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1.
Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research ; 10(7):72-76, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964916

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered SARS-COV2. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding covid-19 among nursing students studying in Dasmesh college of nursing, Faridkot. To find out association between knowledge regarding COVID-19 among nursing students with their demographical variables. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 41 nursing students of Dasmesh College of nursing Faridkot Punjab. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect data with the help of a self-administered structured knowledge questionnaire. Data wereanalyzedbased onthe objectives of the study byusing descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and chi-square. Results: The major findings of the study depictthat 18 (43.9%) students had good knowledge, 20 (48.7%) students had average knowledge, and 3 (7.3%) students had poor knowledge. Conclusion: It was concluded that the majority of the students had an average level of knowledge regarding COVID-19.

2.
Sociologica ; 15(1):67, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964501

ABSTRACT

From extreme weather to infectious disease, disasters now arrive in ever more rapid succession, combining with and compounding one another with increasing complexity and potential for crisis. In this context I suggest a particularly important site for analysis and intervention: the chronic lack of affordable housing and broader processes of exclusion now prevalent in cities around the world. These dynamics, I argue, help drive increasing movement to and development in interface zones between urban, rural, and undeveloped areas. In so doing, they also are implicated in a range of "exurban disasters", including wildfires and infectious disease, and in the broader crises these disasters generate for vulnerable populations. The article develops this relational argument across three moments. First, I posit contemporary dynamics of housing crisis and urban exclusion, which prevent people from finding adequate shelter in cities, as key drivers of displacement and settlement across various framings of urban interface zones - from the Wildlands Urban Interface [WUI] to the peri-urban fringe. I then explore how the increasingly forced settlement in these zones - themselves destabilized by prior processes of settler colonialism, neoliberal land-use planning, and climate change - contribute to both environmental and health related disasters. Here I focus on two contemporary cases: catastrophic wildfire in the WUI of California, and the emergence of zoonotic diseases in peri-urban regions around the world. Finally, with a focus on California, I explore how, once health and environmental disasters land and combine within a single location, inadequate housing increases the likelihood of multiple forms of exposure and susceptibility - e.g. to toxic smoke, respiratory ailments, and COVID. In conclusion, I argue for increased scholarly and political focus on the role of housing crises and urban exclusion in both the origins and outcomes of disaster. More scholarly and political work is needed that bridges city and hinterland, linking disaster research to critical approaches in housing studies and urban political ecology, together with wildfire ecology, epidemiology, and environmental stewardship.

3.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy ; 16(2):235-252, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964362

ABSTRACT

The fourth booster vaccination was approved in Israel during Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surge due to increasing SARS-CoV2 breakthrough infections among recently vacci-nated, reasons for this resurgence is not clear. In this Observational study, we analyzed verified SARS-CoV2 infections among over 60 years of age based on vaccination schedule (December 20, 2020-January 29, 2022);infec-tions, severe illness and deaths based on vac-cine immunity (between August 1, 2021-Janu-ary 29, 2022) using Israel COVID-19 dashboard data. There were a total of 214,394 SARS-CoV2 infections (December 20, 2020-Janaury 29, 2022;based vaccination schedule), 165,899 infections;6,267 severe illnesses and 2,031 deaths (August 1, 2021-Janaury 29, 2022) an-alyzed based vaccine immunity among over 60 years old. Vaccination with two doses, main-tained vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 93.2% (95% CI 90-95.5%) for 16 weeks until May 8, 2021 with 14.2% breakthrough infections. When there were no public health restrictions (June-July 2021) partially vaccinated has significantly lower infection rates (X2 [2, N=721]=190.79,p<0.001) with VE of 80.4% (95% CI 69.1-98.3%), while in-fection rates among vaccinated with two doses and unvaccinated are not statistically significant and decline of VE to 6.4% (95% CI -9.9-19.3%) among vaccinated with two doses. After rein-statement of restrictions since July 29, 2021, the VE of vaccinated with two doses improved to 68.0% (95% CI 56.7-76.7%), the third booster showed significantly higher breakthrough infec-tions (26.4%) and a shorter period of 12 weeks effectiveness until October 23, 2021 and by No-vember 20, 2021 the infections rates of vacci-nated with third booster are not statistically bet-ter than partially vaccinated (X2 [1, N=54]=1,85, p=0.17). During the Omicron variant surge, the VE of third booster declined to 42.7% (95% CI 39.9-45.3%) and the infection rates were sig-nificantly higher than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=5898]=8.50, p=0.003) as of January 15, 2022 and subsequently showed improvement in VE to 51.7% (95% CI 50.2-53.2%) and signifi-cantly lower infection rates than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=12380]=98.28, p=<0.001) by January 29, 2022. The vaccinated without valid-ity group (partially vaccinated;past 1-2 doses with expired Green Passes) showed significant-ly lower infection rates (X2 [1, N=15727]=295.3, p<0.001) during December 5,2021-January 29, 2022 period compared to vaccinated with validity (95% of them received third booster dose, and have Green Pass access) group that showed significantly increased infection rates and substantially increased percentages of se-vere illness and deaths.

4.
Data ; 7(7):95, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963771

ABSTRACT

Developments in deep learning techniques have led to significant advances in automated abnormality detection in radiological images and paved the way for their potential use in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. However, the development of CAD systems for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is hampered by the lack of training data that is of good visual and diagnostic quality, of sufficient size, variety, and, where relevant, containing fine-region annotations. This study presents a collection of annotations/segmentations of pulmonary radiological manifestations that are consistent with TB in the publicly available and widely used Shenzhen chest X-ray (CXR) dataset made available by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and obtained via a research collaboration with No. 3. People’s Hospital Shenzhen, China. The goal of releasing these annotations is to advance the state of the art for image segmentation methods toward improving the performance of the fine-grained segmentation of TB-consistent findings in digital chest X-ray images. The annotation collection comprises the following: (1) annotation files in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format that indicate locations and shapes of 19 lung pattern abnormalities for 336 TB patients;(2) mask files saved in PNG format for each abnormality per TB patient;and (3) a comma-separated values (CSV) file that summarizes lung abnormality types and numbers per TB patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first collection of pixel-level annotations of TB-consistent findings in CXRs.Dataset:https://data.lhncbc.nlm.nih.gov/public/Tuberculosis-Chest-X-ray-Datasets/Shenzhen-Hospital-CXR-Set/Annotations/index.html.Dataset License: Attribution 4.0 International—CC BY-4.0

5.
Atmosphere ; 13(7):1104, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963694

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial filtration materials have been used effectively to control biological pollutants and purify indoor air. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial capability of three fiber filter materials treated with triclosan: glass fiber (GF), non-woven fabric (NF) and chemical fiber (CF). Triclosan was loaded onto the filtration materials by the impregnation method. The triclosan-treated filter materials exhibited antibacterial zones obviously: the average antibacterial bands against E. coli were 11.8 mm (GF), 13.3 mm (NF) and 10.5 mm (CF);against S. albus, they were 25.5 mm (GF), 21.0 mm (NF) and 23.5 mm (CF). The percent reductions of bacteria for the antibacterial air fiber materials treated with triclosan against E. coli were 71.4% (CF) and 62.6% (GF), while the percent reductions against S. albus were 61.3% (NF) and 84.6% (CF). These findings could help to reduce the transmission and threat of epidemic and purify the environment through the use of environmentally friendly antibacterial filter fibers.

6.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata ; 170(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1961565

ABSTRACT

Originally, the 17th Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships (SIP-17) was scheduled to take place in Leiden, The Netherlands, in July 2020. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the symposium was postponed to July 2021 and held in an exclusively online format. This exceptional edition has resulted in four strong contributions to the journal. It is with great pleasure that we now present a themed issue including the proceedings of SIP-17, supplemented with eight regular articles within the subject of insect-plant relationships.

7.
Journal of Risk Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961346

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the response of Travel & Leisure (T&L) stocks of some advanced economies (the USA and United Kingdom) as well as Europe to uncertainty due to pandemics and epidemics. The motivation for the study is derived from the expectation that pandemics and epidemics which are infectious would limit activities and events that require physical interactions such as those associated with T&L, and therefore, returns on related investments may decline during this period. Design/methodology/approach: The authors formulate a model in line with Westerlund and Narayan (2012, 2015) where uncertainty due to infectious diseases is included as a predictor in the valuation of T&L stocks while also controlling for endogeneity bias (for omitted variables bias), conditional heteroscedasticity effect (typical of high frequency data) and persistence (typical of most financial and economic time series). Findings: The authors’ results suggest that contrary to the negative impact of previous cases of pandemics and epidemics on the T&L stocks, the behavior of these stocks during COVID-19 pandemic is modest owing to the positive nexus between equity market volatility due to infectious diseases (EMV-ID) (our proxy for pandemics and epidemics) and the T&L returns during the COVID-19 period. The authors maintain that investors in this market need not panic as the market tends to be resilient to pandemics over time albeit with a lower resilience during daily trading. The results leading to this conclusion are robust to alternative measures of the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value: The peculiarity of this paper on T&L stocks is premised on the introduction of the new datasets for infectious diseases, and the need to include the COVID-19 pandemic given its peculiarity. Essentially, we utilize the Baker et al. (2020) dataset which captures all the pandemics including COVID-19 and a complementary dataset on the COVID-19 pandemic using an alternative approach. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

8.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 761(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1960943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to investigate and identifying the possible source of virus in animals and identifying the vector media of the disease and the methods of its spread and working hard to search for a successful vaccine for immunization against infection, in addition to establishing specialized units to predict new versions of the virus in the years to come.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057589, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the health professionals' and community members' perspectives on the factors influencing transmission of the novel COVID-19 in Zambia. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative study using in-depth interviews as data collection technique. SETTING: Four primary healthcare facilities and local communities of Lusaka city and Chirundu international border town under Lusaka province, Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling of 60 study participants comprising health professionals (n=15) and community members (n=45). Health staff were health inspectors and surveillance officers. Community members included public market traders, civic and religious leaders, immigration officers, bus and international truck drivers. RESULTS: Both health professionals and community members were aware of the COVID-19 pandemic, the preventive and control measures. Nevertheless, stark differences were observed on the two groups' perspectives on COVID-19 and the factors influencing its transmission. Most health staff expressed high personal risk and susceptibility to the disease and a positive attitude towards the prevention and control measures. Conversely, myths and misconceptions influenced most community members' perspectives on the disease and their attitude towards the COVID-19 guidelines. Participants were unanimous on the low levels of adherence to the COVID-19 preventive and control measures in the community. Reasons for non-adherence included limited information on COVID-19, negative attitude towards COVID-19 guidelines, social movement and travel patterns, networks and interactions, living and work conditions, water and sanitation facilities, and observation of behaviours of important role models such as politicians and other community leaders. These factors were perceived to increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight important factors influencing transmission of COVID-19 in Zambia. Future interventions should focus on providing information to mitigate myths and misconceptions, increasing people's risk perception to the disease, and improving attitude towards the prevention and control interventions and mitigating structural and socioeconomic barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Zambia/epidemiology
10.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 34(3)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients over 6 months in the spring and summer of 2021 in Iran. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Qazvin Province- Iran during 6 month from April to September 2021. PARTICIPANTS: All 14355 patients who were hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 in hospitals of Qazvin Province. INTERVENTION: No intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The trends of overall in-hospital mortality and ICU mortality were the main outcome of interest. We obtained crude and adjusted in-hospital and ICU mortality rates for each month of admission and over surge and lull periods of the disease. RESULTS: The overall in-hospital mortality, early mortality and ICU mortality were 8.8%, 3.2% and 67.6%, respectively. The trend for overall mortality was almost plateau ranging from 6.5% in July to 10.7% in April. The lowest ICU mortality was 60.0% observed in April, whereas it reached a peak in August (ICU mortality = 75.7%). Admission on surge days of COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality (Odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 1.5). The comparison of surge and lull status showed that the odds of ICU mortality in the surge of COVID-19 was 1.7 higher than in the lull period (P-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the risk of both overall in-hospital and ICU mortality increased over the surge period and fourth and fifth waves of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in Iran. The lack of hospital resources and particularly ICU capacities to respond to the crisis during the surge period is assumed to be the main culprit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Iran/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int Health ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) disproportionately affect populations living in resource-limited settings. In the Amazon basin, substantial numbers of NTDs are zoonotic, transmitted by vertebrate (dogs, bats, snakes) and invertebrate species (sand flies and triatomine insects). However, no dedicated consortia exist to find commonalities in the risk factors for or mitigations against bite-associated NTDs such as rabies, snake envenoming, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis in the region. The rapid expansion of COVID-19 has further reduced resources for NTDs, exacerbated health inequality and reiterated the need to raise awareness of NTDs related to bites. METHODS: The nine countries that make up the Amazon basin have been considered (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela) in the formation of a new network. RESULTS: The Amazonian Tropical Bites Research Initiative (ATBRI) has been created, with the aim of creating transdisciplinary solutions to the problem of animal bites leading to disease in Amazonian communities. The ATBRI seeks to unify the currently disjointed approach to the control of bite-related neglected zoonoses across Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: The coordination of different sectors and inclusion of all stakeholders will advance this field and generate evidence for policy-making, promoting governance and linkage across a One Health arena.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204141119, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960626

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection vary widely. Prior exposure to endemic coronaviruses, common in young children, may protect against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated risk of severe COVID-19 among adults with and without exposure to young children in a large, integrated healthcare system. Adults with children 0-5 years were matched 1:1 to adults with children 6-11 years, 12-18 years, and those without children based upon a COVID-19 propensity score and risk factors for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) were assessed in 3,126,427 adults, of whom 24% (N = 743,814) had children 18 years or younger, and 8.8% (N = 274,316) had a youngest child 0-5 years. After 1:1 matching, propensity for COVID-19 infection and risk factors for severe COVID-19 were well balanced between groups. Rates of COVID-19 infection were slightly higher for adults with exposure to older children (incident risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, [1.05-1.12] and IRR 1.09 [1.05-1.13] for adults with children 6-11 and 12-18, respectively), compared to those with children 0-5 years, although no difference in rates of COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization or ICU admission was observed. However, adults without exposure to children had lower rates of COVID-19 infection (IRR 0.85, [0.83-0.87]) but significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization (IRR 1.49, [1.29-1.73]) and hospitalization requiring ICU admission (IRR 1.76, [1.19-2.58]) compared to those with children aged 0-5. In a large, real-world population, exposure to young children was associated with less severe COVID-19 illness. Endemic coronavirus cross-immunity may play a role in protection against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960037

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare systems. Sensitive, specific, and timely COVID-19 diagnosis is crucial for effective medical intervention and transmission control. RT-PCR is the most sensitive/specific, but requires costly equipment and trained personnel in centralized laboratories, which are inaccessible to resource-limited areas. Antigen rapid tests enable point-of-care (POC) detection but are significantly less sensitive/specific. CRISPR-Cas systems are compatible with isothermal amplification and dipstick readout, enabling sensitive/specific on-site testing. However, improvements in sensitivity and workflow complexity are needed to spur clinical adoption. We outline the mechanisms/strategies of major CRISPR-Cas systems, evaluate their on-site diagnostic capabilities, and discuss future research directions.

14.
Issues in Science and Technology ; 38(4):39-44, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958458

ABSTRACT

Decades before the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how rapidly infectious diseases could emerge and spread, the world faced the AIDS epidemic. Initial efforts to halt the contagion were slow as researchers focused on understanding the epidemiology of the virus. It was only by integrating epidemiological theory with behavioral theory that successful interventions began to control the spread of HIV. As the current pandemic persists, it is clear that similar applications of interdisciplinary theory are needed to inform decisions, interventions, and policy. Continued infections and the emergence of new variants are the result of complex interactions among evolution, human behavior, and shifting policies across space and over time. Due to this complexity, predictions about the pandemic based on data and statistical models alone--in the absence of any broader conceptual framework--have proven inadequate. Classical epidemiological theory has helped, but alone it has also led to limited success in anticipating surges in COVID-19 infections. Integrating evolutionary theory with data and other theories has revealed more about how and under what conditions new variants arise, improving such predictions.

15.
Webology ; 19(2):3113-3134, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958246

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 coronavirus is one of the most contagious diseases in the history of the world. Therefore, this study was conducted to tackle the concern of creating preventive behavior among the public. The current study attempted to propose a hypothetical structural equation model to examine the connection among social networking sites, risk perception, protective measures, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior. The current empirical research was held in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The researcher used internet source to collect questionnaires. The study results specified that social networking sites and control variables have no positive significant and direct association with preventive behavior. The study found that social networking sites effect indirectly on preventive behavior through risk perception, protective measures, and self-efficacy. Risk perception, protective measures, and self-efficacy have an optimistic significant and direct relation with preventive behavior. The conceptual framework provides valuable data for practitioners and policymakers to boost preventive behavior by implementing suitable, recommended precautions by using social networking sites.

16.
Webology ; 19(2):8232-8247, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958011

ABSTRACT

In this research work, it has examined the mathematical model such as SIR, for infectious diseases as a novel coronavirus (COVID-19). This model has played a vital role in various fields of epidemiology and environmental sciences. In addition, these types' models are very beneficial to know about the infectious diseases' dynamical behavior. In this work, the nonlinear COVID-19 model's dynamical behavior is based on a semianalytical technique: Variational Iteration Method (VIM). Further, to describe the COVID-19 model, we create a novel signal flow graph. Our mathematical analyses assist us that the spread of the virus may be controlled by maintaining social distance between infected individuals and healthy individuals. Also, the analytical solution of the aforesaid mathematical model will be calculated with the help of computational software such as MAPLE code. In the end, the results will be compared with other numerical techniques to show the efficiency of the aforementioned techniques.

17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957265

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of the social economy and science and technology has led to more frequent transnational movements of people, goods and vehicles. At the same time, various cross-border risks have significantly increased. The rapid global spread and continuous mutation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have again exposed the international community's extreme vulnerability to major transnational public health emergencies. China started a "war against the epidemic" with tight quarantine regulations and border restrictions on people, vehicles and international goods. However, it also revealed the weaknesses in and incapacity for disease prevention and control at ports in terms of obstructed performance of the whole chain of public agencies, incompatible laws and regulations, lack of key technologies, and difficulties in international cooperation. Combined with persuasive data, this paper systematically illustrates how transnational infectious diseases lead humans to be "united by contagion". On this basis, this paper makes a targeted analysis of the deficiencies of port epidemic prevention and control in China's fight against COVID-19 and suggests corresponding countermeasures and reflections.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957159

ABSTRACT

The immune system has evolved since the birth of humans. However, immune-related diseases have not yet been overcome due to the lack of expected indicators and targeting specificity of current medical technology, subjecting patients to very uncomfortable physical and mental experiences and high medical costs. Therefore, the requirements for treatments with higher specificity and indicative ability are raised. Fortunately, the discovery of and continuous research investigating circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a promising method among numerous methods. Although circRNAs wear regarded as metabolic wastes when discovered, as a type of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) with a ring structure and wide distribution range in the human body, circRNAs shine brilliantly in medical research by virtue of their special nature and structure-determined functions, such as high stability, wide distribution, high detection sensitivity, acceptable reproducibility and individual differences. Based on research investigating the role of circRNAs in immunity, we systematically discuss the hotspots of the roles of circRNAs in immune-related diseases, including expression profile analyses, potential biomarker research, ncRNA axis/network construction, impacts on phenotypes, therapeutic target seeking, maintenance of nucleic acid stability and protein binding research. In addition, we summarize the current situation of and problems associated with circRNAs in immune research, highlight the applications and prospects of circRNAs in the treatment of immune-related diseases, and provide new insight into future directions and new strategies for laboratory research and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Immune System Diseases , RNA, Circular , Biomarkers , Humans , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results
19.
Biosaf Health ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956093

ABSTRACT

Biobanking facilities are well established in high-income settings, where substantial funding has been invested in infrastructure. In contrast, such facilities are much less developed in resource-restricted settings. However, low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) still face a disproportionately high infectious diseases burden. Thus, the further development of infrastructure facilities, including biobanks is warranted as an important component of this unfolding clinical research environment. This perspective manuscript summarises the challenges and enablers for biobanking in LMICs, with a particular focus on infectious diseases, incorporating some of the lessons learned from the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

20.
Res Nurs Health ; 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955929

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created novel patient care circumstances that may have increased nurses' moral distress, including COVID-19 transmission risk and end-of-life care without family present. Well-established moral distress instruments do not capture these novel aspects of pandemic nursing care. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Moral Distress Scale (COVID-MDS), which was designed to provide a short MDS that includes both general and COVID-19-specific content. Researcher-developed COVID-19 items were evaluated for content validity by six nurse ethicist experts. This study comprised a pilot phase and a validation phase. The pilot sample comprised 329 respondents from inpatient practice settings and the emergency department in two academic medical centers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted with the pilot data. The EFA results were tested in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the validation data. The validation sample comprised 5042 nurses in 107 hospitals throughout the United States. Construct validity was evaluated through CFA and known groups comparisons. Reliability was assessed by the omega coefficient from the CFA and Cronbach's alpha. A two-factor CFA model had good model fit and strong loadings, providing evidence of a COVID-19-specific dimension of moral distress. Reliability for both the general and COVID-19-specific moral distress subscales was satisfactory. Known groups comparisons identified statistically significant correlations as theorized. The COVID-MDS is a valid and reliable short tool for measuring moral distress in nurses including both broad systemic sources and COVID-19 specific sources.

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