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1.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098202

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the intellectual structure of the literature addressing "epidemic/pandemic" and "aviation industry" through a bibliometric approach to the literature from 1991 to 2021. The final count of 856 publications was collected from Web of Science and analyzed by CiteSpace (version 5.8.R1) and VOS Viewer. Visualization tools are used to perform the co-citation, co-occurrence, and thematic-based cluster analysis. The results highlight the most prominent nodes (articles, authors, journals, countries, and institutions) within the literature on "epidemic/pandemic" and "aviation industry." Furthermore, this study conceptualizes and compares the growth of literature before theCOVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 ("hotspot") era. The conclusion is that the aviation industry is an engine for global economics on the road to recovery from COVID-19, in which soft (human) resources can play an integral part.

2.
Nano Today ; 47: 101669, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095846

ABSTRACT

Global public health infrastructure is unprepared for emerging pathogen epidemics, in part because diagnostic tests are not developed in advance. The recent Zika, Ebola, and SARS-CoV-2 virus epidemics are cases in point. We demonstrate here that multicolored gold nanoparticles, when coupled to cross-reactive monoclonal antibody pairs generated from a single immunization regimen, can be used to create multiple diagnostics that specifically detect and distinguish related viruses. The multiplex approach for specific detection centers on immunochromatography with pairs of antibody-conjugated red and blue gold nanoparticles, coupled with clustering algorithms to detect and distinguish related pathogens. Cross-reactive antibodies were used to develop rapid tests for i) Dengue virus serotypes 1-4, ii) Zika virus, iii) Ebola and Marburg viruses, and iv) SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Multiplexed rapid antigen tests based on multicolored nanoparticles and cross-reactive antibodies and can be developed prospectively at low cost to improve preparedness for epidemic outbreaks.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 921452, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089852

ABSTRACT

Purpose: As COVID-19 disease progresses, the host inflammatory response contributes to hypoxemia and severe and critical illness. In these latter stages of disease, patients may benefit from immunomodulatory therapies to control the aberrant host inflammatory response. In this review, we provide an overview of these therapies and provide summaries of the studies that led to issuance of FDA Emergency Use Authorization or recommendation by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Materials and methods: We reviewed English-language studies, Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs), and guidelines from March 2020 to present. Conclusion and relevance: There are several therapies with proposed benefit in severe and critical COVID-19 disease. Few have been issued FDA EUA or recommendation by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Physicians should be familiar with the evidence supporting use of these therapies and the patient populations most likely to benefit from each.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1294, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had various impacts on businesses and workers worldwide. The spread of infection has been reported through cluster outbreaks in the workplace, and World Health Organization has emphasized workplace infection control measures. Occupational physicians (OPs) are expected to actively support employers' efforts to minimize the damage of the pandemic. However, there is little research on the role of these specialists during a pandemic. Clarification of the contributions of OPs to health and safety at the workplace in the COVID-19 pandemic would be beneficial to ensure that OPs can be effectively deployed in the next pandemic. METHODS: We employed semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts. Twenty OPs were selected as priority candidates from among 600 OPs certificated of the JSOH, and thirteen who met the eligibility criteria agreed to participate. The online interviews were conducted in November and December 2020 with thirteen OPs. We extracted meaning units (MUs) from interview transcripts according to the research question: "What was the role of OP in the COVID-19 pandemic?" and condensed and abstracted them into codes and categorized them. Validity was confirmed by additional 5 OPs interviews. RESULTS: A total of 503 MUs were extracted from the transcripts. These were abstracted into 10 sub-categories and two categories. Categories 1 and 2 dealt with "Role in confronting the direct effects of the pandemic" and "Role in confronting the indirect effects of the pandemic" and accounted for 434 (86.3%) and 69 (13.7%) MUs, respectively. These results were validated by another 5 interviews. CONCLUSION: This study identified the role of OPs in Japan in the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that they made a wide range of contributions to the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic. We hope our findings will help OPs during future pandemics or other long-term emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Physicians , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace , Japan/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
5.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the impact of self-efficacy on the intention to take preventive actions against infectious diseases, focusing on dental hygiene students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A survey was conducted through a questionnaire distributed to 300 dental hygiene students at the Department of Dental Hygiene, Gangneung Yeongdong College in South Korea. In total, 251 students completed the survey (response rate: 83.6%). The survey data were analyzed via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, path analysis, and structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The analysis showed that self-efficacy positively affected students' intentions to take preventive actions against infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that self-efficacy positively affected dental hygiene students' intentions for preventive actions against infections. Furthermore, it suggested that self-efficacy should be classified into psychological (confidence and judgment) and behavioral (drive and task challenge) categories, and a systematic survey to formalize the concept of self-efficacy should be developed. The results of this study should enable a better understanding of the self-efficacy's impact on the intention to take preventive actions against infectious diseases.

6.
Fundamental Research ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086223

ABSTRACT

Airborne diseases including SARS, bird flu, and the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have stimulated the demand for developing novel bioassay methods competent for early-stage diagnosis and large-scale screening. Here, we briefly summarize the state-of-the-art methods for the detection of infectious pathogens and discuss key challenges. We highlight the trend for next-generation technologies benefiting from multidisciplinary advances in microfabrication, nanotechnology and synthetic biology, which allow sensitive, rapid yet inexpensive pathogen assays with portable intelligent device.

7.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1370-1375, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global differences in the Covid-19 death toll between various countries are still a matter of debate. We evaluated the potential influence of general burden of infectious diseases prior to the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic on the number of Covid-19 deaths during the pandemic. METHODS: We used publicly available data from Worldometer and Our World in Data. In a complete case analysis, 178 countries and territories, where all parameters were available, entered the analysis, representing 99.02% of the global population. Relationships between various parameters of the local burden of infectious diseases as well as childhood mortality, median age, and vaccination as independent variables, on Covid-19 deaths as the dependent variable, were evaluated. RESULTS: Death from diarrheal disease, respiratory disease, pneumonia, pneumonia in childhood, malaria, and HIV, as well as childhood mortality correlated negatively with number of Covid-19 deaths (Spearman rank correlation test: p < 0.0001 for each parameter), while median age was positively correlated with Covid-19 deaths (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable approach using kernel functions, death from respiratory disease and median age retained statistical significance. When vaccination rate and median age were simultaneously taken into account, vaccination rate showed a significant negative correlation with Covid-19 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Local burden of infectious diseases as well as childhood mortality prior to the onset of the pandemic have a strikingly negative impact on Covid-19 deaths. This effect might be due to an increase in trained immunity and to the overall younger population. Vaccination appears as an effective preventive measure.

8.
2021 60th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan (Sice) ; JOUR: 1255-1260,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083963

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we discuss the balance between two measures to contain infectious diseases. One is isolation of infected individuals. The other is mass vaccination. This paper focuses on shared resources in implementing the two measures in a society. To seek an effective strategy to balance the two measures in the COVID-19 situation in Japan, we propose a mathematical model dividing the population into six subpopulations according to infection, symptoms, and quarantine. Using the data of COVID-19 infections in Japan, parameters in the model are estimated. Based on simulations computed with the model and the estimated parameters, this paper proposes a feedback control that achieves a better balance between isolation and vaccination sharing limited resources.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2204172, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084341

ABSTRACT

Mitigating the spread of global infectious diseases requires rapid and accurate diagnostic tools. Conventional diagnostic techniques for infectious diseases typically require sophisticated equipment and are time consuming. Emerging clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) detection systems have shown remarkable potential as next-generation diagnostic tools to achieve rapid, sensitive, specific, and field-deployable diagnoses of infectious diseases, based on state-of-the-art microfluidic platforms. Therefore, a review of recent advances in CRISPR-based microfluidic systems for infectious diseases diagnosis is urgently required. This review highlights the mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas biosensing and cutting-edge microfluidic devices including paper, digital, and integrated wearable platforms. Strategies to simplify sample pretreatment, improve diagnostic performance, and achieve integrated detection are discussed. Current challenges and future perspectives contributing to the development of more effective CRISPR-based microfluidic diagnostic systems are also proposed.

10.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 417-454,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082819

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are Baltimore Class I viruses of the family Coronaviridae. Similarities and differences to other members of these groups are discussed. Proposed reservoir/intermediate hosts of severe acute respiratory system coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle Eastern respiratory system coronavirus, and SARS-CoV-2 are presented. Bats appear to be reservoir hosts for these and some animal coronaviruses. Other potential reservoir/intermediate hosts of pathogenic coronaviruses are presented, with particular emphasis on rodents and birds. Potential methods to predict or prevent future pandemics include the One Health Approach and SpillOver. Factors driving epidemics and pandemics are discussed, particularly microbial, host-related, and environmental factors as well as ‘The Human Factor,’ medical and behavioral interventions that decrease disease spread and severity. The author’s vision for Infectious Disease Centers (IDCs), similar to Ebola Centers, is presented. IDCs would respond to a broad range of infectious diseases, utilizing separated, negative-pressure areas of existing hospitals with specialized, trained healthcare personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and lab technicians on call. The proposed IDCs would have stockpiles of personal protective equipment (PPE), equipment, and laboratory facilities on hand to respond to a range of infections. Equipment could include ventilators, autoclaves, dialysis equipment, and three-dimensional printers. The latter was used to produce PPE and ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Other innovative plans would be encouraged, such as the conversions of a deck of a long-distance Italian ferry for patients needing an intermediate level of care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Problems associated with infectious disease epidemics in developing countries are examined, with suggestions for the inclusion of appropriate personnel, such as local cultural experts and interpreters, as well as innovative planners and, perhaps, 3-D printers.

11.
Bulletin of Economic Research ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082702

ABSTRACT

We show how diseases can affect economic growth in a Solow growth model, with population growth and no technical progress, but modified to include a saving rate that depends on the individual health status. We successively insert this model into the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) and SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) models of disease spreading. In these two models, the spread of the infection proceeds according to the so-called basic reproductive number. This number determines in which of the two possible equilibria, the disease-free or the pandemic equilibrium, the economy ends. We show that output per capita is always lower in the pandemic steady state, which implies a contraction in the economy's production possibilities frontier.

12.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; : 100399, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082634

ABSTRACT

Contagious diseases are needed to be monitored to prevent spreading within communities. Timely advice and predictions are necessary to overcome the consequences of those epidemics. Currently, emphasis has been placed on computer modelling to achieve the needed forecasts, the best example being the COVID-19 pandemic. Scientists used various models to determine how diverse sociodemographic factors correlated and influenced COVID-19 Global transmission and demonstrated the utility of computer models as tools in disease management. However, as modelling is done with assumptions with set rules, calculating uncertainty quantification is essential in infectious modelling when reporting the results and trustfully describing the limitations. This article summarizes the infectious disease modelling strategies, challenges, and global applicability by focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2124781, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082169

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the early vaccine landscape relative to challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials in 2021 (n = 123) using a structured 13-point analytic framework. Supply sustainability was defined as a composite metric of four manufacturing and regulation variables. Vaccine desirability was defined as a composite metric of nine development and distribution variables. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and five vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a sustainability score equal to or above 0.5. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and seven vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a desirability score equal to or above 0.5. No vaccines in Phases 2/3, 3, or 4 met more than one distribution criterion. Structured assessment COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical trials in 2021 revealed numerous challenges to adequate access in LMICs. Key policy recommendations included increasing technology transfer to LMICs, developing international legal mechanisms to prevent export bans, and increasing investment in vaccine candidates with more favorable distribution profiles.

14.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346217

ABSTRACT

In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, a multitude of mobile apps were deployed to complement manual contact tracing, quarantine and isolation efforts by central, state and local authorities in India. This was the first time that digital tools were used to augment disease surveillance efforts on a large scale. At the time of deployment and even today, these mobile apps remain experimental tools with no conclusive evidence of their effectiveness, but with known risks to privacy and data security. The public discourse examining these mobile apps has also raised several privacy and data security concerns. We add to this literature through an examination of COVID-19 mobile apps deployed by state governments and local authorities, using public health perspectives on infectious disease surveillance. We develop a framework of analysis that factors state capacity concerns, public engagement, processes and methods that facilitate continuous effectiveness evaluation, and privacy and ethical concerns. We then examine COVID-19 mobile apps against this framework of analysis. Our analysis highlights several instances of duplication due to lack of coordination amongst various stakeholders engaged in COVID-19 disease surveillance;absence of any oversight and public engagement in the development and deployment processes;mixed evidence on the integration of COVID-19 mobile apps with public health protocols, a prerequisite for conducting any effectiveness evaluation;and, weak data protection. Our findings underscore the need for a systems level approach to deploying digital disease surveillance tools, particularly the need for integrating effectiveness evaluations in the implementation process.

15.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346195

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid amplification is crucial for disease diagnosis, especially lethal infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Compared with PCR, isothermal amplification methods are advantageous for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, complicated primer design limits their application in detecting some short targets or sequences with abnormal GC content. Herein, we developed a novel linear displacement isothermal amplification (LDIA) method using two pairs of conventional primers and Bacillus stearothermophilus (Bst) DNA polymerase, and reactions could be accelerated by adding an extra primer. Pseudorabies virus gE (high GC content) and Salmonella fimW (low GC content) genes were used to evaluate the LDIA assay. Using strand displacement (SD) probes, an LDIA-SD method was developed to realize probe-based specific detection. Additionally, we incorporated a nucleic acid-free extraction step and a pocket-sized device to realize POCT applications of the LDIA-SD method. The LDIA-SD method has advantages including facile primer design, high sensitivity and specificity, and applicability for POCT, especially for amplification of complex sequences and detection of infectious diseases.

16.
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd ; 170(9): 828-838, 2022.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075322

ABSTRACT

Even in the early 1990s, an immune response triggered by an mRNA vaccine was described for the first time. Since then, mRNA vaccines have been researched and discussed for possible prophylaxis; however, it was not until the COVID-19 pandemic that these vaccines experienced a real boom. The first mRNA vaccines were licensed against SARS-CoV­2 and showed great success. It is therefore not surprising that manufacturers are also focusing on other diseases and pathogens. Besides viral diseases, such as influenza and AIDS, malaria is high on this list. Many pharmaceutical companies (including the German companies BioNTech and CureVac) have already confirmed that they are researching mRNA vaccines against malaria. Yet developing a working vaccine against malaria is no easy feat. Research on possible vaccines has been going on since the 1960s. The results have been rather sobering. It was not until 2015 that the vaccine RTS,S/AS01 received a positive evaluation from the European Medicines Agency. Since then, the vaccine has been tested in Africa.

17.
Journal of Livestock Science ; 13:76-79, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072464

ABSTRACT

The accelerated pace at which human development has been set into has resulted into fast-tracking the emergence of novel diseases that affect both humans and animals. One of these is the emergence of infectious zoonotic diseases that have threatened human health since time immemorial. The emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5:N1 from poultry in 2002, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from civets and bats in 2003, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronaviruses (MERS-CoV) from camelids in 2014, and most recently in SARS-CoV 2 or COVID-19, which reportedly came from bats, should serve as lessons that should be taken seriously. Factors that have resulted in the emergence of these illnesses include, but are not limited to, environmental destruction, illegal wildlife trade, and increasingly intensive livestock and poultry production. It is high time that humans look into efforts that prevent the emergence of these illnesses, rather than simply managing their effects. Addressing the problem through the lens of One Health is the way to go.

18.
Ieee Transactions on Molecular Biological and Multi-Scale Communications ; 8(3):202-206, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070479

ABSTRACT

Besides mimicking bio-chemical and multi-scale communication mechanisms, molecular communication forms a theoretical framework for virus infection processes. Towards this goal, aerosol and droplet transmission has recently been modeled as a multiuser scenario. In this letter, the "infection performance" is evaluated by means of a mutual information analysis, and by an even simpler probabilistic performance measure which is closely related to absorbed viruses. The so-called infection rate depends on the distribution of the channel input events as well as on the transition probabilities between channel input and output events. The infection rate is investigated analytically for five basic discrete memoryless channel models. Numerical results for the transition probabilities are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for pathogen-laden particle transmission in four typical indoor environments: two-person office, corridor, classroom, and bus. Particle transfer contributed significantly to infectious diseases like SARS-CoV-2 and influenza.

19.
Ieee Access ; 10:99150-99167, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070261

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had very negative effects on public transport systems. These effects have compromised the role they should play as enablers of social equity and environmentally sustainable mobility and have caused serious economic losses for public transport operators. For this reason, in the context of pandemics, meaningful epidemiological information gathered in the specific framework of these systems is of great interest. This article presents the findings of an investigation into the risk of transmission of a respiratory infectious disease in an intercity road transport system that carries millions of passengers annually. To achieve this objective, a data mining methodology was used to generate the data required to ascertain the level of risk. Using this methodology, the occupancy of vehicle seats by passengers was simulated using two different strategies. The first is an empirical approach to the behaviour of passengers when occupying a free seat and the second attempts to minimise the risk of contagion. For each of these strategies, the interactions with risk of infection between passengers were estimated, the patterns of these interactions on the different routes of the transport system were obtained using k-means clustering technique, and the impact of the strategies was analysed.

20.
International Studies Perspectives ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070122

ABSTRACT

Why do some international agreements fail to achieve their goals? Rather than states' engaging in cheap talk, evasion, or shallow commitments, the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR)-the agreement governing states' and WHO's response to global health emergencies-point to the unintended consequences of information provision. The IHR have a dual goal of providing public health protection from health threats while minimizing unnecessary interference in international traffic. As such, during major outbreaks WHO provides information about spread and severity, as well as guidance about how states should respond, primarily regarding border policies. During COVID-19, border restrictions such as entry restrictions, flight suspensions, and border closures have been commonplace even though WHO recommended against such policies when it declared the outbreak a public health emergency in January 2020. Building on findings from the 2014 Ebola outbreak, we argue that without raising the cost of disregarding (or the benefits of following) recommendations against border restrictions, information from WHO about outbreak spread and severity leads states to impose border restrictions inconsistent with WHO's guidance. Using new data from COVID-19, we show that WHO's public health emergency declaration and pandemic announcement are associated with increases in the number of states imposing border restrictions.

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