization test (MNT) for the presence of antibodies. Of the 50 individuals analyzed, 43 (86%) showed a neutralizing antibody titer of ≥20. Univariate analysis with neutralizing antibodies as a dependent variable and the degree of disease severity and underlying medical conditions as fixed factors revealed that patients with no previous history of non-communicable diseases and moderate clinical manifestation had the strongest neutralizing antibody response "Mean: 561.11". Participants with severe symptoms and other underlying disorders, including deceased individuals, demonstrated the lowest neutralizing antibody response. Anti-spike protein antibody responses, as measured by ELISA, showed a statistically significant correlation with neutralizing antibodies. This reinforces the speculation that serological assays complement molecular testing for diagnostics; however, patients' previous medical history (anamnesis) should be considered in interpreting serological results.

17.
Intern Med ; 61(14): 2215-2219, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938534

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old man with mantle cell lymphoma treated with bendamustine and rituximab developed prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Despite elevated titers of anti-spike IgG antibody, protracted pancytopenia persisted for more than six months. Finally, the anti-SARS CoV-2 vaccine, BNT162b2, was administered, which improved his blood cell count and eliminated the virus. The increased anti-spike IgG titer and lymphocyte count after vaccination suggested that both humoral and cellular immunity acted in coordination to eliminate the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in therapeutic immunoglobulin and their impact on serological response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in patients with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)-treated chronic immune neuropathies. METHODS: Forty-six samples of different brands or lots of IVIg or subcutaneous IgG (SCIg) were analyzed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG using ELISA and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Blood sera from 16 patients with immune neuropathies were prospectively analyzed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgG, and IgM before and one week after IVIg infusion subsequent to consecutive COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses and after 12 weeks. These were compared to 42 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Twenty-four (52%) therapeutic immunoglobulin samples contained anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All patients with immune neuropathies (mean age 65 ± 16 years, 25 % female) were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG after COVID-19 vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA titers significantly decreased 12-14 weeks after vaccination (p=0.02), IgG titers remained stable (p=0.2). IVIg did not significantly reduce intra-individual anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA/IgG serum titers in immune neuropathies (p=0.69). IVIg-derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG did not alter serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG decrease after IVIg administration (p=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that IVIg does not impair the antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in a short-term observation, when administered a minimum of two weeks after each vaccine dose. The infusion of current IVIg preparations that contain anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG does not significantly alter serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers.

19.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
20.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(3):1023-1026, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1935062

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the persistence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the association of timelines of COVID-19 seropositivity with antibody ratio levels. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from Apr to Sep 2020. Methodology: The serum of 250 patients recovered from COVID-19 was collected to detect anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies. Anti-SARS Cov-2 IgG was measured by Semi-Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISAs), and the association of timelines of COVID-19 seropositivity with antibody ratio levels was determined. Results: Out of 250 study participants, males were 220 (88%) while females were 30 (12%), mean age being 35.25 years ± 9.096 years. In the timeline of 31-60 days after the first positive COVID-19 PCR, 27 out of 44 (61%) were seropositive. In the 61-90 days’ timeline, 79 out of 155 (51%) were seropositive, in the timeline of 91-120 days after the first positive PCR, 52 out of 76 (68%) were seropositive, and in the timeline of 121-150 days, 12 out of 15 (80%) of the study participants were seropositive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Serological IgG immune response against SARS-CoV-2 persists up to five months after active COVID-19 infection in most individuals in the Pakistani population. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

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