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1.
Oxford Review of Economic Policy ; 39(2):195-209, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244304

ABSTRACT

In this paper we analyse why an understanding of the global ‘non-system', in which we now live, took so long to arrive after the Bretton Woods system collapsed in 1971. We first describe how knowledge of how an inflation-targeting regime would operate—what we call ‘Taylor-rule macroeconomics'—was only gradually created during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. We then describe how, subsequent to this, an awareness emerged, also gradually, of how the international non-system might work, depending, as it does, on Taylor-rule macroeconomics being already in place. We then discuss the Great Moderation, making clear that a well-functioning global non-system would require not just inflation targeting and floating exchange rates in each country, but also adequate fiscal discipline, and a satisfactory form of financial regulation. We describe how a well-functioning version of this global non-system would actually fit together. We then discuss how this non-system has responded to two enormous challenges of the last 15 years, namely the Global Financial Crisis and the Covid pandemic. This discussion of what has happened in the recent past provides the background to a discussion, in the companion paper by Subacchi and Vines in this issue of the Oxford Review of Economic Policy, of the challenges that the global non-system will face in the future. © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press.

2.
Scottish Journal of Political Economy ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307282

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the usefulness of shadow rates to measure the monetary policy stance by comparing them to the official policy rates and those implied by three types of Taylor rules in both inflation-targeting countries (the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and others that have only targeted inflation at times (the United States, Japan, the Euro Area and Switzerland) over the period from the early 1990s to December 2021. Shadow rates estimated from a dynamic factor model are shown to suggest a much looser policy stance than either the official policy rates or those implied by the Taylor rules, and generally to provide a more accurate picture of the monetary policy stance during both ZLB and non-ZLB periods, since they reflect the full range of unconventional policy measures used by central banks. Furthermore, generalised impulse response analysis based on three alternative vector autoregression (VAR) models indicates that monetary shocks based on the shadow rates are more informative than those related to the official policy rates or to two- and three-factor shadow rates, especially during the Global Financial Crisis and the recent COVID-19 pandemic, when unconventional measures have been adopted. Finally, unconventional policy shocks seem to have less persistent effects on the economy in countries, which have adopted an inflation-targeting regime.

3.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2310911

ABSTRACT

We examine the influence of demand shock, supply shock and the monetary policy shock on macroeconomic variables using the New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium framework. Our study tries to identify the efficient monetary policy mix as an antidote to the prevailing economic fragilities that originated due to the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical conflict in case of India and China. Under both simulated and Bayesian analysis, our findings revealed the inflationary effect of demand and supply shock with a target-oriented monetary policy under sticky prices as the efficient policy tool to counter these effects. The macroeconomic projections depicted the favourable influence of output due to active intervention of target-oriented monetary policy in both these economies.

4.
Scottish Journal of Political Economy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213826

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the usefulness of shadow rates to measure the monetary policy stance by comparing them to the official policy rates and those implied by three types of Taylor rules in both inflation-targeting countries (the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and others that have only targeted inflation at times (the United States, Japan, the Euro Area and Switzerland) over the period from the early 1990s to December 2021. Shadow rates estimated from a dynamic factor model are shown to suggest a much looser policy stance than either the official policy rates or those implied by the Taylor rules, and generally to provide a more accurate picture of the monetary policy stance during both ZLB and non-ZLB periods, since they reflect the full range of unconventional policy measures used by central banks. Furthermore, generalised impulse response analysis based on three alternative vector autoregression (VAR) models indicates that monetary shocks based on the shadow rates are more informative than those related to the official policy rates or to two- and three-factor shadow rates, especially during the Global Financial Crisis and the recent COVID-19 pandemic, when unconventional measures have been adopted. Finally, unconventional policy shocks seem to have less persistent effects on the economy in countries, which have adopted an inflation-targeting regime. © 2022 The Authors. Scottish Journal of Political Economy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scottish Economic Society.

5.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(8):7-17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072239

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the problems caused by inflation in the developing Asia-Pacific region during the time of the worldwide pandemic and suggests innovative solutions to the problem. The reality is that some of the commodity groups from the consumer basket (e.g., non-seasonal fruits, electronics, furniture, hotel, and restaurant services, etc.) fail to reflect the needs of the low-income earners, which make the majority in developing countries. At the same time, the inflation targeting regime has become outdated and not reliable, because of uncontrolled exogenic factors (imported inflation, fluctuation in oil prices, supply chain disruption, Russia-Ukraine war, etc.) prevailing on endogenic factors and thus making it impossible to control the price stability, especially in developing countries. Since, the old-fashioned inflation index and inflation targeting mechanisms regrettably fail to fully reflect both the society and governmental/central banks' expectations, based on which we first should have better care and second create better policies;we propose to use a combination of already well-known indexes and policies, with the new statistical indicators, which reflects price fluctuations on the medication, utilities, and nutrition.

6.
Research in Economic Anthropology ; 42:197-206, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1769527

ABSTRACT

The global processes taking place in the economy have led to the transformation of various spheres of the economy, primarily financial, and, as a result, to changes in economic policy and its main elements-fiscal, monetary and investment policies. It is no coincidence that the recurrent crises of the last decades either originated in the financial sector or had a significant impact on changing its parameters. This situation in the context of ongoing economic and institutional changes has necessitated a flexible and regular review of the methods and instruments of monetary regulation used. Moreover, it is more difficult for the countries of integration groupings, including the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), to do this, given the need to coordinate the decisions and measures taken. The situation has become more complicated due to the coronavirus pandemic, which has had a significant impact on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The analysis of the correspondence of the money market parameters to the macro-financial indicators of economic security and the dynamics of the banking sector parameters, the significant economic downturn, the decrease in demand and the persistence of uncertainty about the duration of the pandemic make it necessary to adjust monetary policy. © 2022 by Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
Indian Econ Rev ; 55(1): 117-154, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824553

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the monetary policy framework moved towards flexible inflation targeting and a six member Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) was constituted for setting the policy rate. With this step towards modernization of the monetary policy process, India joined the set of countries that have adopted inflation targeting as their monetary policy framework. The Consumer Price Index (CPI combined) inflation target was set by the Government of India at 4% with ± 2% tolerance band for the period from August 5, 2016 to March 31, 2021. In this backdrop, the paper reviews the evolution of monetary policy frameworks in India since the mid-1980s. It also describes the monetary policy transmission process and its limitations in terms of lags and rigidities. It highlights the importance of unconventional monetary policy measures in supplementing conventional tools especially during the easing cycle. Further, it examines the voting pattern of the MPC in India and compares this with that of various developed and emerging economies. The synchronization of cuts in the policy rate by MPCs of various countries during the global slowdown in 2019 and the COVID-19 pandemic in the early 2020s is also analysed.

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