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1.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2709-2716, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934403

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Slums are the most vulnerable settlements for COVID-19 infection due to overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the level of seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 infection among slum dwellers. Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey was conducted at several slums of Patna over four weeks, that is, January 20-February 20, 2021. A total of 650 participants were recruited in the study by applying a two-stage random sampling technique.

2.
Investigacion Clinica ; 62(Suplemento 3):148-158, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929329

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia cases emerged in Wuhan, China, which evolved into the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the work is to design a community prevention strategy in the indigenous population of zone 3 at the starting point of the epidemiological characterization carried out. A longitudinal and prospective experimental explanatory study was conducted with deliberate intervention, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. It was identified that the age of 60 years or more pre- dominated in the subjects surveyed, which represented 9,7%, and the other risk group located at ages under 18 years, were located 17 for 4,5% of the sample, although the figure of both age groups of risk is not high, it is necessary to work with the indigenous population at the community level, ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma were also identified as a risk. As social factors, extreme poverty, living alone, overcrowding and poor accessibility to health services. The community prevention strategy of Covid-19 in the indigenous population will favor the epidemiological control of the pandemic with probable economic and social impact added, which will guarantee a rational use of resources focused on the most vulnerable population.

3.
Geografia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space ; 18(2):223-235, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912385

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in late 2019 has impacted all nations, societies, and industries globally due to the closure of international borders and strict travel restrictions. As one of the community-based tourism activities that have been viewed as a tool to stimulate rural community development, the Malaysian homestay program is no exception. This paper aims to explore the COVID-19 impacts, to examine how the homestay operators strived to be resilient and to understand the sustainability strategies adopted by them in reviving the industry post-COVID-19. By using a resilience-based framework, in-depth interviews with 10 homestay operators, one (1) state tourism official, and three (3) Homestay Chairman of the local homestay tourism association were conducted. Findings revealed that COVID-19 has affected the homestay operators' livelihoods, where they experienced a total loss of incomes due to booking cancellations and the complete halt of tourist arrivals. Operators began to re-visit their business models and mapped out the 'new norms of hospitality by leveraging technology and social media to promote their businesses online.' All these innovative strategies need to be undertaken collectively and therefore leadership and the formation of strong human resources proved to be the best solutions. Diversifying and venturing into other businesses as second income generation provides a safety net in sustaining their livelihoods. It is suggested that the creation of new business models and pragmatic community tourism policies will essentially determine the homestay program's chances of survival, particularly during crisis or disaster, by transforming it into a much more sustainable form.

4.
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ; 49(2):107-120, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905188

ABSTRACT

South Africa is a food sufficient country. Native South Africans, however, continue to suffer from food insecurity at a household level, even under contemporary democratic leadership. Influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was conducted to determine the role of indigenous vegetables in rural livelihoods in the two selected district municipalities of northern KwaZulu-Natal, namely iLembe District Municipality (IDM) and the King Cetshwayo District Municipality (KCDM). A purposive sample which consisted of 130 participants (n=130) was drawn, and data were analysed descriptively using Microsoft Excel Software. Our findings point in the direction that indigenous vegetables have the potential to contribute to livelihoods development. It was also found that these vegetables can thrive under diverse climatic conditions, including both irrigated and rainfed areas. This is especially important in a country like South Africa which faces major challenges of water scarcity and household food insecurity. Most household heads in the study were unemployed and relied on government monetary incentives for survival. It is concluded that there is a need to include these indigenous crops as part of the main discussions in the food discourse and to recognise them as a tool to enhance livelihood development.

5.
Journal of Rural Research ; 13(1):6-21, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904092

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify the damage caused by the corona crisis on the ecotourism business, its aggravating contexts and suggestions for reducing the damage in rural areas of Mazandaran. This research has been done with a qualitative approach and with an interview tool. Purposeful sampling was performed. After 21 interviews, theoretical saturation was obtained. Interviews were conducted in rural areas of Mazandaran province. In the present study, selective believing was used as a validation method. Through direct and various citations, documented, the credibility of the research results was confirmed by the researchers. In this way, the text was reasoned with acceptable quotes. In the extraction and coding section, 57 basic concepts were obtained, which were divided into 5 main categories (economic injuries), 2 main categories (social injuries), and 3 main categories (psychological injuries). The intensifying contexts of corona effects were divided into two main categories. Also, the reduction of income was the most important economic damage and the reduction of the indicators of guarantee and reliability of tourism services was the most important occupational damage. Finally, from the perspective of ecotourism homeowners, the most important context for exacerbating the effects of corona on ecotourism, inefficient executive management and lack of job skills, were identified.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903421

ABSTRACT

Household food insecurity in South African suburban low-income households is a major challenge. Research outcomes that will inform decisions on effective solutions towards reducing household food insecurity in South Africa are essential. The purpose of this study was firstly to determine the food security status of households and the skills of household members in Ward 60 of the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Secondly, it was also to determine the association between the socioeconomic and demographic variables of the households and their level of food (in-)security. The study employed a mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, comprising a qualitative Community-Based Participatory Action Research (CBPAR) methodology and a quantitative household food security survey methodology. A household food security survey was employed using a questionnaire that was based on the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). The questionnaire was used to collect data from 170 randomly selected households. The data analysis used the HFIAS score and logistic regression analysis. The results show 6.1% of households as food secure, 3.05% as mildly food insecure, 13.4% as moderately food insecure, and 77.4% as severely food insecure. The results also show that a significant unemployment rate, a reliance on social grants, and absence of income seriously impact the extent of household food insecurity. The results show a significant association between the household food security and the variables of unemployment, income, and gender. The regression analysis results suggest that gender, household size, age, employment, and household income influence household food security. The results of the household skills show that the households had a variety of skills. These results can help to inform decisions by the government, local municipalities, NGOs, and other stakeholders towards designing effective solutions for enhancing household food security.

7.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):531-547, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901387

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam imposed many drastic restrictions to curb the outbreak of this virus. Such restrictions interrupted the normal functioning of various economic sectors, including agriculture. This research examined disruptions to agricultural activities, income loss and perceived food insecurity among farm households during the pandemic, and then explored the relationships among these economic factors. Design/methodology/approach: Household data from Vietnam and Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) were used for empirical analysis. Findings: Descriptive analyses found that only a small proportion of farm households suffered from the COVID-19 disruptions to their agricultural activities, a large percentage experienced income loss, and a medium number were worried about their food insecurity. GSEM results also revealed that the COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities significantly increased the likelihood of worrying about food insecurity, mediated by income loss. Research limitations/implications: Due to data limitations, the authors could not use better indicators to define and measure the variables of interest (e.g. COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities, income loss and food insecurity). Another similar concern was that our models did not account for unobservables, causing some estimation biases. Originality/value: This research is among the first attempts that examined the direct and indirect (mediated by income loss) effects of the COVID-19 disruptions to agricultural activities on food insecurity.

8.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):345-370, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901380

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Waqf (endowment) lands constitute as among the highest types of waqf (endowment) properties in Malaysia;yet it is still unable to reach its maximum potential due to various challenges such as capital, location, legal and administrative issues. Therefore, this study intends to explore these issues by focusing on the two states in Malaysia (Selangor and Perak) that have fertile lands but different management authorities. Design/methodology/approach: There were series of interviews that had been conducted with ten (10) key informants who are experts and practitioners in the areas of Shariah (Islamic law), farming, agribusiness, land management and waqf. Findings: Findings exhibit that constraints and challenges that had been highlighted in the previous literature still exist (although some improvements had been made), but there is emerging theme that the study intends to highlight which is on the needs to secure market for the agribusiness produce and the potential role of anchor company in the agribusiness. It is pertinent that for agribusiness to thrive, selecting the right anchor company that has the capacity to address the challenges is necessary. This study posits two anchor company models (Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company and Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company-Community Farmers) that can be applied for agribusiness on the waqf lands. Research limitations/implications: This study is based on the Malaysia's context influenced by specific country's features. Nevertheless, such findings can still be used as reference or benchmark by other endowment trustees in other countries especially for the Muslim countries as well as the non-Muslim countries that have significant Muslim populations. Social implications The suggested models have potentials to improve the living condition of the B40 (below 40% household income) in Malaysia because the models encourage their participation in the agribusiness activities. Originality/value This study focusses on the agribusiness, which is rarely being given attention in previous literature in the context of endowment lands. Therefore, this article bridges the literature gap and at the same time attempts to provide suggestion to address the pertinent issue - the underutilised endowment lands.

9.
ACIAR Final Reports 2020. (FR2021/016):101pp. 26 ref. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898201

ABSTRACT

The combination of appropriate agricultural and irrigation practices, and innovative social interventions through farmer collectives, were shown to strengthen fragile agricultural livelihoods in the project "Improving water use for dry season agriculture by marginal and tenant farmers in the Eastern Gangetic Plains" (DSI4MTF - ACIAR Project LWR/2012/79), which operated from 2014-2019. The success of the DSI4MTF model is dependent on the scalability and sustainability of the collectives, as well as the ability to manage risks associated with irrigated agriculture and climate change. This small research activity (SRA) continued engagement with farmer collectives in six villages in Saptari (Nepal) and Bihar and West Bengal (India), with the aim to extend the use of climate-smart irrigation and water management practices and strengthen institutional structures to sustain farmer collectives to ensure their long term sustainability. It was found that "measuring to manage" helps to improve on-farm irrigation and water management decisions, thereby mitigating climate risk. A Smart Irrigation Toolkit (SIT) approach has been outlined, which incorporates simple field level assessments using low-cost measurement equipment, supported by decision support mobile Apps. SIT provides the farmer with timely information to improve irrigation practice. It also provides managers operating at a program or scheme level, with information to support spatial and temporal benchmarking, as well as system operating, maintenance and replacement decisions. The establishment of farmer collectives, which allow farmers to pool land, labour and capital, has been shown to be foundational for sustainable agricultural intensification by marginal farmers. The SRA period was used to identify the longer-term strategy to sustain these collectives and build their scalability. These include the need to harness existing cohesion and collective spirit within communities, the importance of expanding to form larger plots, and the critical role played by ethical community engagement in ensuring buy in from communities. Most importantly, to strengthen the collectives and ensure their sustainability after the end of the project, a Collectives Association has been proposed and piloted under this SRA. The Collectives Association brings several groups together under a single institutional framework. It helps offer broader economies of scale, strengthens linkages with other institutions, and could support training of farmers in irrigation technologies, renting of equipment, facilitating conflict resolution, and supporting blue sky ideas such as a land lease bank. The project has had substantial success in building gender equity through the collectives, and in considering gender across the supply chain. There has also been considerable progress in strengthening links between the farmer collectives and a range of institutions and programmes. Links to the private sector, especially with regards to the marketing of agricultural produce, need to be further strengthened, and the collectives association could play a critical role. It was suggested that the scaling of improved irrigation practices through a Smart Irrigation Toolkit (SIT) is best done through a pilot project, which integrates project learnings with organisations responsible for irrigation development. While there is good potential for scaling, business cases are required to demonstrate potential benefits to the range of beneficiaries. These business cases need to be developed in association with irrigation scheme implementation agencies, as well as with organisations supporting farmer communities. The public sector has a key role to support the initial scaling of SIT. Alignment with irrigation and agricultural department functions would establish a program for deployment, demonstration and alignment with policy. The Collectives Association would play a key mediating role for marginal farmers, and could support the deployment of SIT locally. The COVID19 pandemic, which started in the last few months of the SRA pe

10.
Policy Brief - Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development 2021. (37):11 pp. 5 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898074

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated containment and mitigation responses on rural and urban livelihoods in Kenya. Results show that rural and urban areas experienced similar, significant declines in reported incomes of households following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A majority of households in both areas also experienced reduction in the amount of food they consumed and in the quality of their diet. It is suggested that there is need to expand social safety net programmes to support affected households in both rural and urban areas. It is also important to prioritize mass vaccination of the population to facilitate faster return to normal participation in economic activities.

11.
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte ; 22(2):33-46, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898005

ABSTRACT

A new virus called COVID-19, began to spread in Wuhan (China) since the end of 2019, and is now found all over the world. This virus, in addition to increasing the risk of death from infection, also increases psychological pressure on humanity. Samples were taken from college students from the different UANL faculties, using cluster sampling, which responded to a battery of questionnaires that included the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and those asking about the basic information of participants. We received 1,658 responses. 1,658 responses were received. The results indicated that 0.6% of the respondents experienced severe anxiety, 1.8% moderate anxiety, and 12.1% mild anxiety. Likewise, the factors Living in Urban Areas (OR = 0.818, 95% CI = 0.702 - 0.914), Stability of Family Income (OR = 0.723, 95% CI = 0.633 - 0.807) and Living with Parents (OR = 0.752, 95 CI % = 0.585 - 0.952) were protective against anxiety. Practicing a team sport was a risk factor for anxiety. According to the study, it is suggested that sports students' mental health be monitored during the contingency caused by the COVID19 epidemic.

12.
ACIAR Final Reports 2021. (FR2021/019):80 pp. 4 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897735

ABSTRACT

This project set out to review and update the "Making Value Chains Work Better for the Poor" Toolbook (M4P Toolbook) and the ACIAR Agribusiness Master Class (AMC) capacity development program. These revisions had a particular focus on mainstreaming and integrating contemporary thinking and approaches about value chain research, as well as gender equity, social inclusion, and women's economic empowerment. The SRA also sought to explore more sustainable delivery models that integrate rapidly evolving remote and online learning approaches and technologies. An important rationale for this project was the need to progress capacity development programs such as the AMC, that are more cost-efficient, more flexible, and more accessible to a wider range of remotely located participants. The project aim therefore was to develop innovative agribusiness research learning resources and delivery models for the Asia Pacific that specifically mainstreams contemporary gender equity, social inclusion and women's economic empowerment principles and approaches. The project had three main objectives: 1. Review and update the M4P Value Chain Toolbook and case studies: 2. Review and improve the content, format, and delivery of the Agribusiness Master Classes;and 3. Develop a community of practice and explore business models for delivery of M4P Value Chain Toolbook and Agribusiness Master Class program throughout the Asia-Pacific The project contributes towards a wider goal of building capacity in agribusiness researchfor-development methods of young researchers, development specialists and innovative agribusiness operators. A fully revised print-ready 4th edition of the "Making Value Chains Work Better for the Poor" (M4P Toolbook) has been completed. It will be published in English1 and Vietnamese2 . The Toolbook provides value chain practitioners with updated practical tools for value chain analysis, with a stronger focus on poverty, gender, and social inclusion. This updated Toolbook provides robust analytical tools to identify value chain interventions that are inclusive and beneficial to the poor, to both women and men, or to other disadvantaged groups. The Toolbook will provide a valuable reference to research and development professionals for many years and is an added resource for the AMC program. As part of this project the AMC program and materials have been revised, updated, and reformatted. Numerous case-studies and activities have been included. Delivery Notes have been provided for all presentations. These materials have been adapted and suitable for both face-to-face and online delivery. The COVID -19 pandemic has prompted a surge in improvements and adoption of video conferencing, online collaboration, and webinar software apps to support remote engagement and learning. This provides a huge opportunity for ACIAR, University partners and remote collaborators to deliver new high quality, online and blended agribusiness learning, and capability development programs for developing country participants. Platforms such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom also provide the opportunity to efficiently engage external facilitators and mentors, as well as world class researchers and agribusiness specialists in a learning program. However, remote, and online collaboration and learning, cannot always replace the richness of face-to-face interaction and relationship building, along with the considerable benefit of peer-to-peer learning. Which is why experiential components such as the Mini-Project, agribusiness, field, and market visits, and visiting speaker contributions remain very important for adult learning.

13.
International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems ; 12(1):21-35, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887587

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impact of the global pandemic on level of production income and the uptake of insurance covers among agri-food related MSMEs' in South West Nigeria. The study adopted treatment effects model, the logistic regression model, Pearson's and Cramer's V correlation coefficient to analyse the data for the study. Sampled households were selected through a snowballing sampling technique using the online survey method to arrive at 192 MSMEs from Urban South West region of Nigeria comprising of 132 controls and 60 treated MSME operators. The treatment variable for this study is the uptake of insurance cover. Analysis of the sample for the study showed that the uptake of insurance cover MSMEs' in the study area stand at 31.25%. The result showed that MSMEs' who were affected by the global pandemic are more likely to take up insurance cover to mitigate future risks than those who were not seriously affected. The result of the treatment effect models further revealed that the production income and MSMEs' willingness to take insurance cover were both significantly impacted by the global pandemic. It was therefore recommended that insurance companies come up with tailor-made insurance products for MSMEs. Also, that flexible payments methods be allowed so that more micro enterprises can get cover which will in turn boost their confidence that in the event of an adverse market condition they will not be worse off.

14.
International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems ; 11(3):173-179, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887534

ABSTRACT

In the face of the unprecedented threat the world is faced with, caused by covid-19 pandemic which has affected health and disrupted the functioning of food system resulting in inadequate nutrition of many people around the world. The study examined the movement in the price of staple food commodities as a result of Covid-19 and its impact on food security of households in Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used for the study and a convenient sampling technique was adopted in the selection of the respondents. A structured questionnaire was used for the purpose of extracting needed information from households selected for the study. The data were analyzed using with Descriptive Statistics, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Correlation Analysis. The result showed that there was increase in price in all the major staple foods consumed during covid-19. Only 23% of the households were found to be food secure while 51% and 26% of all the households surveyed were found to be moderately and severely food insecure respectively. The effect of the increase in the price of staple commodity food on households food security was statistically significant (r = -0.375, p < 0.000) showing that movement in the prices of staple food has negative effect on food security of people. It is therefore recommended that there should be regulation of commodity food prices as this will enable medium and low income households to buy.

15.
Staff Paper Series - Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota|2021. (P21-02):viii + 85 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876358

ABSTRACT

The average net farm income for the 108 farms included in the 2020 annual report of the Southwest Minnesota Farm Business Management Association was $322,402, up more than 100% from the preceding year. Much of this increased profitability resulted from improved crop prices in the third and fourth quarters of 2020 as well as improved profitability for livestock producers. Government payments related to the impacts of the COVID pandemic were also a big factor. Profits for association members were at their highest levels since 2012. Crop producers saw higher earnings based on above average yields, higher harvest season prices, and increased government payments. Livestock markets were severely impacted by the pandemic especially in the second quarter of the year. Earnings for all types of livestock operations were up primarily because of COVID related government payments. Without those payments, many livestock producers would have suffered severe losses.

16.
International Journal of Life Sciences ; - (A16):1-4, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871434

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is a major and wide global issue concern to the health of human being, it can lead to various severe problems created adverse impact on various agro-based sectors including poultry farming. Researchers from different fields have studied about the issues and have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 on variety of complex issues and problems associated with the poultry farming. Therefore, the present study aimed at to assessed the condition and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on poultry farming with dependent peoples. The pandemic and lockdown impacted the overall poultry production system. This creates a results in drastic reduced value of consumption of poultry products. The study was conducted based on primary data collection, during the same period and its connection with poultry farming, its production, demand and supply was analyzed. Due to the situation of COVID-19 farmers faced various issues related to their need like low income, labor issues, starting of production, transportation problems, low demand of consumers, financial issues were identified. The present study shows that the impact of COVID-19 and its overall scenario on three different selected poultry farms in Aurangabad district. To assessing the impact on these farming a systematic study carried out with the help of collection of primary data from the study area, which provides the information about the impact on different parameters in the poultry farming.

17.
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agricolas ; 13(3):553-565, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871146

ABSTRACT

Food security and hunger, linked to rural poverty, in Mexico are among the greatest challenges since they include large sectors of the population, which are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this essay is to analyze the food security of family farming and rural poverty in Mexico. A systemic analytical framework was developed, which considered the food crisis, food security, agriculture and the agricultural development modality followed by Mexico. Family farming was addressed through the stratification developed by SAGARPA and FAO, as well as the conditions of marginalization and income poverty. According to the analysis, with the neoliberal model, Mexico specialized agricultural production towards export crops and agricultural growth, production that increased in recent years, achieving a surplus agri-food balance, which means food availability, but not food security for people in extremely rural poverty. It is concluded that there is a close relationship between rural poverty and food security, the latter linked to social inequality in income distribution, among other inequalities, which generates a circle of low income-poverty-food insecurity that occurs and reproduces socially in family farming. The strengthening of assets, agri-food production and income in family farming are fundamental for overcoming rural poverty and building a more equitable society.

18.
IDB Working Paper Series - Inter-American Development Bank|2021. (IDB-WP-1291):20 pp. 14 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1870934

ABSTRACT

Remittances constitute a significant safety net for millions of households in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Consequently, changes in international transfers can be a crucial agent of transmission of the COVID-19 induced economic crisis from richer to poorer nations and from urban to rural areas. Relying on data on queries to the search engine Google between December 2018 and July 2021, this study looks at the evolution of demand for in-person versus digital international transfer services and evaluates if take-up rates of different types of service providers trace the initial drop and subsequent rebound of remittances. The recovery of remittances was accompanied by a modest and temporary increase in the interest in digital mechanisms for sending money to home countries, which is accompanied by lower demand for brick-and-mortar service providers.

19.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):1593-1613, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1870628

ABSTRACT

In India, nearly 70% of the people live in rural villages. In rural villages farmer's main income source is agriculture. Now everyone has been listening the word COVID-19 through Television, News papers, word of mouth and Social Networking sites etc., however COVID-19 is the name given by the World Health Organization on 11th February, 2020 for the disease caused by the novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2). It started in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread worldwide. COVID-19 is an acronym that stands for corona virus disease of 2019. The pandemic is impacting global as well as domestic food systems especially agriculture sector. The WHO declared the COVID-19 disease to be a global pandemic. Along with the Central, State Governments have announced several policy decisions to prevent and contain the spread of the virus in their respective states. The present study focused the impacts of covid -19 on agri farmers in drought affected districts of Andhra Pradesh. The main objectives of the study are;To evaluate the impacts of covid-19 on agriculture farmers in drought affected districts of Andhra Pradesh, to examine the causes for spreading of covid-19 pandemic virus, to examine what are the precautions taken for covid-19 by the government of Andhra Pradesh for to prevent and contain the spread of the virus. This research study uses primary as well as secondary data of research. For data analysis purpose this research study uses SPSS software. Finally, this research study exhibits that how much agri farmers lost by covid-19 pandemic and what are the precautions taken by the government of AP. Along with this, this research study explains what are the precautions to be follow to people during covid-19 pandemic. This research study gives huge scope for further studies.

20.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):8234-8240, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1864072

ABSTRACT

Economic problems have accelerated after the government announced Covid- lockdown as early as in march 2020. Unemployment among urban middle class families is on rise;more than 1.8 crore salaried jobs in the country were lost during the ongoing pandemic. Economic disruption has resulted in a sharp decrease in job numbers this year;stolen a minimum of three to six months salaries almost across all industries. Salaried jobs have been preferred due to better job security and regular income. The middle class and lower middle class represent nearly 60% of the total number of households in India and contribute around 70% share in consumer spending. In the present deeply troubled situation, Chennai's middle-income families are devastated and find themselves in a limbo. Nothing works for this group which can otherwise hike demand or push spending. Trim the Foot to fit the Shoe. Out-of-home activities declined and the consumption pattern changed. Any failure of expense -control efforts will weaken the relations in the middle class families and affect the very family system in long run. After all, conviction is always not a matter of convenience. The present study attempts to study conditions of Chennai's middle class households and gauge the efforts to bridge the gap between income and expenditure of the family during covid pandemic.

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