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1.
International Economic Review ; : 42, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819900

ABSTRACT

In lower-income countries, the economic contractions that accompany lockdowns to contain COVID-19 transmission can increase child mortality, counteracting the mortality reductions achieved by the lockdown. To formalize and quantify this effect, we build a macrosusceptible-infected-recovered model that features heterogeneous agents and a country-group-specific relationship between economic downturns and child mortality and calibrate it to data for 85 countries across all income levels. We find that in some low-income countries, a lockdown can produce net increases in mortality. The optimal lockdown that maximizes the present value of aggregate social welfare is shorter and milder in poorer countries than in rich ones.

2.
Journal of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 32(1):7-12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818564

ABSTRACT

Objective: As approval of one of many coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines' use for pregnancy is getting closer, vaccine hesitancy may take place in pregnant individuals for this new vaccine. Our study aimed to evaluate vaccine acceptance and factors affecting vaccine acceptance in case of an approved COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant individuals. Material and Methods: Our study was designed as one group, cross-sectional, prospective study. Sample consisted of pregnant individuals who didn't have any chronic illnesses and didn't contract COVID-19 in the last 6 months. In-person style survey was used to collect data about demographics, knowledge about COVID- 19 disease and it's effects on pregnant individuals, vaccine acceptance and reasons for acceptance or refusal. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Shapiro-Wilk test of normality using Number Cruncher Statistical System. Results: Among 250 participants, 183 (73.2%) reported they wouldn't accept COVID-19 vaccination if there was a safe and effective vaccine approved for use in pregnancy. Main reasons of refusal were the belief that vaccine hadn't been studied on humans enough or that it might have adverse effectes on baby and/or pregnant individual. Only factor associated with vaccine acceptance was found to be knowing someone who had severe COVID-19 disease (p=0.022). Conclusion: Our study shows that vaccine hesitancy rates may be high among pregnant individuals when a COVID-19 vaccine is approved for use in pregnancy. The main reason for vaccine hesitancy is safety concerns.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818133

ABSTRACT

Perinatal maternal anxiety and depression negatively affect intrauterine fetal develop-ment, birth outcome, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and milk composition. Antenatal classes potentially reduce the anxiety of pregnant women and may thus contribute to healthy infant devel-opment. The study investigates the relationship between participation in online or in-person antenatal classes and levels of anxiety and depression in Polish women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study group included 1774 adult, non-smoking pregnant women. We compared the state anxiety (STAI-State) and depression levels (EPDS) in women who (i) attended antenatal classes in-per-son, (ii) attended online classes, and (iii) did not attend any of them. The statistical analyses included a GLM model and trend analysis, while controlling for maternal trait anxiety, age, pregnancy com-plications, trimester of pregnancy, previous pregnancies, and COVID-19 infections. We observed statistically significant differences in the level of anxiety (and depression). Women who did attend antenatal classes in person had the lowest levels of anxiety and depression. Considering the im-portance of maternal mental well-being on fetal development, birth outcome, and breastfeeding, in-person participation in antenatal classes should be recommended to pregnant women.

5.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817994

ABSTRACT

Objective: We sought to compare the clinical characteristics of pediatric respiratory tract infection and respiratory pathogen isolations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to those of cases in 2018 and 2019. Methods: Our study included all children from 28 days to 15 years old with respiratory tract infections who were admitted to the Department of Respiration, in the Children's Hospital of Soochow University, between January 2018 and December 2020. Human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and human bocavirus (HBoV) were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR);In parallel, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and bacteria were detected by culture in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage specimen, and pleural fluid. Results: Compared to 2018 and 2019, the pathogen detection rate was significantly lower in 2020. With regard to infections caused by single pathogens, in 2020, the detection rates of MP were the lowest and those of HRV were the highest when compared to those in 2018 and 2019. Meanwhile, the positive rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and hMPV reported in 2020 were less than those recorded in 2018 but similar to those recorded in 2019. Also, the 2020 rate of adenovirus (ADV) was lower than that recorded in 2019, but similar to that recorded in 2018. There were no statistical differences in the positive rates of HBoV and PIV III over the 3 years surveyed. Infections in infants were significantly less common in 2020, but no significant difference was found among children aged 1 to 3 years. The detection rate of pathogens in children old than 5 years in 2020 was significantly lower than those recorded in the previous 2 years. Notably, the pathogen detection rates in the first and second quarters of 2020 were similar to those recorded in the previous 2 years;however, the rates were reduced in the third and fourth quarters of 2020. As for co-infections, the positive rate was at its lowest in 2020. In the previous 2 years, viral–MP was the most common type of mixed infection. By contrast, in 2020, viral–viral infections were the most common combination. Conclusion: The pathogen detection rate was significantly reduced in Suzhou City during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public interventions may help to prevent respiratory pathogen infections in children.

6.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817983

ABSTRACT

Background: The delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 was the dominant viral strain causing COVID-19 in China, 2021. We reported a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant outbreak in Jingmen City, Hubei Province, China. Methods: The data of epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, and vaccination of COVID-19 cases were collected through field investigation and analyzed. Results: During the outbreak from 4 to 20 August 2021, 58 cases of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2) were identified with 15 (25.9%) asymptomatic and 43 (74.1%) symptomatic (mild and moderate) patients. The mean serial interval was 2.6 days (standard deviation: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.9–3.6). The median age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 1 to 60 years) with the high proportion in children (19.0%). The secondary attack rate was 9.8% higher from parents to their children (<18 years) (46.2%, 95% CI: 14.8–77.5%) than that between spouses (36.4%, 95% CI: 14.5–58.2%), but no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05). Approximately half (27;46.6%) of cases were vaccine breakthrough infections. In vaccine breakthrough cases (fully vaccinated), viral loads decreased 1.9–3.4-folds (p < 0.05), duration of viral shedding shortened 5 days (p < 0.05), and the risk of becoming symptomatic from asymptomatic decreased 33% (95% CI: 5–53%) (aged ≥12 years) than those in unvaccinated infections. Conclusions: Children are highly susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in the COVID-19 outbreak in Jingmen City in 2021. Inactivated vaccine derived from wide-type strain can effectively reduce the viral load, duration of viral shedding, and clinical severity in vaccine breakthrough cases. Our study indicates that protective measures that include full vaccination against COVID-19, especially in children, should be strengthened.

7.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816933

ABSTRACT

Importance: Given concerns that cancer patients may be at increased risk of COVID-19 and may have more severe complications if infected, there have been profound changes to routine cancer care. We aimed to identify risk factors for developing COVID-19 among cancer patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of cancer patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1, 2020 and June 6, 2020 at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH)/Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) in New York City. During this time period, all hospitalized patients (starting April 4, 2020) and all symptomatic cancer patients seen in the outpatient clinics were tested for COVID-19. Our primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 test results, defined as positive (SARS-CoV-2 detected on at least one test) or negative (not detected on any COVID-19 tests). Clinical data extraction included: age, sex, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian, other, unknown), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, time since cancer diagnosis, cancer type, current cancer status, most recent cancer treatment type within the past year, time since last cancer treatment prior to COVID-19 testing, and infusion center visit within the past year. Chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the association between demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment-related factors and COVID-19 test results while controlling for covariates. Results: A total of 1,174 cancer patients were tested for COVID-19 with 317 (27%) patients testing positive. Demographic characteristics of the study population included a median age of 67 years (range, 1-103), 55.1% female, and 35.7% non-Hispanic white, 32.5% Hispanic, 15.2% non-Hispanic black, and 4.0% Asian. About 27.2% had a recent cancer diagnosis, 56.7% had active disease, and 56.7% were on active cancer treatment within the past year. In multivariable analysis, older age and higher BMI were associated with COVID-19. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, black and Hispanic cancer patients were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.44-3.40 and OR=2.71, 95% CI=1.91-3.83, respectively). A recent cancer diagnosis, active disease, and active cancer treatment were not associated with COVID-19. Compared to cancer patients not on active treatment, those receiving chemotherapy were less likely to develop COVID-19 (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.44-0.95). We observed excess deaths among cancer patients who tested positive vs. negative for COVID-19 (28.4% vs. 8.3%, p<0.001). Conclusions and Relevance: Consistent with the general population, we found that older age, minority race/ethnicity, and obesity were associated with COVID-19 among cancer patients. Surprisingly, patients on active treatment including chemotherapy were not at increased risk for COVID-19. Therefore, delays in cancer diagnosis and treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic should be minimized.

8.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):179, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816641

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 lockdown measures implemented in March 2020 markedly reduced hospitalisations of infants with respiratory infections at Kidz First Hospital. There was no characteristic winter peak of respiratory infections with only three hospitalisations during 1 March-31 August with a positive PCR result for RSV and one for influenza. The commencement of quarantine-free travel between Australia and New Zealand started in April 2021 and within 2 weeks there was a positive PCR panel for RSV at Kidz First, the first RSV positive test for over a year with case numbers steadily increasing thereafter. Methods: To confirm the return of the winter peak we examined respiratory viral PCR test results and infant lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) hospitalization data from 1 January 2015, through 31 July 2021. All specimens submitted by Kidz First clinicians for respiratory viral PCR testing were identified. ICD codes were used to identify infants <2 years of age hospitalized for >3 h with a LRTI. Results: During the months of March-July the number of inpatient hospitalisations at Kidz First varied from 944 in 2015 to 706 in 2018. There was a dramatic reduction to 144 hospitalisations in 2020 but this has rebounded back to 730 in 2021. The number of positive PCR panels for RSV increased to 803(52%) with a much higher percentage than any previous year. There were no PCR positive tests for influenza A or B. The percentage of positive PCR panels for adenovirus (7%), parainfluenza (4%) and rhinovirus/ enterovirus (53%) have remained similar to previous years. Clinician-directed investigation of infants with respiratory infections has increased in response to COVID-19. Conclusion: Easing of COVID-19 restrictions and commencement of quarantine-free travel with Australia has likely resulted in the return of RSV and LRTI hospitalisations rates similar to previous winter peaks.

9.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):185, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816637

ABSTRACT

Introduction: PCD is a rare, progressive disease resulting in upper and lower respiratory tract manifestations that increase the risk of sleep disordered breathing. This study is the first to characterize sleep quality in Australian children with PCD and examine it is relationship to mood and health-related quality of life (HrQOL). Methods: Clinically stable children with PCD (1-18 years of age) were recruited. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the SDSC, PDSS and OSA-18 questionnaires. HrQOL and depressive symptoms were assessed via age-appropriate QOL-PCD and CDI questionnaires. Demographic data including passive smoke exposure was recorded. Pulmonary function testing and ENT assessments were performed. Children underwent overnight polysomnography including transcutaneous CO2 and video monitoring (50% studies complete due to Covid restrictions). Results: Twenty-two participants (10 female) aged 8.1 ± 5.1 (mean ± SD) years were recruited. Mean(±SD) FEV1 was 78.2 ± 21.2%. Ninety-two percent of children assessed were diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and 35% exposed to regular passive cigarette smoke. Polysomnography identified sleep fragmentation in 90% of studies and one case of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Subjective sleep questionnaires revealed 76% of parents and 50% of children reported clinically significant scores indicating sleep disturbance and excessive daytime somnolence respectively. Twenty-seven percent of parents reported a moderate-severe impact of sleep disturbance on QOL. Forty-six percent of children had elevated depression scores. HrQOL and mood scores were correlated with poor subjective sleep quality. Children exposed to passive cigarette smoke had poorer subjective sleep quality and lower HrQOL and mood. Conclusion: Even in periods of clinical stability, children with PCD exhibit poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness and this is associated with lower mood and HrQOL. Based on these findings, we recommend routine screening for mental health and symptoms of sleep disturbance in children and adolescents with PCD. The continued education of children and families regarding the effects of cigarette smoke is advised.

10.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):14184-14200, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1813104

ABSTRACT

Primipara are often faced the difficulty and even failure in breastfeeding, the low of lactation management is the main cause. This research aimed to assess the difference in lactation management education media on increasing knowledge, attitude, and practice of lactation management in primipara aged 0-3 months at the Sudiang Raya Public Health Center Makassar City. The research method was a quasi-experimental design with a pre-posttest control group design. The total sample was 60 primiparas who had infants aged 0-3 months (30 intervention groups, 30 control groups). Sampling was done by a simple random sampling. The intervention group used modern media, namely an apllication based on smartphone called MOMASI (Mobile Lactation Management) used for 12 weeks and the control group used a conventional media, leaflets. Data were analyzed using Paired T-test, Independent T-test, Mann Whitney and Chi-Square. The results showed, before education there was no significant difference between the two groups on the average score of knowledge, attitude, and lactation management practice (p= 0.671, 0.910, 0.095;p > 0.000). In the intervention and control groups, there was a significant increase on the average score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of lactation management between before and after the intervention (p=0.000). After education, there was a significant difference between the two groups on the average score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of lactation management (p=0.000). In the difference on the average scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice of lactation management after the intervention, the MOMASI group was better than the Leaflet group. MOMASI and Leaflets can improve knowledge, attitude, and practice of lactation management. However, MOMASI is more efficient and effective in Communication, Information and Education (KIE), especially during the Covid-19 pandemic.

11.
Revista de Psicanalise da Sociedade Psicanalitica de Porto Alegre ; 28(2):483-502, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1812992

ABSTRACT

The need for social isolation prompted psychoanalysts to think about ways to receive psychic distressed babies and their families. If online analysis with adults is considered challenging, how can the use of this technology in the parent-infant clinic be sustained? We present reflections from clinical vignettes, in the interface with impacts on technique and ethics. Faced with the need to ensure a preventive approach, we ask: How to preserve the setting, the analyst's interior framework, the field of language, the fine observation of what emanates from the baby and his/her parents? How to get in touch with the inner worlds of analyst, parents, and the baby, and use them online? Would the gaze continue to exercise the primordial function of summoning and appealing in the digital interface? By changing our view, we shift within the analytical setting, admitting the possibility of a new symbolic perspective, a new relationship with the technique, with us, with the other, with the knowing/not knowing. We bet on the digital interface in the parent-infant online clinic, provided the technical and ethical implications that should guide the clinical orientation are considered, above fads and emergency needs, but into psychic urgency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Portuguese) A necessidade de isolamento social impulsionou psicanalistas a pensarem sobre formas de acolher bebes com sinais de sofrimento psiquico e suas familias. Se a analise on-line com adultos e considerada desafiante, como sustentar o uso dessa tecnologia na clinica pais-bebes? Apresentamos reflexoes sobre o uso da tecnologia a partir de vinhetas clinicas, na interface com impactos sobre a tecnica e a etica. Diante da necessidade de garantir um olhar de prevencao, questionamos: como preservar o setting, o enquadre interior do analista, o campo da linguagem, a observacao fina do que emana do bebe e de seus pais? Como entrar em contato com os mundos internos do analista, dos pais e do bebe, e utiliza-los no campo analitico on-line? Ao alterar o nosso olhar, fazemos um deslocamento dentro do setting analitico, admitindo a possibilidade de nova perspectiva simbolica, nova relacao com a tecnica, conosco, com o outro, com o saber/nao saber. Apostamos na "interface" digital na clinica pais e bebes on-line, desde que consideradas as implicacoes tecnicas e eticas que devem pautar a orientacao clinica, acima de modismos e necessidades emergenciais, mas na urgencia psiquica. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Spanish) La necesidad de aislamiento social impulse a los psicoanalistas a pensar formas de acoger a los bebes con signos de angustia psiquica y sus familias. Si el analisis en linea con adultos se considera un desafio, zetacomo se puede sostener el uso de esta tecnologia en la clinica para padres y bebes? Presentamos reflexiones con vinetas clinicas, en la interfaz con impactos en la tecnica y etica. Ante la necesidad de asegurar una mirada preventiva, preguntamos: zetacomo preservar el setting, el marco interno del analista, el campo del lenguaje, la fina observacion de lo que emana del bebe y sus padres? zetaComo entrar en contacto con los mundos internes del analista, de los padres y del bebe, y utilizarlos en el campo analitico en linea? (.Seguiria la mirada ejerciendo la funcion primordial de convocar y apelar en la interfaz digital? Al cambiar nuestra mirada, nos desplazamos dentro del setting analitico, admitiendo la posibilidad de nueva perspectiva simbolica, nueva relacion con la tecnica, con nosotros, con el otro, con saber/no saber. Apostamos por la interfaz digital en la clinica de padres y bebes en linea, siempre que se consideren las implicaciones tecnicas y eticas que deben guiar la orientacion clinica, por encima de modas y necesidades de emergencia, pero en urgencia psiquica. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Agbiol ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812625

ABSTRACT

For women's health, breastfeeding has extraordinary benefits. Breast milk has a high impact on the healthy nutrition and development of children. It provides the baby with the necessary vitamins and minerals. Our study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of young mothers towards breastfeeding. During the Covid-19 pandemic process, breastfeeding and barriers to breastfeeding were examined. Participants consisted of women between the ages of 18 and 38. Those with at least 1 living child who applied to the Trakya University hospital gynecology outpatient clinic were included in the study. Those who were pregnant or suspected of pregnancy were excluded from the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with mothers who agreed to participate in the study. The Breast Feeding Knowledge Questionnaire is a scale developed based on WHO and UNICEF breastfeeding recommendations for optimal infant feeding as well as previous research with similar aims used. The study showed that;participants had a good knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for infant and maternal health. The outcome of this study was twofold;Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge among young women were evaluated and the barriers to breastfeeding during the pandemic were tried to be determined. The most women;She had a positive attitude towards breastfeeding. However, there were many obstacles to breastfeeding during the pandemic period. Health professionals must actively work with women to overcome these barriers. It is important to run an awareness campaign to make women aware of the importance of breastfeeding. Studies should be developed on how to overcome breastfeeding and barriers to breastfeeding during the pandemic.

13.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 21(2):1-2, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812557
14.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology ; 70(2):702-703, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810689
15.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:809285, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809384

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has led to a worldwide challenge for the rapid development of vaccines. Several types of safe and effective vaccines have been available in a time frame never seen before. Now that several hundred million people have been vaccinated there is an opportunity to compare vaccines in terms of protection and immune response. Here, we have applied a highly sensitive multiplexed flow cytometry method to measure simultaneously IgM, IgG1 and IgA anti-spike protein antibodies generated in response to three vaccines: ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech). We have found that mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) induce a stronger humoral response, both after the first and the second dose, than the adenovirus-based ChAdOx1 vaccine. We also found that, in the elderly, antibody titers negatively correlate with the age of the donor but, also, that antibody titers remain stable for at least 6 months after complete vaccination. Finally, we found that one dose of BNT162b2 is sufficient to induce the highest antibody titers in seropositive pre-vaccination donors. We hope these data will help to guide future decisions on vaccination strategies.

16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1):342, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health has long fallen behind physical health in attention, funding, and action-especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It has been conspicuously absent from global reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (MNCAH) programming, despite increasing awareness of the intergenerational impact of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMDs). However, the universal health coverage (UHC) movement and COVID-19 have brought mental health to the forefront, and the MNCAH community is looking to understand how to provide women effective, sustainable care at scale. To address this, MOMENTUM Country and Global Leadership (MCGL) commissioned a landscape analysis in December 2020 to assess the state of CPMDs and identify what is being done to address the burden in LMICs. METHODS: The landscape analysis (LA) used a multitiered approach. First, reviewers chose a scoping review methodology to search literature in PubMed, Google Scholar, PsychInfo, and Scopus. Titles and s were reviewed before a multidisciplinary team conducted data extraction and analysis on relevant articles. Second, 44 key informant interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted with mental health, MNCAH, humanitarian, nutrition, gender-based violence (GBV), advocacy, and implementation research experts. Finally, reviewers completed a document analysis of relevant mental health policies from 19 countries. RESULTS: The LA identified risk factors for CPMDs, maternal mental health interventions and implementation strategies, and remaining knowledge gaps. Risk factors included social determinants, such as economic or gender inequality, and individual experiences, such as stillbirth. Core components identified in successful perinatal mental health (PMH) interventions at community level included stepped care, detailed context assessments, task-sharing models, and talk therapy;at health facility level, they included pre-service training on mental health, trained and supervised providers, referral and assessment processes, mental health support for providers, provision of respectful care, and linkages with GBV services. Yet, significant gaps remain in understanding how to address CPMDs. CONCLUSION: These findings illuminate an urgent need to provide CPMD prevention and care to women in LMICs. The time is long overdue to take perinatal mental health seriously. Efforts should strive to generate better evidence while implementing successful approaches to help millions of women "suffering in silence."

18.
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807001

ABSTRACT

Background Aims Materials and method Results Conclusion Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe COVID‐19 and are a priority group for vaccination. The discrepancy in vaccination rates between pregnant and non‐pregnant cohorts is concerning.This study aimed to assess the perceptions and intentions of pregnant women toward COVID‐19 vaccination and explored vaccine uptake and reasons for vaccine hesitancy.A cross‐sectional exploratory design was performed evaluating pregnant women receiving care in two metropolitan maternity units in Western Australia. The main measurable outcomes included vaccination status, intention to be vaccinated, and reasons for delaying or declining vaccination.In total, 218 women participated. Of these, 122 (56%) had not received either dose of the COVID‐19 vaccine. Sixty (28%) claimed that vaccination was not discussed with them and 33 (15%) reported being dissuaded from vaccination by a healthcare practitioner. Compared to vaccinated women, those who had not accepted vaccination were less likely to have had vaccination discussed by maternity staff, less aware that pregnant women are a priority group, and less aware that pregnancy increased the risk of severe illness. Unvaccinated women were concerned about the side effects of the vaccine for their newborn and their own health, felt there was inadequate information on safety during pregnancy, and felt that a lack of community transmission in Western Australia reduced the necessity to be vaccinated.Vaccine delay and hesitancy is common among pregnant women in Western Australia. Education of healthcare professionals and pregnant women on the recommendation for COVID‐19 vaccination in pregnancy is required. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):2157, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1805609

ABSTRACT

In low and middle income countries macroeconomic volatility is common, and severe negative economic shocks can substantially increase poverty and food insecurity. Less well understood are the implications of these contractions for child acute malnutrition (wasting), a major risk factor for under-5 mortality. This study explores the nutritional impacts of economic growth shocks over 1990-2018 by linking wasting outcomes collected for 1.256 million children from 52 countries to lagged annual changes in economic growth. Estimates suggest that a 10% annual decline in national income increases moderate/severe wasting prevalence by 14.4-17.8%. An exploration of possible mechanisms suggests negative economic shocks may increase risks of inadequate dietary diversity among children. Applying these results to the latest economic growth estimates for 2020 suggests that COVID-19 could put an additional 9.4 million preschoolers at risk of wasting, net of the effects of preventative policy actions.

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