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1.
Water ; 14(19):3100, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066637

ABSTRACT

While Rwanda is aiming at environmental pollution resilience and green growth, some industries are still discharging untreated effluent into the environment. This study gives a general overview of the compliance level of industrial effluent discharge in Rwanda and the linked negative environmental impacts. It comprises qualitative and quantitative analyses of data obtained from wastewater samples collected from five selected industries in Rwanda. The selected industries had previously been audited and monitored by the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), due to complains from neighboring residents. The study found that the effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all concerned industries failed to comply with (i) oil and grease (O&G) national and international tolerable parameter limits or the (ii) fecal coliforms national standard. In addition, a compliance level of 66.7% was observed for key water quality monitoring parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and heavy metals (i.e., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)). Following these study findings, one industry was closed by the REMA for deliberately discharging untreated effluent into an adjacent river. This study recommends the adoption of the best available technology for effluent treatment, installation or renovation of existing WWTPs, and the relocation to industrial zones of industries adjacent to fragile environments.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024135

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a major risk factor, and it still remains a global cause of death for millions of people. Indoor air quality (IAQ) plays an important role in human health as people spend most of their time in confined spaces. Many studies have recently addressed this issue, but no systematic analysis has been conducted, which is the aim of our study. We present a bibliographic analysis of articles on IAQ in industrial environments from 2010 to 2021. A total of 658 articles were collected, and 409 were used. The NVivo tool was used to analyze the collected documents both quantitatively and qualitatively. This analysis of the literature enables us to identify the most studied working environments and pollutants, the analysis tools, and the types of measurement used to provide a clear overview of the theme, which includes a comparison between the studied working environments and the state of origin of the authors. Our analysis of each working environment and the related frequently cited pollutants provides a clear approach to identifying the specific areas of focus when improving the quality of the air in a specific working environment. In addition, a research gap and future research areas have been identified in the conclusions.

3.
Energies ; 15(15):5697, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993964

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of pollution control on industrial production efficiency in 31 provinces and cities in the Yellow River and Non-Yellow River basins in China from 2013 to 2017, using the methods of the directional distance function (hereinafter referred to as DDF) and the technology gap ratio (hereinafter referred to as TGR) in parallel, while taking the industrial production sector (labor force, total capital formation, energy consumption and industrial water consumption) and the pollution control sector (wastewater treatment funds and waste gas treatment funds) as input variables. Undesirable outputs (total wastewater discharge, lead, SO2 and smoke and dust in wastewater) and an ideal output variable (industrial output value) are taken as output variables. It is found that the total efficiency of DDF in the Non-Yellow River Basin is 0.9793, which is slightly better than 0.9688 in the Yellow River Basin. Among the 17 provinces and cities with a total efficiency of 1, only Shandong and Sichuan are located in the Yellow River Basin. The TGR values of 31 provinces, cities and administrative regions are less than 1, and the average TGR value of the Yellow River Basin is 0.3825, which is lower than the average TGR value of the Non-Yellow River Basin of 0.5234. We can start by improving the allocation of manpower and capital, implementing the use of pollution prevention and control funds, improving the technical level of industrial production, improving pollutant emission, and increasing output value to improve overall efficiency performance. This study uses the parallel method, taking the industrial production department and the pollution control department as inputs, to objectively evaluate the changes in industrial production efficiency and technology gap in the Yellow River and Non-Yellow River basins, which is conducive to mastering the situation of pollution control and industrial production efficiency, and provides the reference for SDG-6- and SDG-9-related policy making.

4.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

5.
Journal of the Geological Society of India ; 98(7):971-975, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1943294

ABSTRACT

In the present situation, Covid-19 is considered to be an unbeaten global pandemic. In every single fleeting moment, this SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus-2) causes greater damage to our life including the physical world including drastic imbalance of the whole economic condition of any country. The lockdown governed in two consecutive years (2020 and 2021) in the world to control the spreading of the virus poses an undue threat to the industrial sectors including the coal mining sectors that determine the economic growth of the country. With these negative impacts of coronavirus-2 in our life, this present review aims to explore some of the positive influences of the Covid-19 pandemic through the restoration of the environmental system which are otherwise not possible. This quantitative review finds that spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic indirectly improves the air and water quality by reducing the number of vehicles, reduces the CO2, NOx, particulate matter, and other polluting gases emission from coal-based power plants through periodical lockdown in the country. Moreover, the lockdown implemented to minimise the spreading of the Covid-19 significantly reduces the coal dust production from the mining and transportation of coal that indirectly reduces environmental pollution.

6.
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology ; 47(3):174-182, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1910961

ABSTRACT

The results of numerical modeling of air pollution using CHIMERE and COSMO-ART chemical transport models are presented. The modeling was performed according to the scenarios of the 50–60% reduction of emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Moscow region during the period of March–July 2020. Scenario calculations of pollutant concentrations were compared with baseline simulations using regionally adapted inventory of anthropogenic pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. The most significant decrease in the concentrations of NO2 and CO was reproduced by the models when emissions from two sectoral sources (vehicles and nonindustrial plants) were reduced. The PM10 drop was mostly influenced by the reduction of emissions from industrial combustion. With the total reduction of emissions from anthropogenic sources as compared to the baseline calculations, the pollutant concentration decreased by 44–54% for NO2, by 38–44% for CO, and by 26–39% for PM10. This generally coincides with the quantitative estimates of the pollution level drop obtained by other authors. The greatest effect of reducing pollutant emissions into the atmosphere was found during the episodes of adverse weather conditions for air purification, when the simulated and observed pollution level increases by 3–5 times as compared to the conditions of intense pollutant dispersion.

7.
Resources Policy ; 77:102760, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1852001

ABSTRACT

China’s economy is experiencing a rapid revival in the post Covid-19 era, while energy consumption is surging and environmental pressure is prominent. Environmental protection expenditure is an important means for local governments to improve environmental quality;it plays a crucial role in guiding market investment, providing environmental treatment funds and energy conservation and utilization. Based on a sample of 286 prefecture-level cities in China from 2007 to 2017, this study analyzes environmental governance effects of local environmental protection expenditure while considering the time duration, regional differences, and spatial spillover characteristics of industrial pollution emissions. The results reveal that local environmental protection expenditure could help reduce industrial pollution emissions in Chinese cities;however, the governance effects were heterogeneous in different clustering city groups. In addition, the effects of environmental protection expenditure at the neighborhood level varied greatly;the results showed that the stronger the spillover of pollutants, the more significant was the trans-regional governance effect of local environmental protection expenditure. Therefore, local governments should promote a cooperative mode of “joint prevention and control and cross-regional governance” when treating pollutants with strong spillover potential.

8.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences ; 15(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1773016

ABSTRACT

Overall lockdown limitations toward the start of the year 2020 are credited to the annihilation and fatalities worldwide because of COVID-19. Most of the nations revealed rapid growth of COVID-19 cases and subsequently declared lockdown in several stages. Because of these lockdowns, industries had to stop producing goods other than the actual merchandise needed to survive. The air quality and natural water quality witnessed a noticeable improvement from limited human activity. This paper presents an investigation demonstrating this improvement under various lockdown periods, specifically for the Indian subcontinent. The rivers and atmosphere of Indian settings have been utilized here as a contextual analysis associated with industrial pollution. This work aims to study the associations and interrelationships between lockdowns during COVID-19 and their effect on air and water quality. The paper presents then and now an analysis of the Indian atmosphere based on various particulate matters and river health based on the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The study indicated a significant dip in air and water pollution levels and a significant improvement in the atmosphere and rivers’ quality during this period. Significant water bodies witnessed the pH level of 7.5 amidst lockdown, which is a good indicator of improved water health since the pH level of drinkable water is 7. The analysis carried out in this paper can also be mapped to other countries and landscapes of the world.

9.
Revista Ambiente & Água ; 17(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1701857

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollution is a worldwide concern, especially when caused by sewage dumping into water bodies. Many substances are present in industrial or domestic wastewater, causing contamination in superficial water collection. Surfactants stand out for being widely used both industrially and domestically. The use of detergents and many types of surfactants was increased during the Covid-19 pandemic period, a fact observed in the levels in the effluent sample analysis from a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) - Vila City around 21 and 39 mg L-1 in this period. This work evaluated the surfactant concentrations in the primary and secondary treatment units of the Vila City STP, in the city of Paranavaí-PR.-Brazil. In addition, the use of a post-treatment by slow sand filtration and adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds in the complementary removal of surfactants was proposed. A mixed bed with sand and activated carbon columns was made on a pilot scale, and filtration/adsorption runs were performed simulating slow filtration with rates of approximately 15 m3 m-2 day-1. The parameters used for the efficiency removal evaluation in a pilot plant run were: turbidity (NTU) and surfactant concentrations. The removal of surfactant concentrations was about 9% and 7% in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactors (UASB-RALF) and in the secondary treatment, respectively, at the STP - Vila City units. In the post-treatment proposed by filtration/adsorption, bed columns on a pilot scale plant obtained a reduction of approximately 94% in terms of turbidity (NTU) and 95% in terms of surfactant removal.Alternate :Poluiçâo ambiental é uma preocupaçâo mundial, especialmente causada por despejos de esgotos nos coleçâo hídrica. Diversas substancias compöem os despejos e residuos industriais e esgotos domésticos. Os surfactantes destacam-se por serem amplamente usados tanto industrialmente como domesticamente. O consumo de detergentes e diversos tipos de tensoativos foi incrementado durante o período de pandemia da Covid-19, fato observado nos teores de surfactantes no efluente das Estaçöes de Tratamento de Esgoto (ETE) - Vila City entre 21 e 39 mg L-1 neste período de tempo. Este trabalho avaliou as concentraçöes de surfactantes em diferentes etapas da ETE da Vila City, na cidade de Paranavaí, PR.- Brasil. Além disso, propôs-se a utilizaçao de um pós-tratamento por filtraçâo/adsorçâo por carvão ativado produzido a partir da borra de café na remoçao complementar dos surfactantes. Foram confeccionadas colunas de adsorçao com meio filtrante de areia e carvão em escala piloto e realizados ensaios de filtração/adsorção simulando filtração lenta com taxas de aproximadamente 15 m3 m-2 dia-1. Os parámetros utilizados na aval

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