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1.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100698

ABSTRACT

Every country had to make several difficult decisions in the initial phase of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic to allocate resources for COVID testing. Decisions on who should be tested for COVID-19 testing are extremely vital for pandemic preparedness. In this article, we highlight the need for prioritization of testing resources including direct-to-consumer testing methods, ethical dilemmas involved in obligatory testing, and testing of refugees and immigrants.

2.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097112

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the sociodemographic factors associated with perceived and experienced anti-Chinese discrimination and discrimination as a predictor of psychological distress and loneliness among Chinese Canadians. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in early 2021 with a sample of 899 Chinese Canadians (i.e., immigrants, citizens, visitors, and international students) during the Wave 2 of the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, anti-Chinese discrimination was generally associated with younger age and poor financial or health status. Christianity/Catholicism believers were less likely to report perceived discrimination, whereas being married/partnered and living with family reduced the incidences of experienced discrimination. Most importantly, hierarchical linear regression models showed that both perceived and experienced discrimination predicted higher psychological distress (ßs = 4.90-7.57, ps ≤ .001) and loneliness (ßs = .89-1.73, ps ≤ .003), before and after controlling for all related sociodemographic covariates. Additionally, older age, higher education, better financial or health status could all buffer psychological distress, whereas living with family or in a house and better financial or health status could mitigate feeling of loneliness. The results suggested that discrimination has a robust detrimental impact on mental health conditions among Chinese Canadians.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 313: 115160, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immigrants in Western countries have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 crisis. OBJECTIVE: We analysed excess mortality rates among the foreign-born population and changes in their distinctive mortality profiles ("migrant mortality advantage") during the first pandemic wave in France. DATA AND METHODS: Deaths from all causes in metropolitan France from March 18 to May 19, 2020 were used, with information on sex, age, region of residence and country of birth. Similar data from 2016 through 2019 were used for comparisons. RESULTS: During the pre-pandemic period (2016-2019), immigrant populations (except those from Central and Eastern Europe) had lower standardized mortality rates than the native-born population, with a particularly large advantage for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. In the regions most affected by COVID-19 (Grand-Est and Île-de-France), the differences in excess mortality by country of birth were large, especially in the working-age groups (40-69 years), with rates 8 to 9 times higher for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, and about 3 to 4 times higher for immigrants from North Africa, from the Americas and from Asia and Oceania relative to the native-born population. The relative overall mortality risk for men born in sub-Saharan Africa compared to native-born men, which was 0.8 before the pandemic, shifted to 1.8 during the first wave (0.9 to 1.5 for women). It also shifted from 0.8 to 1.1 for men from North Africa (0.9 to 1.1 for women), 0.7 to 1.0 for men from the Americas (0.9 to 1.3 for women), and 0.7 to 1.2 for men from Asia and Oceania (0.9 to 1.3 for women). CONCLUSION: Our findings shed light on the disproportionate impact of the first wave of the pandemic on the mortality of populations born outside Europe, with a specific burden of excess mortality within the working-age range, and a complete reversal of their mortality advantage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , France/epidemiology , Europe
4.
International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2087985

ABSTRACT

Purpose Pandemics pose challenges to all groups of people and all aspects of human lives. Undocumented migrants are likely to face more challenges during global pandemics. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible challenges of undocumented immigrants in Canada and the USA in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach From existing literature, the authors examined the challenges of undocumented migrants in Canada and the USA and suggested recommendations to address those challenges at both policy and national levels. Findings The undocumented status of some international immigrants makes them vulnerable in their host nations. They face myriad challenges in their host countries, spanning from economic, health, social isolation and employment challenges, and these are further exacerbated during pandemics such as the ongoing COVID-19. The provision of culturally sensitive and safe policies may support this particular population, especially in times of crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This paper provides critical insights into the possible intersections that worsen the vulnerability of undocumented migrants in pandemic crises like COVID-19. Further, this review serves to initiate the discourse on policy and interventions for undocumented immigrants during pandemics or disease outbreaks.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1965, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undocumented immigrants face barriers to health care access, which may have been exacerbated during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. We test whether undocumented immigrants in Los Angeles County accessed COVID-19 related medical care by examining their Emergency Department (ED) patterns through high and low periods of COVID-19 infection. If undocumented immigrants were underutilizing or foregoing health care, we expect null or weaker associations between COVID-19 cases and COVID-19 related ED visits relative to Medi-Cal patients. METHODS: We analyzed all ED visits to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC + USC) Medical Center between March - December 2020 (n = 85,387). We conducted logistic regressions with Los Angeles County weekly COVID-19 case counts as our main independent variable and an interaction between case counts and immigration status, stratified by age (over and under 65 years). RESULTS: We found that undocumented immigrants under 65 years old had a higher odds for a COVID-19 related ED visit compared to Medi-Cal patients and that both undocumented and Medi-Cal patients had higher odds of a COVID-19 related ED visit as COVID-19 cases in Los Angeles County increased. For patients over 65 years, Medi-Cal patients actually had a weaker association between ED visits and county COVID-19 counts; as COVID-19 case counts rose, the odds of a COVID-19 related ED visit increased for the undocumented patients. CONCLUSION: While the overall likelihood of undocumented patients having a COVID-19 related ED visit varies compared to Medi-Cal patients - for younger patients, the odds is higher; for older patients, the odds is lower - it does not appear that undocumented patients underutilized the ED during the early COVID-19 pandemic relative to Medi-Cal patients. The ED may be a viable source of contact for this high-risk population for future outreach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emigration and Immigration , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Services Accessibility
6.
Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology ; JOUR(1):595-597, 59.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2085192

ABSTRACT

This panel features four experts in Library and Information Science (LIS) research who will present findings from major projects conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic from national and international contexts. These include: a) a mixed-methods study of virtual reference services in academic libraries during the pandemic's beginning, b) semi-structured interviews with 29 global library leaders about library models that emerged in response to changes caused by the pandemic, c) a questionnaire survey of information professionals from the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) regarding linked data technologies, and d) a mixed-methods approach to study newcomers and (mis)information during the pandemic including in depth interviews and content and sentiment analyses of social media platforms. The panelists will describe obstacles and challenges encountered during the pandemic, and efforts to overcame these. They will provide an overview of major findings and share research-based implications for building and maintaining information-resilient societies. 85th Annual Meeting of the Association for Information Science & Technology ;Oct. 29 – Nov. 1, 2022 ;Pittsburgh, PA. Author(s) retain copyright, but ASIS&T receives an exclusive publication license.

7.
International Journal of Bilingualism ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082891

ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives/purpose/research questions: Very little is known to date about the long-term dynamics of balancing home and dominant languages by adult immigrants. Russian-speaking immigrants in Canada remain an underrepresented group with no available studies of their language development. To address these gaps, this article describes a linguistic journey experienced by Russian-speaking immigrants in Canada as they adapt to the life in the host country. The major objective of the study is to examine the importance of learning the host country's majority languages (English and French) vis-a-vis maintenance of the home language as seen by the participants in the beginning and after a few years of immigration. Design/methodology/approach: The article reports the results of a mixed-methods study involving an online survey and written narratives about language dynamics in immigration. Data and analysis: One hundred Russian-speaking immigrants from nine countries residing in seven Canadian provinces participated in the study. The analysis involves quantitative comparisons of responses involving correlation and chi-square tests as well as qualitative descriptions of the participants' linguistic experiences. Findings/conclusions: The results indicate that over the time since immigration, the importance of the English language learning decreases, and the importance of Russian language maintenance increases for the participants, whereas the salience of acquiring French remains unchanged. Originality: The new finding is the trajectory of the relationship between the participants' interest in the home language and culture maintenance and host languages and cultures learning over the years of immigration. Significance/implications: These results align with the authors' linguistic equilibrium hypothesis of language dynamics in immigration. The implications of the study involve long-term support of linguacultural needs of immigrant communities. Limitations: The research conducted during COVID-19 was limited in methods and would benefit from in-person interviews in future. Expanding the project to other immigrant groups for comparison is another direction for future research.

8.
Canadian Public Policy ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082678

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed and arguably intensified many existing inequalities. This analysis explores the relationship between recent immigrant earnings and the pandemic. Specifically, we attempt to empirically answer the question "Has the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated (or mitigated) recent immigrant-non-immigrant employment and wage gaps?" We find that the pandemic did not change the labour force activity profile of recent or long-term immigrants. Moreover, the pandemic did not disproportionately disadvantage recent immigrants' earnings. In fact, recent immigrant men who were employed during the COVID-19 crisis experienced a small but statistically significant earnings premium. This was insufficient, however, to overcome the overall earnings discount associated with being a recent immigrant. In addition, we find that the recent immigrant COVID-19 earnings boost is observable only at and below the median of the earnings distribution. We also use Heckman selection correction to attempt to adjust for unobserved sample selection into employment during the pandemic. The fact that COVID-19 has not worsened recent immigrant earnings gaps should not overshadow the large, recent immigrant earnin disparities that existed before the pandemic and continue to exist regardless of the COVID-19 crisis.

9.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):33-42, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067466

ABSTRACT

A B S T R A C T The small business sector has been identified as an essential component of the global economy, especially in the developing economies, where it plays a significant role in addressing Job creation and poverty. Keywords: Immigrants, Immigrant-Entrepreneurs, COVID- 19 Bailout, Discrimination, Prejudice Introduction The incidence and subsequent rapid spread of the Coronavirus have devastated the world economy, nearly grounding it to a halt at the height of the pandemic, and the vestiges of this economic devastation remain in various countries to different extents. The small business sector has been identified as an important component of the global economy, especially in developing economies where it plays a significant role in addressing job creation and poverty. Immigrant entrepreneurship presents an important economic opportunity for South Africa in form of employment creation which has important implications for the reduction of poverty and inequality, as well as stimulation of economic growth in the country (Fatoki, 2014;Ngota et al., 2018).

10.
J Hum Rights Soc Work ; 7(3): 225-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060137

ABSTRACT

Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, undocumented immigrants in the United States were vulnerable both to unemployment and to COVID-19 infection if they did remain employed, because of the sectors that employ them. Despite these heightened economic vulnerabilities, 7.8 million undocumented workers were excluded from federal economic relief policies. This article uses critical race theory (CRT) to examine the intentional and unjust exclusion of undocumented U.S. workers from COVID-19 economic relief aid within the larger context of economic marginalization and injustice. It also provides an overview of the major federal economic relief legislation and policy developments during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, between March 2020 and July 2021. While some states have enacted creative programs and policies related to COVID-19 economic relief, effective and comprehensive federal-level policies must be implemented to address the growing chasm of inequity in American society, particularly as experienced by often-essential undocumented immigrant workers. Specific standards related to work and quality of live are protected by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), but exclusionary federal policies render these minimum standards inaccessible for undocumented workers and deepen existing economic and social disparities. Social work aspires to provide a uniquely critical and social justice-minded perspective that considers systems of oppression, power dynamics, and human rights, and this perspective can contribute to socially just economic policy development.

11.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1607-1613, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown in the most compelling way the need to vaccinate socially vulnerable and minority groups of the population. Factors that make their ability to participate in medical care limited or not accessible at all, expose them to a higher risk of being infected and getting sick from COVID-19. One of these groups with high rates of morbidity and mortality are the Roma population. Their inclusion in vaccination programs is extremely important because it protects them as a vulnerable group, protects society as a whole, builds a protective shield against the risk of disease spreading, helps to decongest the health system and contributes to the acquisition of collective immunity. In order to achieve the vaccination goal, the collaboration of the state with the Public Health bodies as well as with the various stakeholders (Non-Governmental Organizations, municipalities, etc.) is deemed necessary. As regards the Roma population, the implementation of a vaccination program follows the five steps of the decision-making process. At a time when the pandemic highlighted as the first priority the strengthening of the public health system, special importance must be given to social cohesion and to equal accessibility to health care system for all, in order to protect the whole of society.

12.
International Journal of Care and Caring ; 6(1-2):283-283–287, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2054224

ABSTRACT

This article reflects on the legislative campaign of the California Domestic Worker Coalition, including Hand in Hand: The Domestic Employers Network, to end the exclusion of household workers (nannies, personal attendants and cleaners) from occupational health-and-safety requirements. It discusses the strategies and arguments deployed, and analyses the rationale of the governor, who vetoed the bill in 2020 in the name of the home as a private space impossible to regulate. Foregrounding the voices of domestic workers, it highlights their understanding of caring labour and determination to organise for change, seen in the winning of an amended bill in 2021.

13.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948221100685, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053741

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Studies have suggested that some minority groups tend to have lower vaccination rates than the overall population. This study aims to examine COVID-19 vaccination rates among healthcare workers in Norway, according to immigrant background. METHODS: We used individual-level, nation-wide registry data from Norway to identify all healthcare workers employed full time at 1 December 2020. We examined the relationship between country of birth and COVID-19 vaccination from December 2020 to August 2021, both crude and adjusted for, for example, age, sex, municipality of residence and detailed occupation codes in logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among all healthcare workers in Norway, immigrants had a 9 percentage point lower vaccination rate (85%) than healthcare workers without an immigrant background (94%) at 31 August 2021. The overall vaccination rate varied by country of birth, with immigrants born in Russia (71%), Serbia (72%), Lithuania (72%), Romania (75%), Poland (76%), Eritrea (77%) and Somalia (78%) having the lowest crude vaccination rates. When we adjusted for demographics and detailed occupational codes, immigrant groups that more often worked as healthcare assistants, such as immigrants from Eritrea and Somalia, increased their vaccination rates. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in vaccination rates among immigrant groups employed in the healthcare sector in Norway indicate that measures to improve vaccine uptake should focus on specific immigrant groups rather than all immigrants together. Lower vaccination rates in some immigrant groups appear to be largely driven by the occupational composition, suggesting that some of the differences in vaccine rates can be attributed to variation in vaccine access.

14.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(11-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2047131

ABSTRACT

Immigration control is an issue that figures prominently in public policy discussions and election campaigns throughout the world. Immigrants can be perceived as posing both realistic and symbolic threats to the host society. During the current global pandemic, these threats are amplified. This research investigated how attitudes towards immigrants were likely to be more negative when the impact of the pandemic was made salient. Based on intergroup threat theory (Rios et al., 2018) and uncertainty identity theory (Hogg, 2021a), two empirical studies investigated the effect of realistic and symbolic threats from the COVID-19 pandemic on people's attitudes towards immigrants. Study 1 (N =303) tested if priming pandemic induced symbolic threats increased social identity uncertainty and found that pandemic-related symbolic but not realistic threats increased social identity uncertainty. Study 2 (N =363) again primed the two types of threat induced by the pandemic, measured their effects on attitudes towards immigrants, and examined if the effects could be explained by social identity uncertainty and collective angst. Results showed that people who perceived more COVID-19 related symbolic threat than COVID-19 related realistic threat experienced more COVID-19 related national identity uncertainty and collective angst, which predicted less positive attitudes towards immigrants. People who perceived more COVID-19 related realistic threat than COVID-19 related symbolic threat experienced less COVID-19 specific national identity uncertainty and collective angst, which predicted their more positive attitudes towards immigrants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ; 95(2):257-263, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046356

ABSTRACT

While vaccine hesitancy is well documented in the literature among the Latinx community, little attention or effort is given to the nuances among the members of individual communities, such as country of origin, immigration status, generational status, primary language, race, age, sex, gender, or rural residence and how these complexities affect vaccine messaging and uptake. We have evidence that this heterogeneity causes differences in access to healthcare, attitudes towards vaccines, and degree of health disparities. In this review we will describe their impact on vaccination rates in the Latinx community, highlighting missed opportunities for public health outreach, and how targeted messaging could improve vaccine uptake.

16.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(11-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2046205

ABSTRACT

Labor shortages in blue-collar occupations have become a significant challenge for firms throughout the United States. Naturally, as employers seek to address those shortages, one of the solutions has been the recruitment of immigrant workers. Multiple languages, mores and cultures within the diverse workforces present unique challenges within workplace cultures. Research suggests that intergroup contact between distinct groups, such as racial or ethnic groups, when certain conditions are in place, can have a positive impact on relationships between members of those groups. Additionally, diverse workplace management studies identify management practices that may enhance diverse workforce outcomes. This qualitative grounded theory study explores the question: How do blue-collar workers, both immigrant and U.S.-born working alongside one another, experience their workplace culture? It consists of responses from 15 participants to semi-structured interviews conducted via electronic communications technology (due to COVID-19 restrictions limiting direct researcher/participant contact). The study took place between the months of June and October of 2022. A new theory, the inverse contact outcome theory, was generated. The theory states that, contrary to what might be expected in diverse blue-collar workplaces, a) positive contact outcomes such as reduction of prejudice and conflict may result among same status blue-collar workers from diverse backgrounds despite the lack of institutionally supportive conditions whereas b) negative contact outcomes of prejudice and conflict may not be mitigated among same status blue-collar workers from diverse backgrounds despite the presence of institutionally supportive conditions. The study also revealed that diverse workforce management approaches that include customized socialization, enhanced communication, and status-based hierarchy mitigation, are essential to positive diverse workforce management practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1645, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Latino populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by substance use, HIV/AIDS, violence, and mental health issues (SAVAME). A growing body of evidence demonstrates the syndemic nature of SAVAME and the need for integrated strategies to reduce their impact. This study sought to understand the network of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants in Philadelphia to inform future interventions for SAVAME prevention and mitigation. METHODOLOGY: Key informant interviews (N = 30) were conducted with providers working in Latino-serving organizations providing SAVAME services. Interviews were analyzed using thematic coding and grounded theory. RESULTS: Latino-serving providers perceived a large need for, and important limitations in the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants. Gaps were seen as especially acute for mental health and substance use services, partly because of insufficient funding for these services. Latino immigrants' lack of health insurance, immigration status, limited English proficiency (LEP), stigma surrounding SAVAME issues, and limited knowledge of available services were identified as significant barriers preventing access to services. Providers noted that scarcity of well-trained, culturally competent, and ethnically concordant providers reduced the adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrant clients. The small size, low levels of infrastructure, and limited capacity were reported as additional factors limiting the ability of many Latino-serving organizations to adopt a syndemic approach in the prevention and treatment of SAVAME services. CONCLUSIONS: The results call for changes in the structure of funding streams and communitywide strategies to foster collaboration across SAVAME providers working with Latino immigrant clients.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Substance-Related Disorders , Health Services Accessibility , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Philadelphia , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States
18.
Academic Voices: A Conversation on New Approaches to Teaching and Learning in the post-COVID World ; : 227-238, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035570

ABSTRACT

This chapter elucidates the obligatory need for the academic fraternity to upskill and align with the emerging landscape of the teaching-learning processes (TLP) at Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) across the globe. The disruptions in Education 4.0 have been accelerated by the ongoing pandemic caused by COVID-19. As a result, it is a well-appreciated fact that both academics and learners must engage actively in holistic development at HEIs. Teachers, who are the facilitators, can lead to enhance the teaching-learning (TL) outcomes by acquiring contemporary pedagogical skillsets and attributes and by embracing Digitech. The key roles of academics: designing curriculum, teaching (pedagogy), researching, assessing, evaluating, and contributing to developing new and conducive learning opportunities for students’ call for realignment with enduring changes. Being agile, learning, unlearning, and relearning, and uplifting their emotional intelligence is fast becoming part of the professional culture at academia. Interestingly, the roles of the teaching community, who are primarily digital immigrants, are becoming more widened and multifaceted than ever before;calling for cohesive collaborations from all corners of the academia for enhanced TL outcomes via adopting holistic teaching means. Taking these points into consideration, this chapter provides a roadmap for academics to strategise their learning and development to realign their roles in a Digitech dominated environment and to surpass embedded challenges. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19.
Dve Domovini = Two Homelands ; - (56):169, 2022.
Article in Slovenian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024438

ABSTRACT

V prispevku predstavljamo rezultate raziskave o učinkovitih prilagoditvah pouka na daljavo za učence s priseljenskim ozadjem v drugem valu epidemije v Sloveniji. Odgovori majhnih vzorcev učiteljev (N = 29) na spletno anketo nakazujejo upad težav z opremo IKT v primerjavi s prvim valom, medtem ko so se še vedno prisotne težave, povezane z učenjem in učnim jezikom ter posledicami socialne izolacije. Učitelji so individualizirali način poučevanja in učne pomoči glede na zaznane jezikovne in učne težave ter osebne stiske. Raznojezični pristopi so se izkazali za učinkovite pri zagotavljanju inkluzivnega poučevanja v večkulturnih okoljih in bi jih veljalo krepiti tudi pri pouku v šoli.Alternate :The paper presents a study on the effective adaptation of distance learning for students with an immigrant background in the second wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Slovenia. The online survey of a small sample of teachers indicates a decline in ICT equipment-related problems compared to the first wave, while learning and language problems and the social isolation effects persisted. Teachers adapted the teaching approaches and learning assistance individually to the perceived language and learning problems and personal distress of students. Plurilingual approaches prove to be effective in enabling an inclusive multicultural learning environment and should be strengthened also in the school classes.

20.
Canadian Public Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022537

ABSTRACT

Based on Canadian Labour Force Survey data, we estimate the differential effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on seven labour market outcomes, and separate between recent and established immigrants relative to domestic-born Canadians. We also use Recentered Influence Function (RIF) unconditional quantile regressions to estimate the differential effects across the distribution of outcomes. We find that the pandemic had an adverse effect on the labour market outcomes for all workers, and that the adverse effects were generally larger for immigrants and especially recent immigrants as well as for immigrants at the bottom of the outcome distributions. The adverse effects were generally larger at the earliest waves of the pandemic, and for recent immigrants who were female, less educated, and those with child responsibilities, and for jobs at greater risk of contact with the pandemic.

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