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1.
JOURNAL OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ; 27:S162-S162, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965353
2.
Z Herz Thorax Gefasschir ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966138

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV­2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) has led to hospitalizations and increased mortality worldwide. With potentially high prevalence and severity of COVID-19 in cardiac transplantation, there is a great need to generate data in this at-risk cohort. Objective: We report here our experience with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in heart transplant recipients at a German transplantation center longitudinally over the previous pandemic waves and place it in context to published experiences of other centers. Material and methods: All adult patients who had received a heart transplant at our center and had confirmed COVID-19 infection (n = 12) were included and retrospectively characterized. Results: The mean age was 61.5 (49-63) years, and the majority were male (83%). Comorbidities such as diabetes (42%), arterial hypertension (43%), and chronic renal failure (67%) were found. Passive immunization (convalescent plasma/monoclonal antibodies) was performed in 50%. Oxygen administration was required in 33% of patients; only one patient required noninvasive ventilation (8%), and no patient required invasive ventilation or mechanical cardiovascular support (ECMO). No new cardiovascular or thromboembolic events were found. Conclusion: We could longitudinally not detect severe courses or increased mortality of COVID-19 in heart transplant patients. Prospective studies are needed to make better prognostic estimates of COVID-19 in (heart) transplant patients in the future.

3.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences ; 10(44):3810-3814, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964684

ABSTRACT

The objective of this case report is to highlight the impending secondary fungal infection outbreak in COVID-19 and the need to contain this emerging spread of fungal infections. Three case reports are presented, all from India. Altered immunity is an important risk factor for mucormycosis. In addition, diabetes has been noted to be critical for the development of mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients. Candidiasis is an infection caused by the Candida species due to the immunosuppressed state developed by the use of glucocorticoids, which results in secondary fungal infection requiring urgent medical attention.

4.
Mycoses ; 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a complication of respiratory bacterial and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS/METHODS: In University Hospital La Paz (Madrid, Spain), we reviewed the clinical and demographic characteristics of 10 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and Aspergillus spp. isolate in respiratory samples. We also recovered results of galactomannan tests in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. RESULTS: Eight male and two female from 51 to 76 years were recovered. They had reported risk factors to develop IPA (haematological malignancies, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, intensive care unit stay, among others). Azole susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in nine patients and Aspergillus nidulans was isolated in one patient. Only one case was classified as probable aspergillosis, seven cases as putative aspergillosis, and two cases were not classifiable. Eight patients received antifungal treatment. Seven patients died (70%), two are still inpatient due to nosocomial infections and one was discharged referred to another institution. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical entity has high mortality, and therefore, it should be performed surveillance with early galactomannan tests and cultures in respiratory samples in order to improve the outcome of the patients with this condition.

5.
Gut ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs impair serological responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We sought to assess if a third dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine substantially boosted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and protective immunity in infliximab-treated patients with IBD. DESIGN: Third dose vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody responses, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfection and persistent oropharyngeal carriage in patients with IBD treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab from the impaCt of bioLogic therApy on saRs-cov-2 Infection and immuniTY (CLARITY) IBD study. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-S RBD antibody concentrations increased in both groups following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, irrespective of whether their first two primary vaccine doses were ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (1856 U/mL (5.2) vs 10 728 U/mL (3.1), p<0.0001) or BNT162b2 vaccines (2164 U/mL (4.1) vs 15 116 U/mL (3.4), p<0.0001). However, no differences in anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were seen following third and fourth doses of an mRNA-based vaccine, irrespective of the combination of primary vaccinations received. Post-third dose, anti-S RBD antibody half-life estimates were shorter in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (37.0 days (95% CI 35.6 to 38.6) vs 52.0 days (95% CI 49.0 to 55.4), p<0.0001).Compared with vedolizumab-treated, infliximab-treated patients were more likely to experience SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection (HR 2.23 (95% CI 1.46 to 3.38), p=0.00018) and reinfection (HR 2.10 (95% CI 1.31 to 3.35), p=0.0019), but this effect was uncoupled from third vaccine dose anti-S RBD antibody concentrations. Reinfection occurred predominantly during the Omicron wave and were predicted by SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid concentrations after the initial infection. We did not observe persistent oropharyngeal carriage of SARS-CoV-2. Hospitalisations and deaths were uncommon in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine, infliximab was associated with attenuated serological responses and more SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection and reinfection which were not predicted by the magnitude of anti-S RBD responses, indicative of vaccine escape by the Omicron variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.

6.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13910, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961996
7.
Life (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957379

ABSTRACT

The burden of COVID-19 remains unchanged for immunocompromised patients who do not respond to vaccines. Unfortunately, Omicron sublineages are resistant to monoclonal antibodies authorized in Europe so far, and small chemical antivirals have contraindications and toxicities that have not been studied in these patients. We report here the successful treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia lasting for 4 months after the transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in a patient with severe immunosuppression due to both chronic lymphocytic leukemia and venetoclax treatment. The patient achieved a complete clinical, radiological and virological response after six transfusions (600 mL each) of high-titer CCP collected from triple-vaccinated and convalescent donors. This dramatic case adds to the mounting evidence of CCP efficacy in immunocompromised patients, provided that high-titer and large volumes are infused.

8.
Future Virol ; 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957140

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the clinical course of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) patients in COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess the COVID-19 outcomes in infected IIM patients. Materials & methods: In this study, 39 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Myositis disease activity, myositis damage index, depression, fatigue, active medical treatment, drug compliance and SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results in COVID-19 pandemic were collected. Results: Fourteen of these patients (35%) were detected to have a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. The demographic and clinical characteristics, active medical treatment, disease activity, depression and fatigue of the patients who had undergone or not SARS-CoV-2 were similar. Conclusion: Our results have shown that although prevalence of COVID-19 seems to be increased in IIM patients under immunosuppressive treatment, hospitalization rates were lower and no intensive care unit admissions or deaths were observed.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956681

ABSTRACT

A recent study concluded that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine responses were improved among transplant patients taking mTOR inhibitors (mTORi). This could have profound implications for vaccine strategies in transplant patients; however, limitations in the study design raise concerns about the conclusions. To address this issue more robustly, in a large cohort with appropriate adjustment for confounders, we conducted various regression- and machine learning-based analyses to compare antibody responses by immunosuppressive agents in a national cohort (n = 1037). MMF was associated with significantly lower odds of positive antibody response (aOR = 0.09 0.130.18 ). Consistent with the recent mTORi study, the odds tended to be higher with mTORi (aOR = 1.00 1.452.13 ); however, importantly, this seemingly protective tendency disappeared (aOR = 0.47 0.731.12 ) after adjusting for MMF. We repeated this comparison by combinations of immunosuppression agents. Compared to MMF + tacrolimus, MMF-free regimens were associated with higher odds of positive antibody response (aOR = 2.39 4.267.92 for mTORi+tacrolimus; 2.34 5.5415.32 for mTORi-only; and 6.78 10.2515.93 for tacrolimus-only), whereas MMF-including regimens were not, regardless of mTORi use (aOR = 0.81 1.542.98 for MMF + mTORi; and 0.81 1.512.87 for MMF-only). We repeated these analyses in an independent cohort (n = 512) and found similar results. Our study demonstrates that the recently reported findings were confounded by MMF, and that mTORi is not independently associated with improved vaccine responses.

10.
Am J Transplant ; 22(7): 1884-1892, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956680

ABSTRACT

The development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is common and results in adverse outcomes. In kidney transplantation, Belatacept has been associated with a lower incidence of DSA, but experience with Belatacept in lung transplantation is limited. We conducted a two-center pilot randomized controlled trial of de novo immunosuppression with Belatacept after lung transplantation to assess the feasibility of conducting a pivotal trial. Twenty-seven participants were randomized to Control (Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 14) or Belatacept-based immunosuppression (Tacrolimus, Belatacept, and prednisone until day 89 followed by Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 13). All participants were treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for induction immunosuppression. We permanently stopped randomization and treatment with Belatacept after three participants in the Belatacept arm died compared to none in the Control arm. Subsequently, two additional participants in the Belatacept arm died for a total of five deaths compared to none in the Control arm (log rank p = .016). We did not detect a significant difference in DSA development, acute cellular rejection, or infection between the two groups. We conclude that the investigational regimen used in this study is associated with increased mortality after lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Lung Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prednisone
11.
Journal of Oral Research & Review ; 14(2):161-164, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954375

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection has been seen to be associated with secondary bacterial and fungal infections. Mucormycosis has been increasingly reported in patients with COVID-19 infection, especially those with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus and on steroid therapy. It is an acute invasive fungal infection primarily affecting individuals with suppressed immune system. This article presents the characteristics of mucormycosis infection and its etiological association with COVID-19. Its diagnosis and management based on the current guidelines have also been discussed in this literature review. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Oral Research & Review is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
World J Transplant ; 12(5): 88-99, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954635

ABSTRACT

Children infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seem to have a better prognosis than adults. Nevertheless, pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT) has been significantly affected by the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the pre-, peri-, and post-transplant period. Undoubtedly, immunosuppression constitutes a real challenge for transplant clinicians as increased immunosuppression may prolong disease recovery, while its decrease can contribute to more severe symptoms. To date, most pediatric SOT recipients infected by SARS-CoV-2 experience mild disease with only scarce reports of life-threatening complications. As a consequence, after an initial drop during the early phase of the pandemic, pediatric SOTs are now performed with the same frequency as during the pre-pandemic period. This review summarizes the currently available evidence regarding pediatric SOT during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949820

ABSTRACT

This prospective cohort study within an open-label, single-arm, phase 4 vaccination trial (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT04754698) aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and persistent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 6 months after two-dose schedule of CoronaVac in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) patients (n = 748). Persistent immunogenicity 6 months after the full-course vaccination was assessed using seroconversion rates of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, geometric mean titers of anti-S1/S2 IgG (GMT), and frequency of positive neutralizing antibodies (NAb). Physical activity was assessed trough questionnaire. Adjusted point estimates from logistic regression models indicated that physically active patients had greater odds of seroconversion rates (OR: 1.5 [95%CI: 1.1 to 2.1]) and NAb positivity (OR: 1.5 [95%CI: 1.0 to 2.1]), and approximately 43% greater GMT (42.8% [95%CI: 11.9 to 82.2]) than inactive ones. In conclusion, among immunocompromised patients, being physically active was associated with an increment in antibody persistence through 6 months after a full-course of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that lung transplant recipients (LTR) develop a poor response to two doses of COVID-19 vaccine, but data regarding the third dose are lacking. We investigated the antibody response after three doses of mRNA vaccine in LTR and its predictive factors. METHODS: A total of 136 LTR, including 10 LTR previously infected and 126 COVID-19-naive LTR, were followed during and after three doses of mRNA vaccine. We retrospectively measured anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG response and neutralizing antibodies. In a posthoc analysis, we used a multivariate logistic regression model to assess the association between vaccine response and patient characteristics, including viral DNA load (VL) of the ubiquitous Torque teno virus (TTV) (optimal cut-off set by ROC curve analysis), which reflects the overall immunosuppression. RESULTS: After 3 doses, 47/126 (37.3%) COVID-19-naive LTR had positive anti-RBD IgG (responders) and 14/126 (11.1%) had antibody titers above 264 Binding Antibody Units/mL. None neutralized the omicron variant versus 7 of the 10 previously infected LTR. Nonresponse was associated with TTV VL ≥6.2 log10 copies/mL before vaccination (Odds Ratio (OR) = 17.87, 95% confidence interval (CI95) = 3.02-105.72), mycophenolate treatment (OR = 4.73, CI95 = 1.46-15.34) and BNT162b2 (n = 34; vs mRNA-1273, n = 101) vaccine (OR = 6.72, CI95 = 1.75-25.92). In second dose non-responders, TTV VL ≥6.2 or <3.2 log10 copies/mL before the third dose was associated with low (0/19) and high (9/10) rates of seroconversion. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-naive LTR respond poorly to three doses of mRNA vaccine, especially those with high TTV VL. Future studies could further evaluate this biomarker as a guide for vaccine strategies.

15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver transplant recipients (LTR) show a decreased immune response after two SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations compared to healthy controls (HC). Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of additional vaccinations. METHODS: In this prospective study, humoral (anti-S RBD) and cellular (Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)) immune responses were determined after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in 106 LTR after a third, and in 36 LTR after a fourth vaccination. Patients with anti-S RBD antibody levels >0.8 AU/mL after vaccination were defined as responders. RESULTS: After three vaccinations, 92% (97/106) of LTR compared to 100% (28/28) of HC were responders. However, the antibody titer of LTR was lower compared to HC (1891.0 vs. 21857.0 AU/mL, p<0.001). Between a second and third vaccination (n=75) the median antibody level increased 67-fold in LTR. In patients seronegative after two vaccinations, a third dose induced seroconversion in 76% (19/25), while all HC were already seropositive after two vaccinations. A spike-specific T-cell response was detected in 72% (28/39) after a third compared to 32% (11/34) after a second vaccination. Independent risk factors for a low antibody response (anti-S RBD <100 AU/mL) were first vaccination within the first year after LT (OR: 8.00, p=0.023), eGFR <45 mL/min (OR: 4.72, p=0.006), and low lymphocyte counts (OR: 5.02, p=0.008). A fourth vaccination induced a 9-fold increase in the median antibody level and seroconversion in 60% (3/5) of previous non-responders. CONCLUSION: A third and fourth SARS-CoV-2 vaccination effectively increases the humoral and cellular immune response of LTR, but to a lesser extent than in HC. A fourth vaccination should be generally considered in LTR.

16.
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ACADEMY OF ORAL MEDICINE AND RADIOLOGY ; 34(2):237-240, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939216

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection that can cause significant morbidity and frequent mortality in susceptible patients. Common predisposing factors include diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression. Even though this fungus is ubiquitous, the immune system usually prevents the disease, and it is rare. But in the present pandemic era, Mucormycosis has become a prevalent disease among immunocompromised patients and individuals with systemic pathosis. The infection begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses due to inhalation of fungal spores. The fungus invades the arteries leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes tissue necrosis. The infection can spread to orbital and intracranial structures by direct invasion of blood vessels. Here, we describe an interesting and rare case of sino-nasal mucormycosis in a seropositive, uncontrolled diabetic and suspected Covid positive individual to emphasize early diagnosis and treatment of this fatal fungal infection.

17.
Clinical Kidney Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1937657

ABSTRACT

Kidney disease is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT;dialysis and kidney transplant recipients) are vulnerable to severe complications of COVID-19. As the pandemic evolves and preventive strategies, availability of healthcare facilities, treatment approaches and vaccination strategies change, studies are needed on COVID-19 epidemiology and outcomes in KRT patients that contribute to vaccination regimens, treatment protocols and immunosuppressive therapies of KRT patients with COVID-19. In their registry-based study, Quiroga et al. analyzed COVID-19 KRT patients in Spain across six pandemic waves in order to evaluate dynamic treatment approaches and outcomes as well as the efficacy of vaccination.

18.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938937

ABSTRACT

Universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination has been applied for years in most countries, but HBV infection remains an unresolved public health problem worldwide, with over one-third of the world's population infected during their lifetime and approximately 248 million hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carriers. HBV infection may reactivate with symptomatic and sometimes life-threatening clinical manifestations due to a reduction in the immune response of various origins, due to chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy, treatments increasingly practiced worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 and its COVID-19 associated disease have introduced new chances for HBV reactivation due to the use of dexamethasone and tocilizumab to counteract the cytokine storm. This could and should be prevented by accurate screening of HBV serologic markers and adequate pharmacologic prophylaxis. This article describes the case of a patient with COVID-19 who developed HBV reactivation and died of liver failure and analyzes published data on this setting to provide useful information to physicians who manage these patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

19.
Liver Int ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To explore the humoral and T-cell response to the third COVID-19 vaccination in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were prospectively determined in 81 AIH patients and 53 healthy age- and sex-matched controls >7 days (median 35) after the first COVID-19 booster vaccination. The spike-specific T-cell response was assessed using an activation-induced marker assay (AIM) in a subset of patients. RESULTS: Median antibody levels were significantly lower in AIH compared to controls (10 908 vs. 25 000 AU/ml, p < .001), especially in AIH patients treated with MMF (N = 14, 4542 AU/ml, p = .004) or steroids (N = 27, 7326 AU/ml, p = .020). Also, 48% of AIH patients had antibody titers below the 10% percentile of the healthy controls (9194 AU/ml, p < .001). AIH patients had a high risk of failing to develop a spike-specific T-cell response (15/34 (44%) vs. 2/16 (12%), p = .05) and showed overall lower frequencies of spike-specific CD4 + T cells (median: 0.074% vs 0.283; p = .01) after the booster vaccination compared to healthy individuals. In 34/81 patients, antibody titers before and after booster vaccination were available. In this subgroup, all patients but especially those without detectable/low antibodies titers (<100 AU/ml) after the second vaccination (N = 11/34) showed a strong, 148-fold increase. CONCLUSION: A third COVID-19 vaccination efficiently boosts antibody levels and T-cell responses in AIH patients and even seroconversion in patients with the absent immune response after two vaccinations, but to a lower level compared to controls. Therefore, we suggest routinely assessing antibody levels in AIH patients and offering additional booster vaccinations to those with suboptimal responses.

20.
Glob Med Genet ; 9(3): 191-199, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937477

ABSTRACT

Background Contrary to immunological expectations, decay of adaptive responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) characterizes recovered patients compared with patients who had a severe disease course or died following SARS-CoV-2 infection. This raises the question of the causes of the virus-induced immune immunosuppression. Searching for molecular link(s) between SARS-CoV-2 immunization and the decay of the adaptive immune responses, SARS-CoV-2 proteome was analyzed for molecular mimicry with human proteins related to immunodeficiency. The aim was to verify the possibility of cross-reactions capable of destroying the adaptive immune response triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Materials and Methods Human immunodeficiency-related proteins were collected from UniProt database and analyzed for sharing of minimal immune determinants with the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Results Molecular mimicry and consequent potential cross-reactivity exist between SARS-CoV-2 proteome and human immunoregulatory proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), and variable diversity joining V(D)J recombination-activating gene (RAG). Conclusion The data (1) support molecular mimicry and the associated potential cross-reactivity as a mechanism that can underlie self-reactivity against proteins involved in B- and T-cells activation/development, and (2) suggest that the extent of the immunosuppression is dictated by the extent of the immune responses themselves. The higher the titer of the immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 immunization, the more severe can be the cross-reactions against the human immunodeficiency-related proteins, the more severe the immunosuppression. Hence, SARS-CoV-2-induced immunosuppression can be defined as a molecular mimicry syndrome. Clinically, the data imply that booster doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may have opposite results to those expected.

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