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1.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 296-302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100051

ABSTRACT

Background: The free-of-cost supply could not meet the demand for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in India, so the government approved an injection option with a price. We aimed to determine how much money an individual would be willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children and assess the factors determining it. Methods: We conducted a study among all adults visiting the outpatient department of a government tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India, in August 2021. Trained nursing officers combined bidding game and open-ended question methods during personal interviews to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) values. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of 1565 participants was 40.8 (12.2) years with 46.5% (n = 727) males, 70.4% (n = 1102) parents, 50.0% (n = 783) educated upto class 12 and 30.9% (n = 483) belonging to upper-middle socio-economic scale (SES). The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) WTP amount for the first dose and the subsequent/booster dose among the unvaccinated (50.2%, n = 785) and vaccinated (49.8%, n = 780) participants were ₹0 (0-100) and ₹0 (0-200), respectively. The median (IQR) WTP for inoculating children with any COVID-19 vaccine was ₹50 (0-300) in both groups. Significant differences were found in the WTP prices for adult vaccines in both groups concerning age category (P = 0.02), education (P < 0.01) and SES (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Although more than half of the respondents were unwilling to pay for themselves, WTP for COVID-19 vaccination was higher for their children. Policy-makers should consider income, education and age to cap the private sector vaccination price.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Child , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nigeria , India , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(2): 140-144, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096528

ABSTRACT

India is a de facto continent in the garb of a country. COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic spanning continents. Being the second most populous country in the world, experts regard how India deals with the outbreak will have enormous impact on the world's ability to deal with it. The country has been in lockdown since March 25, 2020 until the current time of early May 2020, and despite several challenges, there has been early success. The major conflict now is the health benefits weighed up against the deleterious social and economic consequences of prolonged lockdown, that is, life versus livelihood. This unprecedented calamity could potentially cause or exacerbate various psychiatric disorders. It is recognized that lifestyle changes and limited screen time may help reduce mental health difficulties. Considering the physical barriers to consultation, development of telemedicine services is needed. This pandemic, like other previous pandemics, will pass, and until this happens, we must remain extremely vigilant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Modern Asian Studies ; JOUR: 1-20,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083257

ABSTRACT

This article examines the ways in which educated yet unemployed young people attempt to configure ways of being productive in a small hill town in North India. Young people who do not migrate to large urban centres from this township are the subject of contradictory discourses: in some moments they are seen as an antidote to the 'problem of migration', but in other moments they are ridiculed for not making good use of their time. Both discourses suggest a present wherein young people are not productive. Drawing on ethnographic material gathered over a ten-month period, this article frames youth sociality as a mode registering a sense of productivity and navigating unemployment. I argue that while hanging out at a computer shop, young men were distancing themselves from notions of idling and creating masculine youth cultures in which they sought to situate themselves as productive young people. I make this argument by unpacking exchanges between these young men and by analysing the tangible ways they helped the shop function. I also draw debates about youth sociality into dialogue with theoretical insights from rural geography to illuminate how educated youth attempt to imbue rural and peri-urban space with new possibilities. I show how educated youth attempt to reanimate rural space and forge affirmative rural futures by emphasizing their connections with Indian modernity. Attending to the ways in which educated yet unemployed youth attempt to situate themselves within productive relations is set to become of increasing importance given the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Twelfth International Convention of Asia Scholars (Icas 12) ; JOUR: 73-80,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082896

ABSTRACT

India has been a key strategic player in the Indian Ocean where it sees itself as a net security provider in the region. However, engagement of other powers in its neighborhood, as well as their partnerships with other South Asian nations towards defense, economics, infrastructure development and technology, has posed a challenge for India's security and foreign policy. The study analyses how the change in South Asia's regional dynamics (especially Pakistan and Bangladesh) have impacted India's neighborhood policy within its larger Indo-Pacific vision. The study also captures the changes and continuities brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic in India's bilateral and multilateral relationships in the region. The paper argues that while the bilateral relations between India and its South Asian neighbors have been contentious, New Delhi has constantly sought to balance the same through an engagement based on development partnership and new security arrangements. This has helped India in its balancing act in the changing relations of South Asian neighbors with other global powers like China and the US.

5.
Pacific Economic Review ; JOUR(4):361-379, 27.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082738

ABSTRACT

The paper aims to examine the ability of a global fear index (GFI) based on the COVID-19 pandemic and government policy responses as a measure of uncertainty in predicting eight Indian rupee-based exchange rate return series: the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the Swiss franc, the US dollar, the euro, the British pound sterling, the New Zealand dollar, and the Japanese yen. The predictability of the daily Indian rupee-based exchange rate return series is tested using the recently developed wild bootstrap likelihood ratio test of Kim and Shamsuddin for the period 2 October 2020 to 8 March 2021. Both symmetric and asymmetric tests revealed GFI as an insignificant determinant of the Indian rupee-based exchange rate return series. However, government policy responses are a significant determinant of the rupee-dollar exchange rate return series.

6.
Transport Policy ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082730

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly in 2020 and led to full or partial lockdowns worldwide. The restrictions led to most economies contracting in the April–June quarter of 2020. As per the IMF World Economic Outlook of June 2020, the global economy was expected to contract by 4.9% in 2020, whereas the Indian economy was expected to contract by 4.5%, affecting a population of more than 1.3 billion. This led to disruption in the global supply chain network, adversely hitting all modes of transport, including ports and multimodal logistics. Based on the survey results of 98 respondents in the Indian ports, multimodal logistics and transport (“PMT”) sector conducted during the lockdown in May–June 2020, an adverse impact on profitability, employment, operations and capital expenditure was identified, which is consistent with observations from previous economic crises. Additionally, we have estimated the financial impact on different categories of organisations in the industry. Based on these impacts, this study identified key factors required to support the sector and build resilience for the future through technology interventions, developing multimodal transport systems, and providing financial support and employment support for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). By providing an analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on the different categories of organisations based on data collected during and shortly after the lockdown, the study makes a novel contribution to understanding the impact of such crises on the PMT industry at a granular level and the aggregate-level impacts with guidance for policy and managers and in particular, in an emerging economy context.

7.
Front Sociol ; 7: 938734, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080307

ABSTRACT

Communication patterns between doctors, nurses and patients determine both the efficiency of healthcare delivery, and the job satisfaction of healthcare workers. Job satisfaction is important to ensure retention of the doctor and nurse populations. Incidents of assault against physicians and nurses from relatives and family members of patients have become frequent both in the pre-pandemic and COVID-19 eras. Along with appreciation for frontline healthcare workers serving during the pandemic, there is physical violence directed at them for failing to salvage infected patients. Using Bourdieu's concepts of social space, forms of capital, and habitus this paper endeavors to theorize some of the interaction patterns observed in doctor-patient, nurse-patient, and doctor-nurse encounters that contribute to the waning of the relationship between healthcare workers and wider society as observed in West Bengal, India. Primary empirical data was collected through in-person, in-depth semi-structured interviews with both open and closed-ended questions conducted throughout 2018 across 5 government hospitals in Kolkata (major metropolitan center) and 1 hospital in a suburban area with population 100,000. The respondents consisted of 51 nurses (100% women), 20 doctors (5% women), and 33 patients (33.3% women) recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Social space analysis indicated that the cumulative patient social capital is comparable to that of the doctors, despite the doctor's higher levels of cultural and economic capital because of the high patient to doctor ratio. The patient population can thus concentrate and delegate their social capital to select agents leading to violence against healthcare workers. Through this analysis, two doctors' habitus were postulated, along with a nurse and a patient habitus. The first doctor habitus is structured by the idealized status of doctors and the second habitus is structured by their resource-limited working conditions. The nurse habitus is structured by the desire for economic empowerment along with dutifully providing care as instructed. The patient habitus is structured by the need to balance healthcare expenditures with their limited financial means. This paper establishes how the habitus of the agents and the politics of healthcare interact to exacerbate extant tensions between healthcare workers and the population they care for.

8.
International Journal of Biomathematics ; 15(8), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079038

ABSTRACT

Considering the prevailing situations, the mathematical modeling and dynamics of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) particularly in India are studied in this paper. The goal of this work is to create an effective SEIRS model to study about the epidemic. Four different SEIRS models are considered and solved in this paper using an efficient homotopy perturbation method. A clear picture of disease spreading can be obtained from the solutions derived using this method. We parametrized the model by considering the number of infection cases from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020. Finally, numerical analysis and graphical representations are provided to interpret the spread of virus. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-17, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent disruption of medical oxygen during second wave of COVID-19 has caused nationwide panic. This study attempts to objectively analyze the medical oxygen supply chain in India along the principles of value stream mapping (VSM), identify bottlenecks and recommend systemic improvements. METHODOLOGY: Process mapping of the medical oxygen supply chain in India was done. Different licenses & approvals, their conditions, compliances, renewals among others were factored-in. All relevant circulars (Government Notices), official orders, amendments and gazette notifications pertaining to medical oxygen from April 2020-April 2021 were studied and corroborated with information from Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organization (PESO) official website. FINDINGS: Steps of medical oxygen supply chain right from oxygen manufacture to filling, storage and transport up to the end users; have regulatory bottlenecks. Consequently flow of materials is sluggish and very poor information flow has aggravated the inherent inefficiencies of the system. Government of India has been loosening regulatory norms at every stage to alleviate the crisis. CONCLUSION: Regulatory bottlenecks have indirectly fueled the informal sector over the years, which is not under Government's control with difficulty in controlling black-marketing and hoarding. Technology enabled, data-driven regulatory processes with minimum discretionary human interface can make the system more resilient.

10.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075661

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about a wave of changes in the lives of people across the world, especially those from marginalized communities. The study aimed to understand the lived experiences of migrant workers during the early months of the pandemic using a qualitative phenomenological approach. Thirteen men working as migrant workers in Mumbai, India were interviewed telephonically and the data obtained was analysed using thematic analysis. Migrant workers highlighted the challenges they experienced in getting back home, fears of dying alone away from home, the stress of unemployment and poverty and its impact on them and their families. They expressed feelings of guilt, shame, and helplessness about not knowing what will happen in the future. Using an intersectional lens the study highlights how the identity of being a migrant worker further marginalised these individuals, thereby impacting their well-being and presents implications for mental health policy and practice.

11.
Indian J Labour Econ ; 65(3): 779-799, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075764

ABSTRACT

For the last decade, India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, 2005) has been the world's largest public works programme. This legal entitlement provided employment to 28 per cent of rural Indian households in 2019-2020. After the COVID-19 pandemic, NREGA is increasingly emerging as an invaluable employer of the last resort. However, longitudinal data of implementation in its first fifteen years reveal distinctive trends. On the one hand, since inception, NREGA has rendered greater benefits to women and marginalised communities. But on the other, since 2014 till before the pandemic, the present National Democratic Alliance (NDA) regime has reduced NREGA coverage compared to its implementation during the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition government which had enacted the legislation. Nevertheless, in light of the pandemic and based on international experiences in public work programmes, there is an urgent need for the expansion of the employment guarantee.

12.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:1079-1085, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072544

ABSTRACT

The e-government efforts were implemented in all of district and subordinate courts preceding to the COVID-19 issue. With the help of Information and Communication Technology and the online world, E-courts systems were created to make judging easier, clearer, and less expensive for everyone. The E-courts Services mobile app was developed in 2017, much before the COVID-19 crisis.It's important to remember that before COVID-19, there was never a hurry to use technology in India's justice system, and the court had purposefully turned down it. However, even before COVID-19, the judiciary was split regarding the merits or propriety of using video conferencing in court proceedings, even though technology had been around for some time.The authors have discussed a aspects of the e- court system in the slump that the Indian experienced while imposing law and order.

13.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072159

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a growing focus on researching the management of children with COVID-19 admitted to hospital, especially among developing countries with new variants alongside concerns with the overuse of antibiotics. Patient care can be improved with guidelines, but concerns with the continued imprudent prescribing of antimicrobials, including antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarials. Objective: Consequently, a need to document the current management of children with COVID-19 across India. Key outcome measures included the percentage of prescribed antimicrobials, adherence to current guidelines, and mortality. Methodology: A point prevalence study using specially developed report forms among 30 hospitals in India. Results: The majority of admitted children were aged between 11 and 18 years (70%) and boys (65.8%). Reasons for admission included respiratory distress, breathing difficulties, and prolonged fever. 75.3% were prescribed antibiotics typically empirically (68.3% overall), with most on the Watch list (76.7%). There were no differences in antibiotic prescribing whether hospitals followed guidelines or not. There was also appreciable prescribing of antimalarials (21.4% of children), antivirals (15.2%), and antiparasitic medicines (27.2%) despite limited evidence. The majority of children (92.2%) made a full recovery Conclusion: It was encouraging to see low hospitalization rates. However, concerns about high empiric use of antibiotics and high use of antimalarials, antivirals, and antiparasitic medicines exist. These can be addressed by instigating appropriate stewardship programs.

14.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071072

ABSTRACT

This paper documents an important slice of global South COVID-19 history, of primarily Muslim women's protests against the Indian Government and Legislature for taking away their constitutional rights as citizens. The Shaheen Bagh mobilization has already become an important disruption in contemporary Indian history stirring public intellectuals to probe the question: "who is a citizen of India?" in their scholarship and public-community work. By virtue of the disruption the event has caused in the enactment of the citizenship law, including other biometric directives, CAA-NRC-NPR, it has ceased to be regarded a minority or marginalized occurrence. This paper examines the writings of 4 prominent academics, public scholars, and thinkers (Romila Thapar, N. Ram, Gautam Bhatia, Gautam Patel) examining citizenship in contemporary India. In order to juxtapose expert musings on citizenship with embodied voices from the protest ground, I am critically reading two volumes with multiple essays, one edited (Seema Mustafa) and the other co-written by civically-engaged journalists (Ziya Us Salam and Uzma Ausaf) and members of the Shaheen Bagh protests. As an Indian-non-Muslim, I understand scholarship regarding Shaheen Bagh as an essential part of contemporary history, insofar as secularism is a worthy intercultural political philosophy to uphold at this temporal juncture of hate, intolerance and minority- baiting globally.

15.
Journal of Health Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070669

ABSTRACT

Mental health has become one of the growing concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in almost all age groups. Further, the awareness and the facilities in regard to mental health issues stays limited to the privileged class of the society. It has further raised concerns to look for ways to effectively and equitably implement mental health legislation in India, where social stigma in approaching mental health services is also very high. This article analyses the historical precepts of mental health services in India and explores the implementation status of mental health legislation 2017 across different states. It also explores some of the issues related to social stigma which acts as a challenge in utilisation of mental health services. It recommends a need for expansion in mental health professionals' numbers along with adequate infrastructure, especially in rural and remote areas, to make mental health services equitably accessible to all. Mental health awareness generation and therapeutic services for underprivileged class and for COVID-19 affected families should qualify as eligible initiative under corporate social responsibility funding. In this manner, corporates can supplement government efforts to ensure the implementation of mental health legislation in letter and spirit for the benefit of all the citizens.

16.
International Journal of Tourism Cities ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070223

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to explore the good crowding effect among Indian domestic travellers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of the city destination. This study uses the framework of social motivation theory to achieve the objective. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative research design by taking the case of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Using purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 respondents, and themes were drawn manually. Findings The analysis found four themes that create a good crowding effect among domestic tourists, namely, convenience and price;familiarity and place attachment;social affiliation;and safety. The themes indicated that despite the pandemic, and constant occurrences of new variants, Indian domestic tourists' on-site attitude towards crowding was favourable. Research limitations/implications Firstly, the good crowding effect during the pandemic could have been better understood using empirical data. Secondly, the results cannot be generalized, specifically for developed economies. Practical implications This study offers practical implications to destination managers and local administrative bodies for whom achieving sustainability in urban tourism has always been concerning. These include developing infrastructural facilities, encouraging cultural activities in city centres and improving the perception of safety to sustain the good crowding effect. Social implications The affective dimension involved in making a travelling decision played a significant role in the post-pandemic phase. While suppliers needed survival, tourists needed social affiliation and escape from the mandated home isolation due to multiple phases of COVID-19 lockdown in India. This study adds value to society by emphasising that the need for social affiliation among travellers remains intact, and the tourism industry should embrace this transformation. Originality/value While most of the pandemic-related studies criticised crowd and tourists' crowd averting behaviour, this study reported that the good crowding effect could also be an outcome owing to different factors. Therefore, this study offers distinctive nuance of tourists' behaviour in the post-COVID-19 phase, allowing destination managers and tourism stakeholders to re-think their strategies.

17.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 98: 102022, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069616

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must adapt to the current COVID-19 pandemic through innovation in screening and assessment strategies using technology. To our knowledge there are no such studies reported from India. We aimed to study the predictive ability of video-based screening tool with definitive diagnosis in children with ASD. Method: Thirty-nine children were screened independently by two examiners with a video-based screening tool to start intervention followed by an in-person evaluation by clinical DSM-5 diagnosis three months later. Result: Similar to studies from developed countries, videos assessments showed a 94.87% correlation with the final diagnosis. Interobserver video agreement had a kappa correlation of 0.803, which was classified as substantial agreement. Conclusion: Video-based evaluations may be used as an interim assessment to initiate early intervention in children with ASD in resource-limited setups in the current pandemic situation. Large, well-designed prospective studies are required to confirm our results.

18.
Pacific Business Review International ; 14(12):66-74, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067878

ABSTRACT

India is one of the developing nations where most of oil and gas requirements are fulfilled by importing them. Price fluctuations in the global market creates a big impact on the economy. Lockdown called by the government of India cut the demand for fuel as there was no consumption of it as vehicular movement was stopped. Oil and gas sectoral indices along with all the companies enlisted in this index are studied. The study intends to find if there is any impact in the energy sector of the National Stock Exchange(NSE) of India along with finding if there are any abnormal returns. The period of study is from 30th May 2019 to 13th May 2020. The event study methodology is used for the study along with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk and Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test. The study reveals that there is some abnormal return on a certain date. The market and return data are not normally distributed. The companies under study have a positive correlation which moves in unison with the sector index.

19.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:16, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716597

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, regular handwashing, and self-isolation are being touted as preventive measures to tackle the spread of COVID-19. But, for the majority of Indians, complying with such norms are privileges that they cannot afford.

20.
FWU Journal of Social Sciences ; 16(3):120-131, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067726

ABSTRACT

India is one of the countries with the highest number of kids under the age of 18 years. This paper adds value in understanding the usage in the current covid scenario. The research objectives for the current study are to examine how young kids in India use their time on internet for varied purposes, to study how young kids find the websites that are of interest to them and to examine how young kids obtain information about sensitive issues. A cross-sectional web survey was conducted to examine the various aspects of the use of the Internet and traditional media (television/radio/magazines/newspapers/billboards) among kids in India. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The sampling method used in the study was purposive sample (522 kids). Internet emerged as the first choice of media for kids for all the nine selected activities that include homework, shopping, restaurant/food-ordering, travel and tour, information search, health related information, weather forecast, entertainment, and news/current events. Girl respondents as compared to boys have consumed Internet at a higher rate for learning about the fashion (trends) and health related issues such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues.

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