Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.901
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109918

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive in various fields of regenerative medicine due to their therapeutic potential and complex unique properties. Basic stem cell research and the global COVID-19 pandemic have given impetus to the development of cell therapy for infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to systematize scientific data on the applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in the combined treatment of infectious diseases. Application of MSCs and MSC-EVs in the treatment of infectious diseases has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects, and also promotes the restoration of the epithelium and stimulates tissue regeneration. The use of MSC-EVs is a promising cell-free treatment strategy that allows solving the problems associated with the safety of cell therapy and increasing its effectiveness. In this review, experimental data and clinical trials based on MSCs and MSC-EVs for the treatment of infectious diseases are presented. MSCs and MSC-EVs can be a promising tool for the treatment of various infectious diseases, particularly in combination with antiviral drugs. Employment of MSC-derived EVs represents a more promising strategy for cell-free treatment, demonstrating a high therapeutic potential in preclinical studies.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950532, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109875

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to comprehensively analyze awareness, knowledge and attitude toward influenza vaccine and the factors associated to vaccine acceptance among the young and middle-aged general population, healthcare workers, and health-related administrators in China. The factors influencing the promotion of influenza vaccination were also evaluated among healthcare workers and administrators. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study. General population adults, healthcare workers (HCWs), and health administrators were enrolled in seven regions across China during the 2020-2021 flu season. Data were collected via an online questionnaire, which included information request as to awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward influenza vaccination. Statistical significance set at p-values < 0.05. Results: A total of 3,239 individuals were included in our analyses. There were gaps in consciousness to action, especially between awareness (87.1%) and knowledge (57.7%), and between willingness (57.3%) and vaccination (22.3%). The downward trends were similar in all three groups. HCW group and the health administrator group showed more positive propensity to accept influenza vaccines than the general population group. For the general population group, those with a lower educational level (lower than a bachelor's degree) were less likely to be vaccinated (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96). For the HCW group, practitioners older than 45 years were more reluctant to be vaccinated than those under 25 years (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.86). For the health administrator group, personnel aged 26 years and above were less inclined to be vaccinated (aORs = 0.17-0.20). In all groups, people who had received influenza vaccines in the past 5 years (aOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.31-2.26 in general population group, 13.05, 95% CI: 7.71-22.10 in HCW group, and 19.30, 95% CI: 9.66-42.63 in health administrator group) were more likely to be vaccinated in future seasons. People who were not covered by the free program or those without awareness of the related programs were less likely to be vaccinated (aORs < 0.63). Most (70.8%) of HCWs showed intention to recommend the influenza vaccine. Clinical doctors, those who had flu shots themselves, and those who had more knowledge, were more like to make recommendations. Health administrators stated that insufficient budget resources and workforce, and low public awareness are main difficulties in the promotion of influenza vaccine. Conclusion: The influencing factors of the attitude toward influenza vaccination vary across populations. Governments need to carry out focused vaccination promotion programs, especially for healthcare workers, to improve the coverage of influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Groups , Vaccination , China
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025884, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109769

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak in the 19th century influenza virus has remained emergent owing to the huge pandemic potential. Only the pandemic of 1918 caused more deaths than any war in world history. Although two types of influenza- A (IAV) and B (IBV) cause epidemics annually, influenza A deserves more attention as its nature is much wilier. IAVs have a large animal reservoir and cause the infection manifestation not only in the human population but in poultry and domestic pigs as well. This many-sided characteristic of IAV along with the segmented genome gives rise to the antigenic drift and shift that allows evolving the new strains and new subtypes, respectively. As a result, the immune system of the body is unable to recognize them. Importantly, several highly pathogenic avian IAVs have already caused sporadic human infections with a high fatality rate (~60%). The current review discusses the promising strategy of using a potentially universal IAV mRNA vaccine based on conserved elements for humans, poultry, and pigs. This will better aid in averting the outbreaks in different susceptible species, thus, reduce the adverse impact on agriculture, and economics, and ultimately, prevent deadly pandemics in the human population.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Animals , Swine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , RNA, Messenger
4.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 5(4): 214-222, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109649

ABSTRACT

We provide an update to the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada foundation guidance for the upcoming 2020-2021 influenza season in Canada. Important issues for this year include the implications of co-circulation of SARS-CoV-2, the role of diagnostic testing, and a restatement of dosing and administration recommendations for neuraminidase inhibitors in various age groups and underlying health conditions. Although peramivir and baloxivir are now licensed in Canada, neither is currently marketed, so this guidance focuses on further optimizing the use of oseltamivir and zanamivir.


Nous actualisons l'information sur les directives de la Fondation de l'Association pour la microbiologie médicale et l'infectiologie Canada en vue de la saison grippale 2020­2021 au Canada. Cette année, les enjeux importants touchent les conséquences de la co-circulation de la maladie à coronavirus 2019, le rôle des tests diagnostiques et la réaffirmation des recommandations relatives aux maladies sous-jacentes ainsi qu'à la posologie et à l'administration des inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase dans divers groupes d'âge. Même si le péramivir et le baloxivir sont désormais homologués au Canada, ces médicaments n'y sont pas encore commercialisés, et c'est pourquoi les présentes directives visent à optimiser l'utilisation de l'oseltamivir et du zanamivir.

5.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 25(14): 2413-2428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109525

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral drug undergoing clinical trials to manage various viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Favipiravir possesses antiviral properties against RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, these viruses do not have authorized antiviral drugs for the management of diseases resulting from their infection, hence the dire need to accentuate the discovery of antiviral drugs that are efficacious and have a broad spectrum. Favipiravir acts primarily by blocking inward and outward movements of the virus from cells. Favipiravir is a prodrug undergoing intracellular phosphorylation and ribosylation to form an active form, favipiravir-RTP, which binds viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Considering the novel mechanism of favipiravir action, especially in managing viral infections, it is vital to pay more attention to the promised favipiravir hold in the management of SARS-CoV-2, its efficacy, and dosage regimen, and interactions with other drugs. In conclusion, favipiravir possesses antiviral properties against RNA viruses, including COVID- 19. Favipiravir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection through inhibition of RdRp. Pre-clinical and large-scalp prospective studies are recommended for efficacy and long-term safety of favipiravir in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 236, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108968

ABSTRACT

Viruses that emerge pose challenges for treatment options as their uniqueness would not know completely. Hence, many viruses are causing high morbidity and mortality for a long time. Despite large diversity, viruses share common characteristics for infection. At least 12 different respiratory-borne viruses are reported belonging to various virus taxonomic families. Many of these viruses multiply and cause damage to the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The description of these viruses in comparison with each other concerning their epidemiology, molecular characteristics, disease manifestations, diagnosis and treatment is lacking. Such information helps diagnose, differentiate, and formulate the control measures faster. The leading cause of acute illness worldwide is acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and are responsible for nearly 4 million deaths every year, mostly in young children and infants. Lower respiratory tract infections are the fourth most common cause of death globally, after non-infectious chronic conditions. This review aims to present the characteristics of different viruses causing respiratory infections, highlighting the uniqueness of SARS-CoV-2. We expect this review to help understand the similarities and differences among the closely related viruses causing respiratory infections and formulate specific preventive or control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 425, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of evidence-based clinical decision-making. Clinical management guidelines (CMGs) may help reduce morbidity and mortality by improving the quality of clinical decisions. This systematic review aims to evaluate the availability, inclusivity, and quality of pandemic influenza CMGs, to identify gaps that can be addressed to strengthen pandemic preparedness in this area. METHODS: Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, TRIP (Turning Research Into Practice), and Guideline Central were searched systematically from January 2008 to 23rd June 2022, complemented by a grey literature search till 16th June 2022. Pandemic influenza CMGs including supportive care or empirical treatment recommendations were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies and assessed their quality using AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation). The findings are presented narratively. RESULTS: Forty-eight CMGs were included. They were produced in high- (42%, 20/48), upper-middle- (40%, 19/48), and lower-middle (8%, 4/48) income countries, or by international organisations (10%, 5/48). Most CMGs (81%, 39/48) were over 5 years old. Guidelines included treatment recommendations for children (75%, 36/48), pregnant women (54%, 26/48), people with immunosuppression (33%, 16/48), and older adults (29%, 14/48). Many CMGs were of low quality (median overall score: 3 out of 7 (range 1-7). All recommended oseltamivir; recommendations for other neuraminidase inhibitors and supportive care were limited and at times contradictory. Only 56% (27/48) and 27% (13/48) addressed oxygen and fluid therapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights the limited availability of up-to-date pandemic influenza CMGs globally. Of those identified, many were limited in scope and quality and several lacked recommendations for specific at-risk populations. Recommendations on supportive care, the mainstay of treatment, were limited and heterogeneous. The most recent guideline highlighted that the evidence-base to support antiviral treatment recommendations is still limited. There is an urgent need for trials into treatment and supportive care strategies including for different risk populations. New evidence should be incorporated into globally accessible guidelines, to benefit patient outcomes. A 'living guideline' framework is recommended and further research into guideline implementation in different resourced settings, particularly low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aged , Child, Preschool , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Oseltamivir , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac515, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107553

ABSTRACT

There have been numerous reports of patients initially misdiagnosed in the 2009 H1N1 influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics within the literature. A systematic review was undertaken to collate misdiagnoses during the H1N1 and COVID-19 pandemics and identify which cognitive biases may contribute to this. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and MedRxiv databases were searched for misdiagnoses or cognitive biases resulting in misdiagnosis, occurring during the H1N1 or COVID-19 virus pandemics. Eligible studies were assessed for quality using JBI criteria; primary outcome was the final diagnosis. Sixty-nine studies involving 2551 participants were included. We identified 686 cases of misdiagnosis, categorized as viral respiratory infection, other respiratory infection, non-respiratory infection, and non-infective. Misdiagnoses are listed and relevant investigations are offered. No article described prospective assessment of decision making in the pandemic setting or debiasing diagnostic thinking. Further research is required to understand why misdiagnoses occur and harm arises and how clinicians can be assisted in their decision making in a pandemic context.

9.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100339, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105787

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Malawi experienced two waves of COVID-19 between April 2020 and February 2021. A High negative impact of COVID-19 was experienced in the second wave, with increased hospital admissions that overwhelmed the healthcare system. This paper describes a protocol to implement a telephone-based syndromic surveillance system to assist public health leaders in the guidance, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies for COVID-19 prevention and control in Malawi. Study design: This is a serial cross-sectional telephonic-based national survey focusing on the general population and People living with HIV and AIDS. Methods: We will conduct a serial cross-sectional telephone survey to assess self-reported recent and current experience of influenza-like illness (ILI)/COVID-19-like-illness (CLI), household deaths, access to routine health services, and knowledge related to COVID-19. Structured questionnaires will be administered to two populations: 1) the general population and 2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at EGPAF-supported health facilities. Electronic data collection forms using secure tablets will be used based on randomly selected mobile numbers from electronic medical records (EMR) for PLHIV. We will use random digit dialing (RDD) for the general population to generate phone numbers to dial respondents. The technique uses computer-generated random numbers, using the 10-digit basic structure of mobile phone numbers for the two existing mobile phone companies in Malawi. Interviews will be conducted only with respondents that will verbally consent. A near real-time online dashboard will be developed to help visualize the data and share results with key policymakers. Conclusion: The designed syndromic surveillance system is low-cost and feasible to implement under COVID-19 restrictions, with no physical contact with respondents and limited movement of the study teams and communities. The system will allow estimation proportions of those reporting ILI/CLI among the general population and PLHIV on ART and monitor trends over time to detect locations with possible COVID-19 transmission. Reported household deaths in Malawi, access to health services, and COVID-19 knowledge will be monitored to assess the burden and impact on communities in Malawi.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the differences between elderly patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections. METHODS: We contrasted two absolute groups of patients (age ≥ 60) infected with either COVID-19 (n = 222) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections (n = 96). Propensity score matching was used to reduce the imbalance between the two matched groups. The clinical features, imaging presentations, therapies, and prognosis data were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The influenza patients showed higher proportions of cough, expectoration, fatigue and shortness of breath. Higher counts of lymphocytes, hemoglobin and creatine kinase and lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were found in the COVID-19 patients. Regarding the imaging characteristics, bilateral pneumonia was the most abnormal pattern in the two groups of patients. The incidence of ARDS or death was lower among the COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients are more concealed than those of influenza patients. Fewer symptoms of sputum production, fatigue, and shortness of breath combined with lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils and CRP are possible predictive factors of COVID-19 among elderly patients.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104295, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comparison of pneumonias due to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, in terms of clinical course and predictors of outcomes, might inform prognosis and resource management. We aimed to compare clinical course and outcome predictors in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia using multi-state modelling and supervised machine learning on clinical data among hospitalised patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 (March-December 2020) or influenza (Jan 2015-March 2020) pneumonia had the composite of hospital mortality and hospice discharge as the primary outcome. Multi-state models compared differences in oxygenation/ventilatory utilisation between pneumonias longitudinally throughout hospitalisation. Differences in predictors of outcome were modelled using supervised machine learning classifiers. FINDINGS: Among 2,529 hospitalisations with SARS-CoV-2 and 2,256 with influenza pneumonia, the primary outcome occurred in 21% and 9%, respectively. Multi-state models differentiated oxygen requirement progression between viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 manifesting rapidly-escalating early hypoxemia. Highly contributory classifier variables for the primary outcome differed substantially between viruses. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia differ in presentation, hospital course, and outcome predictors. These pathogen-specific differential responses in viral pneumonias suggest distinct management approaches should be investigated. FUNDING: This project was supported by NIH/NCATS UL1 TR002345, NIH/NCATS KL2 TR002346 (PGL), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation grant 2015215 (PGL), NIH/NHLBI R35 HL140026 (CSC), and a Big Ideas Award from the BJC HealthCare and Washington University School of Medicine Healthcare Innovation Lab and NIH/NIGMS R35 GM142992 (PS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
12.
Geoscience Frontiers ; 13(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104976

ABSTRACT

Ongoing uncertainty over the relative importance of aerosol transmission of COVID-19 is in part rooted in the history of medical science and our understanding of how epidemic diseases can spread through human populations. Ancient Greek medical theory held that such illnesses are transmitted by airborne pathogenic emanations containing particulate matter ("miasmata"). Notable Roman and medieval schol-ars such as Varro, Ibn al-Khatib and Fracastoro developed these ideas, combining them with early germ theory and the concept of contagion. A widely held but vaguely defined belief in toxic miasmatic mists as a dominant causative agent in disease propagation was overtaken by the science of 19th century micro-biology and epidemiology, especially in the study of cholera, which was proven to be mainly transmitted by contaminated water. Airborne disease transmission came to be viewed as burdened by a dubious his-torical reputation and difficult to demonstrate convincingly. A breakthrough came with the classic mid -20th century work of Wells, Riley and Mills who proved how expiratory aerosols (their "droplet nuclei") could transport still-infectious tuberculosis bacteria through ventilation systems. The topic of aerosol transmission of pathogenic respiratory diseases assumed a new dimension with the mid-late 20th cen-tury "Great Acceleration" of an increasingly hypermobile human population repeatedly infected by dif-ferent strains of zoonotic viruses, and has taken centre stage this century in response to outbreaks of new respiratory infections that include coronaviruses. From a geoscience perspective, the consequences of pandemic-status diseases such as COVID-19, produced by viral pathogens utilising aerosols to infect a human population currently approaching 8 billion, are far-reaching and unprecedented. The obvious and sudden impacts on for example waste plastic production, water and air quality and atmospheric chem-istry are accelerating human awareness of current environmental challenges. As such, the "anthropause" lockdown enforced by COVID-19 may come to be seen as a harbinger of change great enough to be pre-served in the Anthropocene stratal record.(c) 2021 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

13.
Biomaterials ; 291: 121898, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104423

ABSTRACT

Although face masks as personal protective equipment (PPE) are recommended to control respiratory diseases with the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, improper handling and disinfection increase the risk of cross-contamination and compromise the effectiveness of PPE. Here, we prepared a self-cleaning mask based on a highly efficient aggregation-induced emission photosensitizer (TTCP-PF6) that can destroy pathogens by generating Type I and Type II reactive oxygen species (ROS). The respiratory pathogens, including influenza A virus H1N1 strain and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) can be inactivated within 10 min of ultra-low power (20 W/m2) white light or simulated sunlight irradiation. This TTCP-PF6-based self-cleaning strategy can also be used against other airborne pathogens, providing a strategy for dealing with different microbes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Photosensitizing Agents , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 835, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination varies widely across long-term care facilities (LTCFs) due to staff behaviors, LTCF practices, and patient factors. It is unclear how seasonal LTCF vaccination varies between cohabitating but distinct short-stay and long-stay residents. Thus, we assessed the correlation of LTCF vaccination between these populations and across seasons. METHODS: The study design is a national retrospective cohort using Medicare and Minimum Data Set (MDS) data. Participants include U.S. LTCFs. Short-stay and long-stay Medicare-enrolled residents age ≥ 65 in U.S. LTCFs from a source population of residents during October 1st-March 31st in 2013-2014 (3,042,881 residents; 15,683 LTCFs) and 2014-2015 (3,143,174, residents; 15,667 LTCFs). MDS-assessed influenza vaccination was the outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated to assess seasonal correlations between short-stay and long-stay resident vaccination within LTCFs. RESULTS: The median proportion of short-stay residents vaccinated across LTCFs was 70.4% (IQR, 50.0-82.7%) in 2013-2014 and 69.6% (IQR, 50.0-81.6%) in 2014-2015. The median proportion of long-stay residents vaccinated across LTCFs was 85.5% (IQR, 78.0-90.9%) in 2013-2014 and 84.6% (IQR, 76.6-90.3%) in 2014-2015. Within LTCFs, there was a moderate correlation between short-stay and long-stay vaccination in 2013-2014 (r = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.49-0.51) and 2014-2015 (r = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.51-0.54). Across seasons, there was a moderate correlation for LTCFs with short-stay residents (r = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.53-0.55) and a strong correlation for those with long-stay residents (r = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.67-0.69). CONCLUSIONS: In LTCFs with inconsistent influenza vaccination across seasons or between populations, targeted vaccination protocols for all residents, regardless of stay type, may improve successful vaccination in this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Long-Term Care , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Seasons , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Medicare , Vaccination
15.
Covid-19 and Parkinsonism, Vol. 165 ; : 251-262, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102161

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related disorders globally. The pathophysiological mechanisms and precipitating factors underlying PD manifestations, including genetic and environmental parameters, inflammation/stress and ageing, remain elusive. Speculations about whether the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic could be a pivotal factor in affecting the prevalence and severity of PD or triggering a wave of new-onset parkinsonism in both the near and distant future have recently become very popular, with researchers wondering if there is a changing trend in current parkinsonism cases. Could the current understanding of the Covid-19 pathophysiology provide clues for an impending rise of parkinsonism cases in the future? Are there any lessons to learn from previous pandemics? Our aim was to look into these questions and available current literature in order to investigate if Covid-19 could constitute a cardinal event affecting the parkinsonism landscape.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099904

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 among secondary school teachers and outpatient physicians. A cross-sectional study was realised using anonymous questionnaires. The EPI Info 7 program and R software, version 4.0.2 were used for statistical analysis. The questionnaire was completed by 868 respondents (teaching staff N = 451; outpatient physician N = 417). The number of employees vaccinated against COVID-19 was 742 (85.5%). The number of those vaccinated against COVID-19 and influenza (last season) was 192 (21.9%). The statistically significant predictors were the level of fear of COVID-19 (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.29-1.52), profession-outpatient physicians (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.55-4.23), history of COVID-19 (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22-0.54), gender (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.89) and influenza vaccination at any time in the past (OR 3.52; 95% CI 1.10-11.31). The strongest motivation for vaccination against COVID-19 among physicians was the prevention of the spread of COVID-19 during the performance of their profession (N = 336; 87%); among teachers, it was the protection of family members (N = 258; 73%). The most common reason for vaccine hesitancy was concern about vaccine safety (N = 80; 63.5%).

17.
Pathogens ; 11(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to reflect the prevalence of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens and co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic, considering SARS-CoV-2 broke out during influenza season and its symptoms resemble those of influenza. METHODS: A total of 685 nucleic acid samples of respiratory pathogens were collected from 1 November 2019 to 20 January 2020 and were detected by the 13 Respiratory Pathogen Multiplex Detection Kit and Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit. RESULTS: In Wuhan, human rhinovirus was the most frequent infectious pathogen in November (31.5%) and human respiratory syncytial virus appeared the most in December and January (37.1%, 8.6%, respectively). Detection of SARS-CoV-2 first appeared from January 1 to January 10. Generally, 115 patients of 616 patients (18.7%) from Wuhan were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and only two children were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens. In Taiyuan, influenza A virus was detected most frequently in December and January (30.3%, 12%, respectively) without infection of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Some cases diagnosed with influenza before routine nucleic acid testing of SARS-CoV-2 were attributed to COVID-19. Co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and other non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens existed in the early stage of COVID-19 epidemic.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the US, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed deeply rooted resistance to public health. This has important consequences for SARS-CoV-2 variant spread and for future uptake of influenza and other vaccines. We examine these phenomena in Missouri, where its low vaccination rates, high levels of uninsured residents, predominance of conservative values, and stark rural-urban divides are intricately connected to public health resistance. The Socio-Ecological model guides our approach. METHODS: We use data from the Fall 2020 Midwestern University (MWU-a pseudonym) Study of Seropositivity and Risk for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 which are harmonized with the American Community Survey, Missouri County-Level Study, and the USDA Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to estimate multi-level regression models on the relationship between undergraduate students' "home" locales and their own COVID-19 and influenza vaccine hesitancy. FINDINGS: The availability of primary care physicians, the prevalence of influenza vaccinations, and location type at the county level, as well as the percentage of residents without health insurance at the zip code level differentially predict COVID-19 and influenza vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a link between county-level health and geographic characteristics, and individuals'-who were influenced by those counties because that is where their parents live-hesitancy towards vaccines. Identifying feasible, precise, local solutions to reducing vaccine hesitancy could take place if community members and other stakeholders would be open to changes in local-level health policy or practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccines , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Hesitancy , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Students
19.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 7995-8001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098942

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons and cause relatively milder forms of infection that are less studied. We witnessed a dominance of influenza B in Shijiazhuang, China, in the 2021-2022 winter season. In this study, we comparatively investigated the severe and critical influenza B in pediatric patients. Methods: Children who were hospitalized from December 2021 to January 2022 and diagnosed with influenza B were included in this study. Those who tested positive for COVID-19 were excluded. Demographic data, clinical features, underlying medical conditions, laboratory testing results, and treatment outcomes were retrieved and analyzed retrospectively. Disease severity was classified as severe or critical according to Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of influenza in children. Results: A significantly greater proportion of patients with critical influenza had extra-pulmonary complications and bacterial coinfections. Children with critical influenza B had substantially higher levels of procalcitonin and lactate dehydrogenase, a markedly higher neutrophil percentage and a significantly lower CD4+ lymphocyte percentage. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that, to effectively manage critical influenza B, therapeutic regimens should consist of organ-specific supportive care, antibiotic application if bacterial coinfection is present, and anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting treatments.

20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 17: 1581-1588, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098929

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunization is one of the main components of preventive medicine measures. Influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus, and shingles vaccines are recommended for older adults routinely. This study aimed to show the knowledge and attitudes of the physicians to older adults' vaccination schemes. Patients and Methods: An electronic self-reported questionnaire was sent to physicians between March and July 2021 in Turkey. Sociodemographic characteristics, professional experience, area of expertise, and practice setting of the participants were recorded. As multiple-choice questions; the routinely recommended vaccines, and vaccines suggested in their daily practice before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were enquired. Results: A total of 435 participants were included in the study. 43.9% of the patients were primary family physicians, and 36.8% were internists. 63.4% of the participants had reported reviewing the National Vaccination Scheme. 94.5% of the medical doctors indicated that they had recommended any vaccination to their patients. 20.9% of the practitioners could select four or five of the routinely recommended vaccines. Reviewing the National Adult Vaccination Scheme and being an internist were positively related to predicting the recommended vaccines. The recommendation rates of influenza and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) were seen at 88% and 78%, respectively. Except for PCV13, recommendation rates of other routine vaccines were decreased after the pandemic. Conclusion: Awareness of routine vaccination schedules should be improved among health-care professionals, and reminders for immunization should be provided periodically in each health-care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Physicians , Humans , Aged , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Attitude
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL