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1.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1082(1):012009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037338

ABSTRACT

The prolongation of the Pandemic COVID-19 has undermined the healthcare system and negatively impacted the economy and social development on a global and regional scale. At the human settlement level, responding to the pandemic situation has altered the broad spectrum of our daily routine down to the family and individual levels. Prior to the lockdown popularly known as the Movement Control Order (MCO), which the government introduced, the public was urged to limit outdoor movements and stay at home hence, encouraging the adoption of Work From Home (WFH) for employees and Home-based Teaching and Learning (PdPR) for the academic community and school students. Other than technological readiness for online working and teaching, the new normal also prompted new challenges for households in utilizing indoor spaces at home, especially for quarantine as well as for WFH and PdPR activities. In this light, a series of household surveys using questionnaires to determine the preference and usage of indoor space among households have been conducted in 39 locations/settlements across peninsular Malaysia. A total of 504 respondents participated and fieldwork and interview processes. Findings of the study indicated a majority of respondents have to designate indoor spaces/rooms for home quarantine (58%), and the three indoor spaces, in particular, have been monitored regularly by respondents during the pandemic, namely living areas (39%), kitchen (25%) and bedroom (21%). During MCO, most of them spent 1 to 4 hours per day for PdPR (43%), and 47% of respondents have a designated learning space at home for PdPR. In summary, pandemic COVID-19 has raised awareness among households regarding the selection and usage of indoor space to conduct various activities while they have to stay at home.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10880, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024208

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies have established a strong relationship between poor air quality and deteriorating human health, demanding urgent remedial measures. Specifically, indoor pollution is more critical, and outdoor pollutants significantly contribute towards indoor pollution, its strength depending on various parameters, including ventilation strategy, meteorological conditions, building design, outdoor sources, etc. This report analyses the various factors reported influencing the transmission of pollutants between the two environments. The report critically reviews various studies investigating the inter-environment variability and transmission, providing an overview of various factors and their impacts and covering both experimental and modelling studies. The review suggests that while many studies have helped to quantify the long-term personal exposure to pollutants, they have not paid special attention to the mechanism of the transmission of pollutants from the outdoor to the indoor environment and vice versa. The findings demonstrate that the proper indexing of various mechanisms and their relative strength is necessary before an effective intervention strategy can be applied in the built environment to counter the effect of pollution.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024135

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a major risk factor, and it still remains a global cause of death for millions of people. Indoor air quality (IAQ) plays an important role in human health as people spend most of their time in confined spaces. Many studies have recently addressed this issue, but no systematic analysis has been conducted, which is the aim of our study. We present a bibliographic analysis of articles on IAQ in industrial environments from 2010 to 2021. A total of 658 articles were collected, and 409 were used. The NVivo tool was used to analyze the collected documents both quantitatively and qualitatively. This analysis of the literature enables us to identify the most studied working environments and pollutants, the analysis tools, and the types of measurement used to provide a clear overview of the theme, which includes a comparison between the studied working environments and the state of origin of the authors. Our analysis of each working environment and the related frequently cited pollutants provides a clear approach to identifying the specific areas of focus when improving the quality of the air in a specific working environment. In addition, a research gap and future research areas have been identified in the conclusions.

4.
Buildings ; 12(8):1267, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023191

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the psychological restorative benefits of indoor vertical greenery and its relationship with visual satisfaction. Taking the Solar Decathlon China 2018 champion project “LONG-PLAN” as the experimental field, we conducted a questionnaire survey to evaluate the effect of indoor vertical greenery on creating a restorative environment. Then we further studied the relationship between the restorative environmental factors and visual satisfaction of indoor vertical greenery. The results show that: (1) Indoor vertical greenery has a positive impact on the subjective restoration of respondents (the average value of PRS = 4.150). (2) The three factors of “being away,” “fascination and compatibility,” and the “extent” of environmental restoration have a significant positive correlation with the visual satisfaction of indoor vertical greenery (the correlation coefficient values are 0.403, 0.627, and 0.425, respectively, p < 0.01). (3) In the stepwise regression analysis of the three factors and the visual satisfaction of indoor vertical greenery, only “fascination and compatibility” show a significant positive correlation (the regression coefficient = 0.753, p < 0.01). (4) The visual satisfaction of indoor vertical greenery has a significantly positive impact on environmental recovery (the regression coefficient = 0.459, p < 0.01). The study shows that indoor vertical greenery improves visual satisfaction and contributes to a restorative environment. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the mutual facilitation between restorative benefits and visual satisfaction.

5.
Buildings ; 12(8):1088, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023187

ABSTRACT

This aim of this paper is to explore the specific indoor environmental quality factors under different heating conditions in a meeting room of an administrate building located in Kosice. In terms of thermal comfort, a system with radiant ceiling heating provides more favorable results. Low relative humidity was recorded for both heating systems, which could be due to insufficient air conditioning settings. The results of measuring CO2 concentrations were almost identical for both systems and did not exceed the recommended limit value of 1000 ppm. The increase in CO2 concentrations was mainly related to the presence of employees in the monitored room. On none of the monitoring days, whether in the case of a mechanical heating system or a radiant ceiling heating system, the average 24 h concentration of PM10 did not exceed the legally permissible limit of 50 µg/m3. The presence of selected volatile organic compounds in the room has not been demonstrated due to effective ventilation by air conditioning. The results of the evaluation were comparable and smaller fluctuations in values can be attributed to other factors, such as the presence of persons in the monitoring room or the overall heating as well as ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

6.
The Science Teacher ; 90(1):42-47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011744

ABSTRACT

The University of Montana's Research Education on Air and Cardiovascular Health (REACH) program provides opportunities for high school students to conduct student-designed science research projects (Delaloye et al. 2016;Delaloye et al. 2018;Ward et al. 2016). REACH is an education outreach program designed to support classroom teachers as they facilitate health science research projects related to indoor air quality conducted by their students. REACH participation begins with a summer teacher workshop where interested teachers receive lowcost air quality monitors, background knowledge on air quality concerns in their region (specifically the Environmental Protection Agency criteria pollutant PM25 , particulate matter 2.5 microns and smaller), REACH curriculum modules, and training on implementing science research projects with students. Designed by the REACH program's external evaluator, surveys include approximately 35 fixed-response or free-response questions to elicit responses regarding the program's impact on students' interest in science and science careers.

7.
ASHRAE Transactions ; 127:246-253, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1980710

ABSTRACT

The purpose of a ventilation system for indoor spaces is to create a safe environment for the occupants by diluting the concentration levels of hazardous contaminants and to minimize the risk of infection due to spread of airborne pathogens. The effectiveness of ventilation system depends on several inter related factors including the supply airflow rate, number and locations of supply diffusers, and number and locations of return grilles. With the help of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses, this study systematically evaluates the impact of three different HVAC configurations on the airflow patterns, distribution of contaminant, and the risk of infection in a small office space with two cubicles. The HVAC configuration with a single supply and a single return can create adverse airflow patterns which can promote spread of contaminants and increase the risk of infection farther from the source. When an additional supply diffuser is introduced with the same single return, the zone of high risk of infection remained in the vicinity of the source. However, the overall risk of infection in the space remained the same. Addition of another return created aerodynamic containment zones in the space which provided easy path for the contaminated air to leave the space and reduced the overall risk of infection. Since the location of an infected individual is not known a priori, the aerodynamic containment with distributed supply and distributed return can be the best strategy for reducing the probability of infection in indoor spaces. These studies demonstrate that CFD analyses can help in identifying the potential risk of high infection due to poor airflow distribution into a space and can provide valuable insights for developing appropriate mitigation strategies to create safe indoor environment.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129697, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966844

ABSTRACT

Converging evidence reports that the probability of vertical transmission patterns via shared drainage systems, may be responsible for the huge contactless community outbreak in high-rise buildings. Publications indicate that a faulty bathroom exhaust fan system is ineffective in removing lifted hazardous virus-laden aerosols from the toilet bowl space. Common strategies (boosting ventilation capability and applying disinfection tablets) seem unsustainable and remain to date untested. Using combined simulation and experimental approaches, we compared three ventilation schemes in a family bathroom including the traditional ceiling fan, floor fan, and side-wall fan. We found that the traditional ceiling fan was barely functional whereby aerosol particles were not being adequately removed. Conversely, a side-wall fan could function efficiently and an enhanced ventilation capability can have increased performance whereby nearly 80.9% of the lifted aerosol particles were removed. There exists a common, and easily-overlooked mistake in the layout of the bathroom, exposing occupants to a contactless vertical pathogen aerosol transmission route. Corrections and dissemination are thus imperative for the reconstruction of these types of family bathrooms. Our findings provide evidence for the bathroom and smart ventilation system upgrade, promoting indoor public health and human hygiene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Toilet Facilities , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Humans , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Ventilation
9.
Chemosensors ; 10(7):259, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963757

ABSTRACT

The air quality of the living area influences human health to a certain extent. Therefore, it is particularly important to detect the quality of indoor air. However, traditional detection methods mainly depend on chemical analysis, which has long been criticized for its high time cost. In this research, a rapid air detection method for the indoor environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and machine learning was proposed. Four common scenes were simulated, including burning carbon, burning incense, spraying perfume and hot shower which often led to indoor air quality changes. Two steps of spectral measurements and algorithm analysis were used in the experiment. Moreover, the proposed method was found to be effective in distinguishing different kinds of aerosols and presenting sensitivity to the air compositions. In this paper, the signal was isolated by the forest, so the singular values were filtered out. Meanwhile, the spectra of different scenarios were analyzed via the principal component analysis (PCA), and the air environment was classified by K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm with an accuracy of 99.2%. Moreover, based on the establishment of a high-precision quantitative detection model, a back propagation (BP) neural network was introduced to improve the robustness and accuracy of indoor environment. The results show that by taking this method, the dynamic prediction of elements concentration can be realized, and its recognition accuracy is 96.5%.

10.
Atmosphere ; 13(7):1104, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963694

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial filtration materials have been used effectively to control biological pollutants and purify indoor air. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial capability of three fiber filter materials treated with triclosan: glass fiber (GF), non-woven fabric (NF) and chemical fiber (CF). Triclosan was loaded onto the filtration materials by the impregnation method. The triclosan-treated filter materials exhibited antibacterial zones obviously: the average antibacterial bands against E. coli were 11.8 mm (GF), 13.3 mm (NF) and 10.5 mm (CF);against S. albus, they were 25.5 mm (GF), 21.0 mm (NF) and 23.5 mm (CF). The percent reductions of bacteria for the antibacterial air fiber materials treated with triclosan against E. coli were 71.4% (CF) and 62.6% (GF), while the percent reductions against S. albus were 61.3% (NF) and 84.6% (CF). These findings could help to reduce the transmission and threat of epidemic and purify the environment through the use of environmentally friendly antibacterial filter fibers.

11.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

12.
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow ; 32(9):2964-2981, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1948670

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this paper is to devise a tool based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine learning (ML), for the assessment of potential airborne microbial transmission in enclosed spaces. A gated recurrent units neural network (GRU-NN) is presented to learn and predict the behaviour of droplets expelled through breaths via particle tracking data sets.Design/methodology/approach>A computational methodology is used for investigating how infectious particles that originated in one location are transported by air and spread throughout a room. High-fidelity prediction of indoor airflow is obtained by means of an in-house parallel CFD solver, which uses a one equation Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model. Several flow scenarios are considered by varying different ventilation conditions and source locations. The CFD model is used for computing the trajectories of the particles emitted by human breath. The numerical results are used for the ML training.Findings>In this work, it is shown that the developed ML model, based on the GRU-NN, can accurately predict the airborne particle movement across an indoor environment for different vent operation conditions and source locations. The numerical results in this paper prove that the presented methodology is able to provide accurate predictions of the time evolution of particle distribution at different locations of the enclosed space.Originality/value>This study paves the way for the development of efficient and reliable tools for predicting virus airborne movement under different ventilation conditions and different human positions within an indoor environment, potentially leading to the new design. A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the impact of system settings on time variation particles emitted by human breath within the space considered.

13.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1050(1):012026, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1931769

ABSTRACT

Air filtration is an essential process in indoor air conditioning and its physical removal of particulate matter is critical for enhancing indoor air quality, especially in arid regions including United Arab Emirates. In such regions, meeting indoor air quality standard is challenging during sporadic sandstorms when common air conditioning systems are unable to maintain indoor air quality properly. Such inability occurs either due to air infiltration through building’s fenestrations exposing indoor air to excessive particulate matter or the failure of inlet air filters after rapid clogging and high pressure drops. Such failure may be observed frequently in buildings with frequent openings such as public buildings and warehouses. Aerosolized pathogenic microorganisms, e.g., SARS-CoV-2 virus, can be modelled through air particle matter and be removed to a certain degree. In addition, the recent global pandemic raised more awareness towards the necessity of particulate matter filtration in indoor environment. Employing independent air filtration units might be a great solution for intermittent or emergency situations, when primary or additional air filtration process is required to attain proper indoor air quality. The main objective of this paper is to attempt designing, manufacturing, and utilizing an easy to set portable filtration unit and to assist buildings’ existing air conditioning systems in airborne dust particle elimination. The unit is designed and manufactured with additional feature accommodating easy installation of commercially available filters for further performance studies. The unit was equipped with all necessary performance monitoring sensors to detect key parameters such as air velocity, pressure differential, temperature, humidity, and particulate matter before and after filtration. The results revealed interesting information associated with the performance of commercially available filters and the feasibility of such independent filtration units.

14.
Environ Res ; 211: 113038, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906998

ABSTRACT

There are important questions surrounding the potential contribution of outdoor and indoor air quality in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and perpetuation of COVID-19 epidemic waves. Environmental health may be a critical component of COVID-19 prevention. The public health community and health agencies should consider the evolving evidence in their recommendations and statements, and work to issue occupational guidelines. Evidence coming from the current epidemiological and experimental research is expected to add knowledge about virus diffusion, COVID-19 severity in most polluted areas, inter-personal distance requirements and need for wearing face masks in indoor or outdoor environments. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for maintaining particulate matter concentrations at low levels for multiple health-related reasons, which may also include the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Indoor environments represent even a more crucial challenge to cope with, as it is easier for the SARS-COV2 to spread, remain vital and infect other subjects in closed spaces in the presence of already infected asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic people. The potential merits of preventive measures, such as CO2 monitoring associated with natural or controlled mechanical ventilation and air purification, for schools, indoor public places (restaurants, offices, hotels, museums, theatres/cinemas etc.) and transportations need to be carefully considered. Hospital settings and nursing/retirement homes as well as emergency rooms, infectious diseases divisions and ambulances represent higher risk indoor environments and may require additional monitoring and specific decontamination strategies based on mechanical ventilation or air purification.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Atmosphere ; 13(5):800, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871824

ABSTRACT

Aims: With the ongoing pandemic and increased interest in measures to improve indoor air quality, various indoor air purifiers have become very popular and are widely used. This review presents the advantages and disadvantages of various types of technologies used in air purifiers in terms of reducing microbial contamination. Methods: A literature search was performed using Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, as well as technical organizations dealing with indoor air-quality to identify research articles and documents within our defined scope of interest. Relevant sections: The available literature data focus mainly on the efficiency of devices based on tests conducted in laboratory conditions with test chambers, which does not reflect the real dimensions and conditions observed in residential areas. According to a wide range of articles on the topic, the actual effectiveness of air purifiers is significantly lower in real conditions than the values declared by the manufacturers in their marketing materials as well as technical specifications. Conclusions: According to current findings, using indoor air purifiers should not be the only measure to improve indoor air-quality;however, these can play a supporting role if their application is preceded by an appropriate technical and environmental analysis considering the real conditions of its use.

16.
Buildings ; 12(5):682, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871537

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. Specifically, we built a theory- and practice-based conceptual analysis framework to measure users’ satisfaction with recent spatial renovations at three university libraries in Wuhan, China. We used SPSS statistical software to conduct multiple linear regression analyses of spatial satisfaction. The findings show that five spatial dimensions significantly affect students’ satisfaction with library space, namely, service facility availability, quality of interior design, physical environment elements, spatial diversity, and learning space controllability. Service facility availability is the most critical factor affecting spatial satisfaction. In this study, we present empirical, evidence-based space elements that enhance user satisfaction with library spaces, and provide targeted design suggestions for future library space renovation and the optimization of space allocation and expansion of space services at university libraries in China.

17.
Atmosphere ; 13(5):722, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871354

ABSTRACT

PM2.5 is an air contaminant that has been widely associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health, leading to increased hospital admissions and mortality. Following concerns reported by workers at an industrial facility located in Santa Ana, California, workers and community leaders collaborated with experts in the development of an air monitoring pilot study to measure PM2.5 concentrations to which employees and local residents are exposed during factory operating hours. To detect PM2.5, participants wore government-validated AtmoTube Pro personal air monitoring devices during three separate workdays (5 AM–1:30 PM) in August 2021. Results demonstrated a mean PM2.5 level inside the facility of 112.3 µg/m3, nearly seven-times greater than outdoors (17.3 µg/m3). Of the eight workers who wore personal indoor sampling devices, five showed measurements over 100 μg/m3. Welding-related activity inside the facility resulted in the greatest PM2.5 concentrations. This study demonstrates the utility of using low-cost air quality sensors combined with employee knowledge and participation for the investigation of workplace air pollution exposure as well as facilitation of greater health-related awareness, education, and empowerment among workers and community members. Results also underscore the need for basic measures of indoor air pollution control paired with ongoing air monitoring within the Santa Ana facility, and the importance of future air monitoring studies aimed at industrial facilities.

18.
Mathematics ; 10(10):1734, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870770

ABSTRACT

The vast Brazilian territory and the accelerated economic growth of the cities of the country’s interior in recent years have created a favourable environment for the expansion of regional aviation. In 2015, the Brazilian Government launched a program of investments in regional airports equipping them to receive commercial flights. However, the economic crisis and the scarcity of resources drive the prioritisation of projects with a greater economic and social return. This article aims to present a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) model to measure cities’ attractiveness to receive investments in regional airports. The MCDA approach can deal with multiple indicators and different points of view and provide systematised steps for supporting decision-makers. For this purpose, we selected 12 criteria among the evaluation parameters identified in the literature, which led to the construction of the evaluation model and elaborating the ranking of the localities participating in the investment program. This study can contribute scientifically by proposing the use of an MCDA approach to support decisions related to logistics and infrastructure. It can help managers and practitioners provide a structured and systematised model to address decisions related to airport investments.

19.
Journal of Building Engineering ; : 104593, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1851606

ABSTRACT

Airborne dispersion of the novel SARS-CoV-2 through the droplets produced during expiratory activities is one of the main transmission mechanisms of this virus from one person to another. Understanding how these droplets spread when infected humans with COVID-19 or other airborne infectious diseases breathe, cough or sneeze is essential for improving prevention strategies in academic facilities. This work aims to assess the transport and fate of droplets in indoor environments using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This study employs unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations with the Euler-Lagrange approach to visualize the location of thousands of droplets released in a respiratory event and their size evolution. Furthermore, we assess the dispersion of coughing, sneezing, and breathing saliva droplets from an infected source in a classroom with air conditioning and multiple occupants. The results indicate that the suggested social distancing protocol is not enough to avoid the transmission of COVID-19 since small saliva droplets ( ≤ 12 μm) can travel in the streamwise direction up to 4 m when an infected person coughs and more than 7 m when sneezes. These droplets can reach those distances even when there is no airflow from the wind or ventilation systems. The number of airborne droplets in locations close to the respiratory system of a healthy person increases when the relative humidity of the indoor environment is low. This work sets an accurate, rapid, and validated numerical framework reproducible for various indoor environments integrating qualitative and quantitative data analysis of the droplet size evolution of respiratory events for a safer design of physical distancing standards and air cleaning technologies.

20.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5711, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837633

ABSTRACT

With increasing time spent indoors during the coronavirus disease pandemic, occupants are increasingly affected by indoor space environmental factors. Environmental color stimulates human vision and affects stress levels. This study investigated how changing environmental color chroma affected heart rate variability (HRV) and stress. The HRV of nine males and fifteen females was measured during exposure to 12 color stimuli with changes in chroma under green/blue hues and high/low-value conditions, and a stress assessment was performed. The effect of chroma on the HRV of males and females was verified, but the interaction effect between chroma and gender was not. ln(LF) and RMSSD were valid parameters. ln(LF) of males and females decreased as chroma increased under the green hue and low-value conditions;RMSSD was reduced as chroma increased in the blue hue and low-value conditions. ln(LF) decreased as chroma increased under blue hue and high-value conditions in males. Color–stress evaluation revealed that the higher chroma under high-value conditions, the more positive the stress emotion, and the lower the chroma under low-value conditions, the more negative the stress emotion. As chroma increased under low-value conditions, color is a stress factor;for men, this effect was more evident in the blue hue.

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