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1.
Ernahrung ; 47(1):12-14, 2023.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20242212

ABSTRACT

The People's Republic of China has the largest population in the world, making it both one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding import markets for food and beverages as well as one of the most difficult. The Chinese market is appealing to foreign food producers because of the country's high per capita income and quick urbanization. The Agriculture Chapter addressed fundamental trade barriers and will support a significant increase in the export of food, agricultural, and seafood products from the United States, boosting farm and fishery revenue, stimulating rural economies, and fostering employment growth. Numerous non-tariff barriers to the export of U.S. agricultural and seafood products are discussed, including those relating to rice, dairy, infant formula, horticulture products, animal feed and feed additives, pet food, and agricultural biotechnology products, as well as meat, chicken, and seafood. The U.S. has achieved significant export successes thus far, despite the pandemic. Decrees 248 and 249, which take effect on January 1, 2022, mandate that foreign suppliers of particular food products to China register with the GACC before presenting their goods for customs clearance. Several Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) reports on GACC Decrees 248 and 249 have been published by FAS offices in China. For the most recent information on whether their business has to register, whether it can self-register, or if it needs to be recommended for registration by a U.S. competent body, U.S. exporters should examine the GAIN system, which offers points of contact at the GACC. According to Euromonitor, urban Chinese customers who are short on time choose shopping near residential areas, especially in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak. During the crisis, consumers grew accustomed to shopping in their immediate areas. As a result, many major modern grocery chains have used a multi-format strategy and constructed smaller-format stores. Freshippo, Yonghui, and Carrefour are all opening smaller, more neighborhood-focused stores that place an increased emphasis on fresh foods. Some of these shops also act as e-commerce order warehouses and offer prompt home deliveries. Particularly Yonghui has opened Yonghui Mini Stores quickly as an addition to its hypermarket and major supermarket operations. The food processing sector in China has been expanding steadily in recent years. According to the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), sales, production, and income in the sector rose in 2020. The total profits of China's largest food processing firms reached 620.66 billion yuan (about US$97 billion) in 2020, an increase of 6.8% over the same period in 2019. According to MIIT, these businesses' profit growth was 3.1% higher than the average for all industrial sectors.

2.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):21-34, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20240509

ABSTRACT

This research determines the impacts of COVID-19 US on crawfish production and consumption for 2020 and 2021 using an Equilibrium Displacement Model. In the US, crawfish is one of the seafood commodities where most production is consumed by domestic consumers (7% of domestic consumption is from imports). Crawfish and rice are complementary. Therefore, the impacts of COVID-19 on crawfish consumption simultaneously influence rice production and crawfish producers and consumers. In the first year of COVID-19 (2020), the reduction in crawfish retail demand caused negative effects on final consumers and producers. However, crawfish consumption recovered significantly in the second year (2021), which could compensate for the loss in 2020. Overall, consumer and producer gains ranged from $549 to $626 million if the COVID-19 pandemic only impacted retail consumption. However, in 2021, the increase in production costs due to higher oil/diesel prices and other input prices caused the farm supply to decrease. As a result, total welfare gains ranged from $200 to $228 million. If the demand in 2021 did not increase, but the crawfish farm supply decreased, consumer and producer losses ranged from $929 to $1045 million. Overall, the total effects of COVID-19 on consumers and producers for 2020 and 2021 depend on its effects in 2021. If the demand in 2021 increased following the decrease in farm supply, consumers and producers would benefit from the shocks of COVID-19 due to higher post-COVID-19 demand.

3.
IFPRI - Discussion Papers 2023 (2175):41 pp 43 ref ; 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239359

ABSTRACT

This paper begins with a survey of recent commodity price developments that highlights the magnitude of this price surge and identifies the rapid rise in wheat prices as a key element. The analysis in this paper focuses on the extent to which domestic markets are insulated from these changes and on the resulting impacts on world prices. An econometric analysis using Error Correction Models finds stable long-term relationships between world wheat prices and most domestic prices of wheat and wheat products, but with considerable variation across countries in the rate of price transmission. A case study of the price shocks during the Covid pandemic and the Ukraine food price crisis finds that price insulation roughly doubled the overall increase in world wheat prices and raised their volatility both during periods of price increase and price decline.

4.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Development ; 19(2):219-238, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238188

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the reaction of the Romanian cereal market to the disruption of trade flows caused by certain shocks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which lead to changes with high impact on the functioning of this market, representing an important test for the resilience of the sector. Due to trade liberalization in global markets, including agri-food markets, the competitiveness of exports has become increasingly important, contributing to the creation of the country's competitive advantage. Any restrictions to trade in agri-food products can distort trade flows, and this disruption will have an impact on supply and prices. Maintaining a balance between imports and exports is essential to ensure domestic market stability. International trade in agri-food products plays an important role in global food security. The results show that Romania mainly exports unprocessed agricultural products, with cereals having the largest share in the export structure, cereal supply is dependent on climate change, yet it is one of the products with the lowest volatility. The cereal market shows a more elastic reaction to price responses, even though demand for staple foods is generally inelastic.

5.
Black Sea Journal of Agriculture ; 6(2):148-156, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235297

ABSTRACT

Our world is changing too fast. The distances have been shortened and communication has been increased by the invention and widespread use of the internet. Our habits started to change in many aspects of our lives by the development of digitalization. Especially during the pandemic Covid-19 that has started at the end of 2019, it's observed that mobility of people have been decreased and however, they began to have difficulties in meeting the needs. There has been a great demand for companies that sell over the internet. In particular, the tendencies of people to purchase food items which are their vital need over the internet have increased to a great extent. Looking at the e-commerce market on a sectorial basis during the pandemic, the biggest increase was seen in e-food trade with a growth of approximately 400%. Within that period, it is predicted that our purchasing habits will change rapidly and virtual markets will become much more important in our lives. The delivery of food products to the consumer has always been a big problem. The risk of deterioration of the products in a short time and the physical destruction of the products during their transportation has increased the importance of food logistics. The logistics channels are needed to be developed in order to increase e-food trade. For this reason, contemporary logistics channels have started to be used by integrating developed logistics applications to the traditional logistics channels. It will be much faster and cost-efficient to deliver the products to the consumer with the new logistics channels in the near future. Yield penalty due to transportation will decrease, and since the number of stock brokers is reduced, the consumer will be able to reach the product they demand at a more affordable price from the producer that they have chosen. In the future, physical stores will be replaced by logistics-supported virtual markets. The agriculture and food sector should also start working in order to accommodate quickly to the new trade order.

6.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):89-98, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235252

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh imports roughly 98% of cotton from abroad to produce fabric or yarn (USDA 2020. Cotton and Products Update. Bangladesh. Also available at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/newgainapi/api/Report/DownloadReportByFileName?fileName=Cotton%20and%20Products%20Update_Dhaka_Bangladesh_11-30-2020). The production of textiles in Bangladesh depends on the price of raw material, the demand for garment products in the importing countries, smooth supply chain management, and the domestic supply of cheap garment laborers. The global pandemic of COVID-19 disrupted the supply chain of almost all physical goods and services, including textiles. It caused the price of textiles to fall due to a drop in worldwide demand, and increased the marginal cost of textile production due to supply chain interruptions. This paper shows how the decline in the demand for garments, coupled with an increase in cost, shrinks the producer welfare of textile manufacturing and garment exports of the small producing country, Bangladesh.

7.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Development ; 19(2):239-253, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235030

ABSTRACT

Romania ranks first in the European Union for the production of sunflower seeds, third for the production of soybeans and seventh for the production of rapeseed. The paper aims to analyse the effects produced by the COVID-19 pandemic on the evolution of the oilseed sector in Romania. Thus, the following indicators were analysed: evolution of areas under oilseeds, total oilseed production and average yields, as well as the volatility of selling prices for oilseeds. The results of the study reveal that Romania has been the largest producer of sunflower seeds in the European Union. The average yields in sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed have shown great variations in the analysed period. According to Eurostat data, it can be noticed that although Romania is the third large producer of oilseeds in the EU, the average yields continue to be low compared to those from other large EU producers. Yields are also among the most volatile in the EU. The selling prices for soybeans showed a higher increase in the year 2020 than in 2019 in Romania, compared to the increase in the average selling prices of the EU-27 (+9.89%). The selling prices for rapeseed also had a higher increase in 2020 than in 2019 in Romania, compared to the increase in the average selling prices of the EU-27 (+2.31%).

8.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization ; 21(1):1-9, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20232327

ABSTRACT

Seafood is the food group with the highest share traded, and the U.S. is the world's largest seafood importer, importing 79% of the seafood consumed. Hence, a study examining the impacts of the measures to contain COVID-19 on U.S. seafood imports will not only show how U.S. seafood availability has been affected, but will also give strong indications of how resiliently the global seafood markets have worked through the pandemic. We find that U.S. imports of seafood actually increased in 2020 and 2021, suggesting supply chains were able to adapt to potential disruptions. Moreover, for the 14 largest product forms imported to the U.S., there are no strong price movements. Given that there is a global market for most species groups, this adaption also suggests that the markets have worked quite well beyond the U.S. Hence, while there have undoubtedly been market shocks associated with the COVID-19 measures such as the reduction in demand from the restaurant sector and the increased sales in the retail sector, opportunities seem to balance out challenges, and the supply chains for seafood to the U.S. have been highly resilient.

9.
OCL Oilseeds and Fats, Crops and Lipids ; 29(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2321790

ABSTRACT

Oilseeds are grown mainly for the extraction of vegetable oils and for its by-products needed in livestock feed and in other industrial uses. The oils obtained from them are becoming a staple food used in daily cooking in several countries, and as a result the world demand is constantly increasing. This situation, combined with the exponential increase in the world population and other cyclical factors, is leading to a surge pricing, especially in importing countries. This increase in prices is fueled by soaring oil prices and disruption in supplies following Covid-19 pandemic and geopolitical tensions in the Black Sea. Morocco is directly impacted by these fluctuations given that the country imports almost its total needs in vegetable oils, oilseeds and meals. The high dependence on imported vegetable oils and oilseed products has a detrimental effect on the economy of Morocco and weighs heavily on the country's trade balance. Considering their increasingly important role in society, the development of a local oilseed sector to reduce Morocco's dependence on imports and cope with the vagaries of global markets has never been more topical in the current context of sustainable agriculture and food sovereignty.

10.
Zeszyty Naukowe Szkoly Glownej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie Problemy Rolnictwa Swiatowego ; 22(4):5-25, 2022.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2292462

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is to show the development of the volume and value of natural honey production, its import and export, and prices in Poland against the background of the situation in other countries in the European Union in the years 2000-2020 and as part of market changes globally. The study used the source of information from the FAOSTAT 2022 database. The production of honey in Poland, in other EU countries and around the world was characterized by an upward trend in the analyzed period. The biggest problem is China, which supplies the market with every fourth kilogram of honey product, while the EU accounts for about 13%. In the top thirty producers of natural honey, there are 11 European countries, including 9 from the EU - Poland is in fourth position. Self sufficiency in terms of honey is 60%, which is why the turnover in foreign trade of honey is dynamically increasing in terms of quantity and value. Overall, the honey trade balance in the EU was negative. The structure of honey exports and imports from and to the EU has changed, which is the result of random factors, i.e. the Covid-19 pandemic, Russia's aggression in Ukraine, and various economic, demographic, social and environmental factors.

11.
Organizacoes Rurais e Agroindustriais ; 24(27), 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2301995

ABSTRACT

Cattle is one of the main items in the Brazilian productive guideline and an important export product. During the covid-19 pandemic, the price of beef occupied a prominent position in agricultural sector analyzes due to the prices increases. The objective of this research is to observe the national production behavior, exports, and domestic supply. Therefore, a domestic supply forecast was made for January 2021 to December 2022 (24 months). Based on the results obtained, it was found that the beefs supply available to the Brazilian market will not present an expressive upward behavior that compensates the evolution in beef export to international markets. Thus, a shift in the price of beef in the domestic market to higher levels may be observed.

12.
International Journal of Tourism Cities ; 9(1):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2298130

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present conceptual paper evinces a new understanding of the present and future of the tourist city in a post-COVID-19 world. The pandemic has wreaked havoc in the tourism industry as well as global trade. The world, at least as we know, is debating the next recovery steps for 2023. Design/methodology/approach: In this conceptual paper, the authors explore the substantial shifts faced by the urban areas during and post-COVID-19 pandemic. The disposed [and imposed] restrictive measures have affected negatively not only mobilities but also the urban landscape. The tourist-city, at least as it was imagined by J. Urry, has invariably set the pace to a ghost-city. In this new landscape, citizens are confined to be at home. Findings: The tourist city has faced substantial changes. The authors dubbed the term ghost city to give some reflections on the radical changes urban zones are experiencing during 2020 and 2021. Classic notions as "the Other", "globalization" and the "city" are in motion. The borders of some nations are being re-drawn while some radicalized voices and movements flourish. Research limitations/implications: The authors introduce readers to the literature about the tourist city, which offers a perfect landscape for attraction, consumption and protest. The tourist city has been developed by scholars as a sign of a globalizing process that laid the foundations toward a new understanding of urban zones. Practical implications: The present paper discusses critically the problem of COVID-19 and its severe restriction of free circulation and the forms in which the city is lived and dwelled. We were pressed to live our proximity through the lens of a screen or using digital media. The basic rights that are historically characterized by the legal architecture of the nation-state - which is based on high mobilities and the right of traveling - were suddenly suspended. Originality/value: The authors deal with the problems of sociology to study the ghost city, which include not only the dilemmas revolving around the health passport but also the introduction of technology in formalizing the creation of a surveillance society that scrutinizes and, at the same time, entertains modern citizens, in a new culture where the "Other" becomes an undesired guest.

13.
Journal of Agricultural Science ; 15(1):70-79, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2273254

ABSTRACT

For many Kenyans, the aquaculture business provides a vital source of food and work. However, information on Kenya's aquaculture sector's resilience in the face of emerging global shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic requires additional examination. Prior to the epidemic, Kenya's aquaculture industry had grown from a tiny participant to a critical component of the country's fish food system, with fish and fisheries products becoming the most extensively traded food commodity in Kenyan market places. However, as indicated in the review, the aquaculture value chain has not been scrutinised since the onset of COVID-19. Lockdowns enacted during the pandemic had a significant influence on access to aquaculture inputs, fish commerce, and the socio-economic livelihoods of stakeholders and players in Kenya's aquaculture value chain. Thus, initial and long-term adaptive strategies, particularly those implemented by governments, could help to the development of COVID-19 specific and generic resilience to numerous shocks and stressors among stakeholders and players involved in the country's aquaculture industry. Some of the measures include a government incentive package to help the fisheries and aquaculture sectors recover, improve farming operations, and gain market trust, as well as the adoption of new methods to reduce labor intensity, such as intelligent sensors, camera systems, and automated or remotely controlled monitoring/feeding strategies. Such strategies and policies can protect the sector from future shocks triggered by pandemics and other unforeseen circumstances.

14.
Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies ; 21(1):45-58, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2271034

ABSTRACT

Many governments closed their borders in spring 2020 to prevent the spread of Covid, but they also made exceptions to allow farm employers to recruit temporary foreign workers to fill seasonal farm jobs. The pandemic changed many parameters of food systems. Closed restaurants led to widespread layoffs in leisure and hospitality, rates of Covid were high among nonfarm food processing and meatpacking workers, and there was less Covid than expected among the foreign workers who increased their share of employment in production agriculture. The pandemic accelerated three major changes that were already underway, viz., more labor-saving mechanization, more foreign workers, and increased imports of labor-intensive commodities. Mechanization increases the resilience of production agriculture to labor supply shocks.

15.
Western Economics Forum ; 20(2):36-49, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2270929

ABSTRACT

The emergence of largescale global human health events is expected to increase with evolving zoonotic and transboundary diseases, climate change, agricultural consolidation, increased globalization, and reliance on trade. The government and market response to a disease is dependent on the size of the outbreak, pathogenicity and virulence of the disease, and the perceived risks of its introduction and spread. The impact of largescale human disease events and their respective institutional response can lead to financial and market disruptions and effect nearly every industrial sector and market, including animal protein trade. The latest human disease event, the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, continues to be the largest, most expansive disease event in the last century. The COVID-19 pandemic has had sizeable implications domestically and internationally. Labor shortages and supply chain disruptions coupled with demand changes and disease eradication policies substantially impacted global markets. Despite the emergent literature on COVID-19, little has been done to collectively identify and analyze the effects of largescale human health events on animal protein trade. Using export trade data from 2010-2020 for animal protein exporters, this analysis estimates the effects human health events (i.e., MERS-Cov, COVID-19, Ebola, and Zika virus) on global animal protein trade for 23 individual commodities (6-digit HS level). Results show heterogeneity between diseases, products, and exporters. This heterogeneity indicates differences in response between events, dependent on event size, scope, and impacts. The study results can help improve preemptive business continuity planning and deepen the understanding of the implications of future emerging largescale health events on the meat industry.

16.
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy ; 24(3/4):251-267, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2269982

ABSTRACT

The Wildlife and Forest Analytic Toolkit, introduced by the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC), is designed to increase the effectiveness of measures combating wildlife and forest crimes (WAFCs). Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries have applied this toolkit as one of their priority actions after recognizing concerns about the biodiversity system and conservational zone through several illegal wildlife trade (IWT) activities. Although the toolkit has realized its fundamental objectives to readjust legal frameworks, enhance enforcement involvement, and improve their judicial and prosecutorial operations, the last components of data and analysis have not yet been implemented. This leads to slow updates of both trends and patterns concerning WAFCs that raise questions about the real levels of exploitation in the region. Using gray literature with published materials, combined with the IWT's database in the CITES system, this study examines why the data and analysis component of the Toolkit created obstacles in the GMS countries. Findings point to there being at least four main challenges to implementing data and analysis as the toolkit has recommended in the region: (1) availability and reliability of data;(2) data collection;(3) data resources (internal vs. external level);and (4) analytic research and its related monitors. Some practical recommendations call for further discussions. Meanwhile, updated information and specific data relating to zoonotic disease transmission are timely, considering the coronavirus pandemic.

17.
Health and Human Rights: An International Journal ; 24(2):159-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2266865

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, international access to COVID-19 vaccines and other health technologies has remained highly asymmetric. This inequity has had a particularly deleterious impact on low- and middle-income countries, engaging concerns about the human rights to health and to the equal enjoyment of the benefits of scientific progress enshrined under articles 12 and 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In response, the relationship between intellectual property rights and public health has reemerged as a subject of global interest. In October 2020, a wholesale waiver of the copyright, patent, industrial design, and undisclosed information sections of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement) was proposed by India and South Africa as a legal mechanism to increase access to affordable COVID-19 medical products. Here, we identify and evaluate the TRIPS waiver positions of World Trade Organization (WTO) members and other key stakeholders throughout the waiver's 20-month period of negotiation at the WTO. In doing so, we find that most stakeholders declined to explicitly contextualize the TRIPS waiver within the human right to health and that historical stakeholder divisions on the relationship between intellectual property and access to medicines appear largely unchanged since the early 2000s HIV/AIDS crisis. Given the WTO's consensus-based decision-making process, this illuminates key challenges faced by policy makers seeking to leverage the international trading system to improve equitable access to health technologies.

18.
International Journal of Innovative Technologies in Economy ; 4(27), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2265714

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of advertising means in modern electronic trade. The demand for modern advertising means has increased in Georgia, and the increase in the effectiveness of their use will help the development of electronic commerce in Georgia. The purpose of the study is to determine the prospects for the development of e-commerce in Georgia in the post-covid period, to study the possibilities of modern advertising means in this field, and to determine the ways of their implementation. Methods of collecting, grouping, and analyzing materials about electronic commerce were used in the development of the paper. The method of data collection is mainly used in the electronic trade system of Georgia, on the basis of which the possibilities of using modern advertising means in this field were identified and recommendations for their implementation were developed. In order to increase the competitiveness of the food and nutrition products produced in Georgia, it is necessary to improve the connections between the separate links of their production, to synchronize the production processes. In order to increase the level of food self-sufficiency of Georgia, it is necessary to protect the production of import-substituting, domestic, agrarian products with non-tariff barriers, and to properly manage their production and logistics. Significant and rapid changes in the global supply chain of food and nutrition products provoked by the Covid-19 pandemic have become an opportunity to increase the level of food self-sufficiency of Georgia, which needs to be properly used.

19.
International Journal of Innovative Technologies in Economy ; 4(26), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2265713

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the problems of food security in the open economy of modern Georgia against the background of the ongoing hostilities between Russia and Ukraine. After the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the attention of almost all countries of the world, including Georgia, was focused on self-sufficiency of the demand of their population with local agricultural and food products. In such conditions, Georgia has a chance to expand domestic production of agricultural and food products. In order to increase the competitiveness of the food and nutrition products produced in Georgia, it is necessary to improve the connections between the separate links of their production, to synchronize the production processes. In order to increase the level of food self-sufficiency of Georgia, it is necessary to protect the production of import-substituting, domestic, agrarian products with non-tariff barriers, and to properly manage their production and logistics. Significant and rapid changes in the global supply chain of food and nutrition products provoked by the Covid-19 pandemic have become an opportunity to increase the level of food self-sufficiency of Georgia, which needs to be properly used.

20.
Tourism Tribune ; 38(1):1-2, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2288557

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted for three years, social mobility has been greatly reduced, and the tourism industry has basically come to a standstill. With the adjustment of epidemic prevention policies and the refinement of governance, the restart and reshaping of the tourism industry is just around the corner. But the tourism industry, after the restart, is very different from that of three years ago, full of uncertainty and unpredictability. The global political and economic situation, geopolitics and international trade have undergone irreversible changes. The global industrial chain and supply chain have been restructured and the process of globalization has been interrupted and replaced by block cooperation characterized by regionalization.

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