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1.
Cogent Economics & Finance ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070059

ABSTRACT

The Sar-Cov-2 pandemic that began in 2019 has significantly affected the global economy and, in particular, those of African countries. This paper analyzes possible intervention channels by African states to put their economies back on a sustainable growth path once the health crisis is under control. The paper proposes workable macroeconomic channels for these countries' recovery from post-pandemic periods by using historical data to conduct empirical analyses. The paper employs World Bank data and ILOSTAT for 54 African countries within the period 1990-2018. We use a post-Keynesian framework and the difference and system generalized method-of-moments to show that wages drive African economic dynamics in the short run. This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, foreign output, proxied by European Union output, has a positive and significant impact on Sub-Saharan African economies in the short and long run. The results highlight strategic policy measures for recovering African economies, including improving wages and deepening international economic relations, particularly with the Eurozone countries.

2.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):528-541, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067471

ABSTRACT

This study aims to re-examine the issues that involve outreaching the urgency of labor law for informal sector workers in the concept of the welfare state in Indonesia. The research method used is a normative juridical approach or a study of documents or literature that only focuses on labor laws currently in force in Indonesia. The qualitative method approach that is descriptive-analytic is used to describe the relationship of a phenomenon, idea, data, or fact that is found objectively. This study found that the rights, dignity, standard of living, and even the working environment of informal sector workers are still neglected by labor law in Indonesia today. The national labor law has not accommodated legal protection, guarantees, and social security, so there is a legal vacuum for informal sector workers. This condition contradicts the philosophy of Pancasila and the constitution, the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Thus, efforts to develop labor laws are expected to be carried out by the government together with the legislature to make all parties have the same position in the production process for the achievement of the company's progress. will have implications for national economic growth. On the other hand, this effort is expected to create legal harmonization in the field of employment in general and especially for informal sector workers in the welfare state in Indonesia.

3.
African Journal of Economic and Management Studies ; 13(4):598-613, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2063151

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of social media, perception, readiness and usage on sustainable growth of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Uganda.Design/methodology/approach>This study is cross-sectional and adopted a mixed method approach. Data was gathered through a questionnaire survey of 212 business owner–managers that are members of the Uganda Small Scale Industries Association (USSIA) and engaging 8 business managers in the in-depth interviews to support and strengthen the quantitative results. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS.24) and Atlas ti.8.Findings>The study reveals that social media perception, readiness and usage positively influence sustainable growth of MSEs in Uganda. However, the insufficient soft and technical skills, lack of devices such as computers and smartphones and the high cost of Internet data undermine the usage of social media by business owner–managers for sustainable growth of their businesses.Practical implications>The findings demonstrate what policymakers, social media operators and business owner–managers need to do to enhance integration of social media platforms and channels into the operations of MSEs in Uganda.Originality/value>This study adds to existing literature on social media technology in MSEs with evidence from Uganda. The study results are likely to foster usage of social media as policymakers and social media providers will come up with appropriate strategies to unlock the social media potential of the business owner–managers for sustainable business growth in Uganda.

4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344300

ABSTRACT

The early stages of recovery from the recession induced by the COVID-19 pandemic have been accompanied by a marked increase in inflation in the US and elsewhere. Much has been made of this outcomes, and the economic distress associated with it, in popular discussion of the economy. This paper provides a Kaleckian conflicting-claims analysis of inflation during the post-COVID recovery, that distinguishes between rising wages, pandemic-related supply shocks, and corporate price-setting behaviour as sources of inflationary pressure. A key conclusion that arises from the co-determination of inflation and distributional outcomes in the Kaleckian framework is that distributional developments that have further disadvantaged working households, rather than inflation per se, are the chief source of recent economic distress - and should be the chief cause for concern among policy makers.

5.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 8(3):375-379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037772

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper display how “objectifying” forms of tourism can be converted into a more gender-equal regenerative tourism.Design/methodology/approach>The methodology generates shared understandings about the opportunities and challenges of implementing regenerative tourism by stimulating gender equality. The research design is based on qualitative research methods. Using a transformative tourism development process of the Karenni village Huay Pu Keng in Thailand, which is the first and only village that made this transition, the results of a process to stimulate the empowerment of women have been described.Findings>The desk research and conversations reported in the findings of this paper provide important insights in the social impacts in relation to gender equality and women empowerment. The community has become a role model for transformative tourism in relation to gender equality. Findings included that women are more involved in tourism activities, which has created a positive shift towards a gender balance. However, there is still a difference in education and participation between men and women. The study further reveals how tourism contributes to enliven the indigenous traditions and cultures and be a model for future developments in creating life-long meaningful experiences.Originality/value>Insights of the first and only Karenni village that made a transition to community-based tourism demonstrate how the community has been empowered. It improved the gender balance to make strategic decisions towards transforming their futures. Exploring this process is therefore valuable, as it contains knowledge that can be advantageous for other communities and research.

6.
Annals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights ; : 100069, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003857

ABSTRACT

International tourism is an important sector in developing countries for its ability to alleviate poverty. Impacts of COVID-19 are detrimental to all tourism destinations. This paper examines the pandemic effects on poverty of regional economies based on a multi-household CGE model using Indonesia as a case study. Results are critically important for policymakers, as the pandemic retracts achievement of poverty reduction significantly, more than a decade of effort for Bali in this case study. Adverse impacts are transferred to other non-tourism destinations through inter-regional trade flows. The paper provides empirical evidence to call for government's targeted support to combat the economic impacts of the pandemic improve poverty more effectively.

7.
Socio-Economic Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997075

ABSTRACT

Using microsimulation tools, we explore the social policy responses to the Great Recession and the COVID-19 crisis, and their impact on preserving living standards in Ireland. During the Great Recession, the focus was on cost reduction. By contrast, during the COVID-19 crisis, the focus was on mitigating the impact on household incomes. In addition, an innovation in joint public and private responses emerged through social partnership. We find a stronger policy response during the COVID-19 crisis than the Great Recession. The COVID-19 crisis was more rapid, leaving more individuals out of work, thus family support was weaker. This was compensated by stronger private support through social partnership. Consequently, those with lower incomes had larger disposable incomes at the onset of the crisis;an effect that reduced with policy learning. We find increasing trust in public institutions during the COVID-19 crisis as opposed to a decline during the Great Recession.

8.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9405, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994182

ABSTRACT

Integrating informatization into the circulation industry has led to the concept of circulation-industry intelligence. By reducing transportation costs and increasing total factor productivity, the incomes of rural-area residents can be improved;a new pattern of regional economy can be established;urban, rural, social, and economic development can become more coordinated;and social sustainable development can be promoted. In this study, we used China’s provincial panel data corresponding to the 2007–2019 period to measure the intelligence index of the circulation industry in each region and determine the factors that affect the urban–rural income gap;thereafter, we conducted comparative analyses. Further, a fixed-effects model was established based on the theory of agglomeration and diffusion effects to analyze the relationship between these two variables. Our analysis identified innovation investment as a significant intermediary mechanism. The robustness of this finding was verified by substituting variables and controlling for endogeneity. Thus, the effect was shown to be regionally heterogeneous. This study innovatively integrated informatization into the circulation industry, and the results obtained provide a reference for formulating transportation infrastructure as well as informatization strategies for promoting urban–rural coordination and sustainable development globally.

9.
CS Ciencias Sociales ; : 117-119,121-138, 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1988701

ABSTRACT

Utilizando datos de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (DANE) entre 2001 y 2006, y de la Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares (DANE) entre 2007 y 2021 para las ciudades de Cartagena, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga y Pereira, se estimaron regresiones por cuantiles para encontrar y clasificar los determinantes de la desigualdad del ingreso laboral, según el efecto de cada uno sobre la escala de la distribución de ingresos. El resultado principal del estudio es que la educación y el porcentaje de empleados por cuenta propia tienen efectos regresivos sobre la distribución del ingreso en las cuatro ciudades, con lo que aumenta la escala de la distribución. La pandemia por coviD-19 ha tenido un efecto negativo en la media y la mediana del ingreso, además de un efecto regresivo en la distribución del ingreso laboral.Alternate :Using data from the Encuesta Continua de Hogares (DANE) between 2001 and 2006, and from the Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares (DANE) between 2007 and 2021, for the cities of Cartagena, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, and Pereira, quantile regressions were estimated to find and classify the determinants of labor income inequality, according to the effect of each one on the income distribution scale. The main result of the study is that education and the percentage of self-employed workers have regressive effects on the labor income distribution in the four cities, thus increasing the scale of the distribution. The coviD-19 pandemic has a negative effect on mean and median income, as well as a regressive one on labor income distribution.

10.
The Journal of Asian Studies ; 81(3):602-603, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1984335

ABSTRACT

Much less attention has been given to South Korea's more recent political economy, and even less to its financial liberalization and how that has impacted not only economic growth but also democratization and social equality. [...]this serious study based on careful examination of economic data has something new and important to add. Except for the insurance industry, the financial markets never really opened up much, and five big domestic banks still dominate the banking sector. [...]as every South Korean knows, the power of the major chaebols, such as Lotte, LG, Samsung, and Hyundai, and the families that control them has not been effectively curtailed.

11.
Croatian Operational Research Review ; 13(1):65-76, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955177

ABSTRACT

Financial analysis plays a major role in investing the disposable income of various economic agents. Stock markets are predominantly made up of small investors with limited information and low capabilities for a suitable analysis. Researchers, as well as practitioners, are divided over the findings on the adequacy of technical analysis in investing. This paper examines the Markov chain process in the stock market to discover the essential links and probabilities for the stocks' transition through three states of stagnation, growth, and decline (i.e., stagnant, bull, and bear markets). The subject of analysis is a randomly selected portfolio of 20 shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. The data suggest that the portfolio relatively quickly, in four trading days, achieves equilibrium probabilities that allow a certain amount of predictability of future movements. At the same time, when analyzing the expected time intervals for the first transition, we found that the portfolio returns to a state of growth much faster than a decline. In addition, the results negate the basic habits of frequent trading, herding, and taking a short position in events of negative price fluctuations. Our research contributes towards observing regularities and stock market efficiency with a clear goal of improving expectations and technical analysis for small individual investors.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(13):7648, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934220

ABSTRACT

Under the goal of a “new development pattern”, it is of great practical significance to accurately identify the economic growth effect of fiscal and tax policies. This paper constructs a TVP-FAVAR model to measure the economic effects of China’s fiscal and tax policies at the aggregate and structural levels. The results show that the reduction in total tax has a positive effect on real variables such as output and consumption;especially at the present stage, the promotion effect of total tax reduction on economic growth is relatively strong, but the stimulation effect on price is relatively weak. Further, the tax structure in which the ratio of direct tax to total tax increases and the ratio of indirect tax to total tax decreases is more conducive to the increase in output and consumption, and will not strongly stimulate the rise of price level. Therefore, at this stage, China should continue to vigorously implement the tax reduction policy and ensure the continuity of the tax reduction policy. At the same time, we should continue to optimize the tax structure and give better play to the regulatory role of fiscal and tax policies in income redistribution, so as to achieve the goal that fiscal and tax policies help build a “new development pattern” and promote high-quality economic development.

13.
Fisc Stud ; 41(2): 321-336, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency has had a dramatic impact on market incomes and income-support policies. The lack of timely available data constrains the estimation of the scale and direction of recent changes in the income distribution, which in turn constrains policymakers seeking to monitor such developments. We overcome the lack of data by proposing a dynamic calibrated microsimulation approach to generate counterfactual income distributions as a function of more timely external data than are available in dated income surveys. We combine nowcasting methods using publicly available data and a household income generation model to perform the first calibrated simulation based upon actual data, aiming to assess the distributional implications of the COVID-19 crisis in Ireland. Overall, we find that the crisis had an equalizing real-time effect for both gross and disposable incomes, notwithstanding the significant hardship experienced by many households.

14.
Zbornik Radova Ekonomski Fakultet u Rijeka ; 40(1):29-61, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924803

ABSTRACT

This research aims to provide an empirical assessment of the relationship between fiscal policy sustainability factors, like fiscal deficit and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries and East European Union Countries, using panel-level data for the yearly time span from 2000-2021. The empirical model provides the impact of fiscal deficit, alongside other control variables like inflation, schooling, total investments, trade openness, and output gap on economic growth in the selected group of countries. For the purpose of research, we employed Static and dynamic panel estimation techniques like Fixed Effects with Driscol and Kraay standard errors and system GMM. The findings confirm that fiscal deficit has significantly affected the growth level in both groups of countries. In addition, when the fiscal deficit has interacted with the COVID-19 dummy, it appears as a growth-enhancing factor. However, when the fiscal deficit interacts with the Eurozone debt crisis period, it becomes a growth-deteriorating factor. Other control variables like inflation, trade openness, total investments, and the output gap are found important factors in explaining the growth performance of the Central East European and Western Balkan countries.Alternate :Ovo istraživanje ima za cilj utvrditi empirijsku procjenu odnosa izmeðu čimbenika održivosti fiskalne politike, poput fiskalnog deficita i gospodarskog rasta u zemljama zapadnog Balkana i zemljama Istočne Europske unije koristeći panel baze podataka za godišnji vremenski raspon od 2000. do 2021. godine. Empirijski model istražuje utjecaj fiskalnog deficita, uz ostale kontrolne varijable poput inflacije, školovanja, ukupnih ulaganja, otvorenosti trgovine i proizvodnog jaza na gospodarski rast u odabranoj skupini zemalja. Za potrebe istraživanja koristili smo statičku i dinamičku panel procjenu tehnike poput fiksnih učinaka s Driscol i Kraay standardnim greškama i sustav GMM. Nalazi potvrðuju da je fiskalni deficit značajno utjecao na razinu rasta u obje skupine zemalja. Osim toga, kada se fiskalne varijable dovedu u interakciju s COVID-19 dummy varijablama, fiskalni deficit rezultira značajnim i pozitivnim učinkom na gospodarski rast. Meðutim, kada je fiskalni deficit u interakciji s razdobljem dužničke krize u Euro-zoni, on postaje čimbenik koji pogoršava rast. Ostale kontrolne varijable poput inflacije, otvorenosti trgovine, ukupnih ulaganja i proizvodnog jaza smatraju se važnim čimbenicima u objašnjavanju uspješnost rasta zemalja srednje i istočne Europe i zapadnog Balkana.

15.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy ; 11(2):74-86, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924529

ABSTRACT

Brazil covers a large territory, and although only 15% of its population is distributed in rural areas (IBGE Educa 2015), rural dwellers take on the chief responsibility for conserving local biodiversity. This article uses empirical research with a qualitative approach to present four cases of consolidated communities working with Amazonian rubber, regenerative cotton, weaving and lacework. It shows how rural communities pursue solutions for sustainable livelihoods in their own place of origin through the production of raw materials and products for the fashion chain, ensuring food security, income generation, maintenance of local biomes and gender justice. Particularly, this study examines the role of women beyond their families in ensuring work equity and better income distribution. Design appears as a positive agent, transforming ancestral and artisanal culture and knowledge into product innovation with added value to ensure production viability as well as enhancing community wellbeing.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6896, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892988

ABSTRACT

Income inequality in China has become increasingly serious since the beginning of the economic reform period in the 1970s, with urban–rural income inequality playing a large role. Urbanization policy and monetary policy are currently important economic policy tools for the Chinese government. In order to investigate the influence of inequality on the economy and to provide recommendations for ensuring the sustainability of growth, we study the effect of urban–rural income inequality on economic growth in the context of urbanization and monetary policy in China between 2002 and 2021. Using a flexible time-varying parametric structural vector auto-regression (TVP-VAR) model and a robust Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, our empirical results show that the effect is time-varying, with inequality promoting growth in the early years but affecting it adversely at later stages. Currently, urbanization mitigates inequality and promotes growth simultaneously, while easy monetary policy worsens inequality and affects growth adversely in the long term. We suggest that the authorities need to consider the implementation of policy rebalancing to ensure that the sustainability of economic development is not jeopardized because of worsening income disparity. Proactive urbanization policy and prudent monetary policy are viable rebalancing options.

17.
Economic Change and Restructuring ; 55(2):1229-1248, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1872577

ABSTRACT

Migration and remittances have always been an exciting arena of research for economists around the globe. Remittance flows have evolved as a significant economic variable over the past decade. In several developing countries, remittances exceed the other capital inflows and value of total exports. Thus, it is widely recognised as a potential funding source for economic development in emerging economies. The inflow of remittances to India has increased tremendously in the recent past making the country the highest recipient of remittances across the globe. Remittances are an essential component that contributes to narrowing the Current Account Deficit and has always been a stable constituent of the Balance of Payment. This paper is an attempt to explore the vital macroeconomic variables which determine the remittance flows to India. Notably, we enquire into the dominant motives of remittances in the Indian context. We employ an ARDL approach to cointegration to identify the macroeconomic determinants of remittances and find those crucial variables such as exchange rate, oil price, and domestic GDP substantially impact the flow of remittances. The results also indicate that the migrants are more vulnerable to the oil price shocks in host countries. The overall findings of our study are that (1) remittances are not countercyclical in the Indian context (2) remittances are subject to weak investment motive as opposed to the altruistic motive.

18.
The Energy Journal ; 43(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871215

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the impact of domestic fuel price increases on export growth in a sample of 77 developing countries over the period 2000-2014. Using a fixed-effect estimator and the local projection approach, we find that an increase in domestic gasoline or diesel price adversely affects real non-fuel export growth, with the impact phasing out within two years after the shock. The impact is mainly noticeable in countries with a high-energy dependency ratio and where access to electricity is limited. Further, large fuel price shocks do not seem to lead to disproportionately large changes in exports, suggesting that neither the gradualism nor the shock therapy approach in fuel subsidy reforms dominates. In countries where the export sector is vulnerable to fuel price shocks, appropriate mitigating measures should be designed to smooth the transition to higher fuel prices.

19.
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agricolas ; 13(3):553-565, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871146

ABSTRACT

Food security and hunger, linked to rural poverty, in Mexico are among the greatest challenges since they include large sectors of the population, which are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this essay is to analyze the food security of family farming and rural poverty in Mexico. A systemic analytical framework was developed, which considered the food crisis, food security, agriculture and the agricultural development modality followed by Mexico. Family farming was addressed through the stratification developed by SAGARPA and FAO, as well as the conditions of marginalization and income poverty. According to the analysis, with the neoliberal model, Mexico specialized agricultural production towards export crops and agricultural growth, production that increased in recent years, achieving a surplus agri-food balance, which means food availability, but not food security for people in extremely rural poverty. It is concluded that there is a close relationship between rural poverty and food security, the latter linked to social inequality in income distribution, among other inequalities, which generates a circle of low income-poverty-food insecurity that occurs and reproduces socially in family farming. The strengthening of assets, agri-food production and income in family farming are fundamental for overcoming rural poverty and building a more equitable society.

20.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank|2022. (9939):43 pp. 18 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1848597

ABSTRACT

This paper applies a top-down, macro-micro modeling framework that links a computable general equilibrium model with the survey-based global income distribution dynamics model to assess the economic and distributional effects of the implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Reductions of tariffs and non-tariff measures, implementation of a rule of origin, together with productivity gains stemming from trade cost reductions can strengthen regional trade and value chains among Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership members. The results of the analysis indicate that in an already deeply integrated region, tariff liberalization alone brings little benefit, with estimated real income gains of 0.21 percent relative to the baseline (without the RCEP) in 2035. With liberal rules of origin, the gains in real income could double to 0.49 percent. The biggest benefits accrue when the productivity gains are considered, increasing real income by as much as 2.5 percent for the trade bloc. In this scenario, trade among RCEP members increases by 12.3 percent in 2035 relative to the baseline. The RCEP also has the potential to lift 27 million additional people to middle-class status by 2035. It will also boost wages, with faster gains in sectors that employ larger shares of women. The aggregate effects mask large variety of outcomes across countries, with Vietnam expected to register the highest trade and income gains. Implementation of the RCEP help partially mitigate the negative economic impacts of COVID-19 in the East Asia and the Pacific region.

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