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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343172

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPrevention and management of COVID-19 nosocomial outbreaks is essential to protect patients and healthcare workers, and to maintain clinical care activities. The COVID-19 pandemic exposed challenges faced by conventional hospital epidemiology for identification of healthcare associated infections.MethodsThis is a prospective molecular epidemiology study based at a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. When nosocomial transmission was suspected by local infection control teams’ investigations, SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequencing was performed locally for all putative outbreak cases. Molecular and conventional epidemiology data were rapidly produced and correlated just-in-time to improve understanding of COVID-19 transmission and reinforce or adapt control measures.FindingsBetween April 2020 and October 2021, six outbreaks including 59 nosocomial infections as per the epidemiological definition were investigated. Genomic data supported seven distinct transmission clusters involving 6 patients and 26 healthcare workers. Multiple distinct modes of transmission were identified leading to reinforcement and adaptation of infection control measures. Molecular epidemiology data also refuted (n=14) suspected transmission envents in favor of community acquired but institutionnaly clustered cases.InterpretationOur findings confirm that SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing can refute or strenghten transmission hypotheses from conventional nosocomial epidemiological investigations, and guide implementation of setting-specific control strategies. Our study represents a template for prospective, on site, outbreak-focused SARS-CoV-2 sequencing, an approach which may become increasingly relevant in a COVID endemic state where systematic sequencing within centralized surveillance programs is not available. Trial Registration Details: This study protocol was made publicly available on ClinicalTrials.gov under ID NCT05411562.

2.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 34(3):214-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026014

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of respiratory tract infection caused by human rhinovirus (HRV) in a school in Nanxun District of Huzhou City, and provide scientific evidence for prevention and control of outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infection caused by HRV in the future.

3.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning ; 17(4):1169-1179, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025942

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is regarded as a pivotal point in human history. The goal of architecture is to solve problems like the novel COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, new future methods to designing buildings and create environments emerged, with hospital design and infection control being prioritized as a key pillar of health care. Hospitals, like battlegrounds, require a future design that prioritizes speed and safety, not just during treatment but also during testing and follow-up care. The research aims to create an appealing, humane, and optimal therapeutic environment for dealing with the pandemic in order to raise the degree of safety that aids in the prevention of infection and illness spread. The research employs a deductive methodology, with the goal of discussing the evolution of the design of the future hospital environment through a set of design strategies based on social distancing policy, adaptability, flexibility, and engineering control of new preventive measures to deal with the current and potential future pandemics, while also considering humanistic aspects. The questionnaire was conducted to test the goals and strategies of this research through a group of specialists in order to reach the graphic results of the importance of these strategies in helping to design the hospital of the future, paving the way for future studies and research to develop building design and create environments of future hospitals. © 2022 WITPress. All rights reserved.

4.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S93-S94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024827

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 outbreak in the Wuhan city of China has been declared as a public health emergency of international concern and as a pandemic, and it is a marker that the caseload of the disease is increasing at a rapid pace. It has been recommended that the suspect cases need to be isolated and monitored in healthcare establishments, keeping in mind the quality of care and security of the general population. However, in special circumstances such as lack of isolation wards or lack of infrastructure/human resources to provide healthcare or even in situations, wherein the existing hospitals refuse admission of suspects due to their own limitations, it becomes quite essential to think about home-based management. However, such a decision should be taken only after thorough clinical evaluation, after thorough assessment of the safety of the home environment, and after healthcare personnel is assigned the responsibility to act as a bridge between hospital and home care till the patient completely recovers. In conclusion, provision of home-based care for asymptomatic contacts or potential suspect with mild symptoms is a crucial domain in settings with limited healthcare infrastructure. However, considering the magnitude of the cases and lack of preparedness, it becomes very much essential to strengthen home-based care. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

5.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(12):12316-12333, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2024423

ABSTRACT

Due to the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease, many recent studies have investigated prediction methods for infectious disease transmission. This paper proposes a framework to quickly screen infection control scenarios and identify the most effective scheme for reducing the number of infected individuals. Analytical methods, as typified by the SIR model, can conduct trial -and-error verification with low computational costs;however, they must be reformulated to introduce additional constraints, and thus are inappropriate for case studies considering detailed constraint parameters. In contrast, multi-agent system (MAS) simulators introduce detailed parameters but incur high computation costs per simulation, making them unsuitable for extracting effective measures. Therefore, we propose a framework that implements an MAS for constructing a training dataset, and then trains a support vector regression (SVR) model to obtain effective measure results. The proposed framework overcomes the weaknesses of conventional methods to produce effective control measure recommendations. The constructed SVR model was experimentally verified by comparing its performance on datasets with expected and unexpected outputs. Although datasets producing an unexpected output decreased the prediction accuracy, by removing randomness from the training dataset, the accuracy of the proposed method was still high in these cases. High-precision predictions of the MAS-based simulation output were obtained for both test datasets in under one second of the computational time. Furthermore, the experimental results establish that the proposed framework can obtain intuitively correct outputs for unknown inputs, and produces sufficiently high-precision prediction with lower computation costs than an existing method.

6.
Pathogens ; 11(8):869, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023965

ABSTRACT

As of 15 June, there have been, globally, a total of 2103 laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case of Monkeypox, including one death. We report two cases of vesicular infectious diseases, one of those is the first case of Monkeypox in the Campania Region. The report, therefore, highlights a recrudescent infection disease that could represent a challenge in differential diagnosis with other vesicular infectious diseases such as Varicella Zoster Virus, during a pandemic season that does not seem to end. Indeed, varicella should be carefullu considered in differential diagnosis according to its vesicular or pustular rash to have a prompt diagnosis and public health response in case of monkeypox infection.

7.
Healthcare ; 10(8):1517, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023393

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to check the extent of nursing professionalism, time pressure, infection control, organizational culture, and the infection control practices of nurses, and to assess the factors that impart an influence on their infection control practices. This is a descriptive survey study aimed at the assessment of factors that impart an influence on the infection control practice of nurses by using a structuralized questionnaire. As the result of this study, the infection control practices of nurses have a positive correlation with the time pressure (r = 0.16, p = 0.034) and the organizational culture for infection control (r = 0.29, p < 0.001). Factors that affect the infection control practices included the organizational culture for infection control (β = 0.29, p < 0.001) and time pressure (β = 0.16, p = 0.024), with the explanation power of 10%. It was possible to confirm that the affirmative organizational culture for infection control plays an important role in enhancing the infection control practices of nurses. Accordingly, it is necessary to provide administrative and financial support from the organization, including support by the management and administrators of clinical practices, as well as the provision of required commodities in order for nurses to execute infection control in accordance with the prescribed regulations.

8.
Antibiotics ; 11(8):1015, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023074

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the global efforts to antagonize carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) spreading, it remains an emerging threat with a related mortality exceeding 40% among critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence concerning the best infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies to fight CRAB spreading in endemic hospitals. Methods: The study was a critical review of the literature aiming to evaluate all available studies reporting IPC measures to control CRAB in ICU and outside ICU in both epidemic and endemic settings in the past 10 years. Results: Among the 12 included studies, the majority consisted of research reports of outbreaks mostly occurred in ICUs. The reported mortality reached 50%. Wide variability was observed related to the frequency of application of recommended CRAB IPC measures among the studies: environmental disinfection (100%);contact precautions (83%);cohorting staff and patients (75%);genotyping (66%);daily chlorhexidine baths (58%);active rectal screening (50%);closing or stopping admissions to the ward (33%). Conclusions: Despite effective control of CRAB spreading during the outbreaks, the IPC measures reported were heterogeneous and highly dependent on the different setting as well as on the structural characteristics of the wards. Reinforced ‘search and destroy’ strategies both on the environment and on the patient, proved to be the most effective measures for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading.

10.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021491

ABSTRACT

Transmission of respiratory pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is more likely during close, prolonged contact and when sharing a poorly ventilated space. Reducing overcrowding of health facilities is a recognised infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy;reliable estimates of waiting times and 'patient flow' would help guide implementation. As part of the Umoya omuhle study, we aimed to estimate clinic visit duration, time spent indoors versus outdoors, and occupancy density of waiting rooms in clinics in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Western Cape (WC), South Africa. We used unique barcodes to track attendees' movements in 11 clinics, multiple imputation to estimate missing arrival and departure times, and mixed-effects linear regression to examine associations with visit duration. 2,903 attendees were included. Median visit duration was 2 hours 36 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 01:36-3:43). Longer mean visit times were associated with being female (13.5 minutes longer than males;p<0.001) and attending with a baby (18.8 minutes longer than those without;p<0.01), and shorter mean times with later arrival (14.9 minutes shorter per hour after 0700;p<0.001). Overall, attendees spent more of their time indoors (median 95.6% [IQR 46-100]) than outdoors (2.5% [IQR 0-35]). Attendees at clinics with outdoor waiting areas spent a greater proportion (median 13.7% [IQR 1-75]) of their time outdoors. In two clinics in KZN (no appointment system), occupancy densities of ~2.0 persons/m2 were observed in smaller waiting rooms during busy periods. In one clinic in WC (appointment system, larger waiting areas), occupancy density did not exceed 1.0 persons/m2 despite higher overall attendance. In this study, longer waiting times were associated with early arrival, being female, and attending with a young child. Occupancy of waiting rooms varied substantially between rooms and over the clinic day. Light-touch estimation of occupancy density may help guide interventions to improve patient flow.

11.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1056(1):012001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017609

ABSTRACT

Our world is resisting the new pandemic “severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2) causing the disease known as COVID-19. To date, more than two hundred and three million cases were confirmed out of who more than four million died. Sharing data that will help the community to intervene with measures that will decrease the spread of the virus and protect the population is an obligation. This will help the world cope with this pandemic. This research aims to highlight the different criteria that will determine that the building of a health facility is ready to control the infection of this virus and similar airborne viruses. The research developed an evaluation tool that can be used by hospital administration to assess the hospital building readiness to prevent and control airborne infection from the viewpoint of architecture if it is an existing one or alternatively it can assess the design in case of a new hospital building, determining required roles and responsibilities.

12.
AORN Journal ; 116(3):219-228, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2013345

ABSTRACT

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 posed a public health crisis beginning in January 2020, affecting hospitals and health care personnel worldwide and disrupting perioperative services. Organization leaders at Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, China, developed a mitigation system for the OR that involved creating a pandemic response team to identify and implement appropriate infection control practices to prevent virus transmission. The leaders addressed managing the daily surgery schedule through patient screening and a focus on the urgency and volume of procedures. They required increased use of personal protective equipment and more stringent cleaning and disinfection protocols and ensured that the physical and mental health of staff members were monitored and prioritized. This article describes how leaders implemented these enhanced processes to protect personnel from infection as they continued to provide patient care. It also describes how high‐risk procedures involving patients with confirmed or suspected infections were managed and discusses lessons learned.

14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-24, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016423

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In March 2020, New York City (NYC) became the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (US). As healthcare facilities were overwhelmed with patients, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was transformed into the nation's largest alternate care site (ACS): Javits New York Medical Station (Javits). Protecting healthcare workers during a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a non-traditional healthcare setting posed unique challenges. We describe components of the healthcare worker safety program implemented at Javits. SETTING: Javits, a large convention center transformed into a field hospital, with clinical staff from the US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (USPHS) and the Department of Defense (DoD). HEALTHCARE WORKER SAFETY METHODS: Key strategies included ensuring one-way flow of traffic on and off the patient floor; developing a matrix detailing PPE required for each work activity and location; PPE extended use and reuse protocols; personnel training; and monitoring adherence to PPE donning/doffing protocols when entering or exiting the patient floor. Javits staff who reported COVID-19 symptoms were immediately isolated, monitored, and offered a SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. CONCLUSIONS: A well-designed and implemented healthcare worker safety plan can minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for healthcare workers. The lessons learned from operating the nation's largest COVID-19 ACS can be adapted to other environments during public health emergencies.

15.
Health Education and Health Promotion ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012352

ABSTRACT

Aims: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 necessitated some modifications in infection control measures in dental practice. This study aimed to assess the changes in general dentists’ approach towards infection control measures in dental practice in Rasht city, Iran, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study was conducted on 250 general dentists in Rasht city. The approach of general dentists towards infection control measures was evaluated using a researcher-designed questionnaire with four domains of patient screening, adherence of office staff to preventive measures, patient admission measures, and use of infection control equipment. Some demographic, educational, and occupational parameters were also recorded (alpha=0.05). Findings: 46.4% of dentists had good approach towards infection control measures in dental practice. Of the four domains, dental clinicians acquired the maximum score in adherence of office staff to preventive measures (2.46±0.69), and minimum score in patient admission measures (1.47±0.96). The acquired score was 2.33±1 in use of infection control equipment and 2.1±0.89 in patient screening. parameters revealed no significant correlation with age, gender, work experience, or number of working days per week (P>0.35). Conclusion: The results showed maximum change in dental clinicians’ approach towards the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), efficient infection control equipment, and office disinfection. Minimum change was noted in patient screening and admission. By an increase in the national rate of vaccination against the COVID-19, the vaccination card or QR code are expected to be required as a prerequisite for patient admission, which would improve the patient admission domain. © 2022, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

16.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(12):1421, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1628988

ABSTRACT

To adapt means “to become adjusted to new conditions.” Nothing could summarize infection prevention more succinctly since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The emerging science around the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) required constant adaptation of infection prevention practices. Inventive methods extended supplies of single-use personal protective equipment (PPE) during critical shortages. The infection prevention community adapted HAI reporting to include COVID-19. Hospitals altered e-mail systems, schedules, and more to achieve mass vaccination of healthcare personnel with the new mRNA vaccines and the delicate storage conditions these vaccines require. The list goes on.

17.
Can J Public Health ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2010552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Congregate living settings supporting individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have experienced unprecedented challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore the development and utilization of infection control policies in congregate living settings supporting individuals with IDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This qualitative study employed an interpretive description using semi-structured interviews involving administrative personnel from agencies assisting those with IDD residing in Developmental Services congregate living settings in Ontario, Canada. RESULTS: Twenty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from 22 agencies. Thematic analysis revealed three categories: Development of infection control policies, Implementation of infection control policies, and Impact of infection control policies. Each category yielded subsequent themes. Themes from the Development of infection control policies category included New responsibilities and interpreting the grey areas, and Feeling disconnected and forgotten. Four themes within the Implementation of infection control policies category included, "It's their home" (i.e. difficulty balancing public health guidance and organizational values), Finding equipment and resources (e.g. supports and barriers), Information overload (i.e. challenges agencies faced when implementing policies), and Emerging vaccination (i.e. perspective of agencies as they navigate vaccination for clients and staff). The category of Impact of infection control policies had one theme-Fatigue and burnout, capturing the impact of policies on stakeholders in congregate living settings. CONCLUSION: Agencies experienced difficulties developing and implementing infection control policies, impacting the clients they serve and their families and staff. Public health guidance should be tailored to each congregate living setting rather than generally applied.

18.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):5791-5799, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010513

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of the short study was to know the type of sterilization and disinfection procedures followed by general practicing Prosthodontists, faculty, and postgraduate students in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared in google forms and was circulated in social media to students pursuing their MDS, Faculty, and Prosthodontists who are into private practice. The questionnaire mainly included questions that were related to sterilization and disinfection for Prosthodontic procedures which was done to check the sterilization and disinfection procedures followed in clinics and college. The questionnaire was circulated using Google forms and the filled forms were obtained. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical product and service solution (SPSS) version 21 software. Results:The participants were divided into groups of 3,Group 1-consists of MDS students,Group 2-consists of clinical practitioners, and Group 3-consists of academicians.A total of 500 participants took part which includes 242 MDS students, 97 academicians, and 162Prosthodontists who are doing private practice. Conclusion: A higher percentage of responses were from post-graduate students and MDS professionals which stated that most of them use proper sterilizationa and disinfection. This study shows that there is a strong need to implement periodic educational interventions and training programs on infection control practices for COVID-19 across dental care professionals.This study was done to find out what are the sterilization and disinfection protocols followed by Prosthodontists in their clinics and instititutions.

19.
Journal of Medicine (Bangladesh) ; 23(2):104-105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009837
20.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009653

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest X ray (CXR) has been the most common screen procedure for detection of lung cancer. We have shown that there is a profit to repeated visitors to the same facility for the lung cancer detection screening (Kimura T. Health Prim Car, 2021). Declaration of Emergency by Japan government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent changes made to healthcare provision impacted people's abilities to effectively manage their health condition. The hypothesis was that many people would be reluctant to visit health checkup centers, and that opportunities for detection of cancers would decrease. Methods: Our clinic “MedCity21” is a university outpatient clinic to undergo a complete medical checkup in private health screening program. The visitors with abnormalities detected in CXR were announced by call request and invited to our specialty clinic for chest CT scan as further examination. Per year from 2018 to 2021, we examined the varieties of abnormal shadows by CXR and CT scans and compared the differences between the repeated and the first-time visitors using the chisquare tests and one-way ANOVA. We determined 2018 and 2019 to be before COVID-19 and 2020 and 2021 to be during COVID-19. We have been checking for previous COVID-19, and those with previous COVID-19 can be seen after 4 weeks of recovery. Results: From 2018 to 2021, in order, there were 12540,13690, 12070, and 13409 visitors of which 45.0%, 42.5%, 32.1%, and 29.2% were first-time visitors, respectively. There was a significant decrease of first-time visitors during COVID-19 compared to before COVID-19 (p = 0.0454). From 2018 to 2021, the CXR abnormalities requiring further examinations were 2.7%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, of which 2.1% and 3.4% were repeated and first-time visitors, 1.8% and 3.2%, 1.8% and 3.8%, and 1.5% and 4.0%, respectively. Each year, the detection rate was significantly lower for repeated comparing to first-time visitors (p < 0.01). The CT confirmation revealed that CXR abnormalities in repeated visitors were diagnosed with different variations compared to those of first-time visitors. Repeated visitors had a significantly lower proportion of old inflammatory changes than first-time visitors. This distribution is consistent with our previous report. It should be noted that there were no lung cancer patients in first-time visitors, on the contrary, there were 3 confirmed lung cancer in repeated visitors in 2021. Conclusions: There was a significant decrease of first-time visitors during COVID-19 compared to before COVID-19, but the rate of decrease was not as high as expected. The repeated visitors had significantly lower rate of CXR abnormalities detection, but higher detection of lung cancer. The number of people with previous COVID-19 will continue to increase. If the facility has adequate infection control measures in place, it is recommended that medical checkups be conducted annually.

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