Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 88
Filter
1.
Arroz ; 70(556):3-12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046620

ABSTRACT

This article examines the increase in prices of farm inputs (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and fertilizers) in 2021 and the reasons for the increase, including the rise in energy costs, the disruption caused by outbreaks of new variants of COVID-19, and the increase in international freight prices. It is concluded that there are definitely external factors, beyond local control, that are drastically affecting the prices of farm inputs, a situation that directly harms the Colombian agri-food market by significantly increasing production costs due to the high dependence on imported products and raw materials necessary in the national agrochemical and fertilizer industry. There is a need to implement technologies and cultivation practices that lead to the reduction and/or rationalization in the use of inputs, seeking to reduce production costs and increase yields.

2.
Working Paper - Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University 2022. (22-WP 637):29 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044960

ABSTRACT

We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated policy responses on the global economy and food security in 80 low- and middle-income countries. We use a global economy-wide model with detailed disaggregation of agricultural and food sectors and develop a business as usual baseline for 2020 and 2021 called "But-for-COVID" (BfC). We then shock the model with aggregate income shocks derived from the IMF World Economic Outlook for 2020 and 2021. We impose total-factor productivity losses in key sectors as well as consumption decreases induced by social distancing. The resulting shocks in prices and incomes from the CGE model simulations are fed into the USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment model to derive the impact of the pandemic on food security in these 80 countries. The main effect of the pandemic was to exacerbate the existing declining trend in food security. Food insecurity increases considerably in countries in Asia through income shocks rather than prices effects. We also review trade policies that were put in place to restrict imports and exports of food, and we evaluate their potential for further disruption of markets focusing on the food-security implications.

3.
Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 38(4):1099-1105, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040042

ABSTRACT

In this paper, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to analyze the relationship between export growth of edible fungi and trade environment under the background of COVID-19 prevalence from a configurational perspective. The results showed that, single environmental factor did not constitute a necessary condition for high export growth. There were three trade environment configurations that generated high export growth, and there was a complementary relationship between epidemic risk of COVID-19 and economic growth, technical barrier. Both epidemic risk of COVID-19 and technical barrier showed a bidirectional effect on export growth. Economic cardinality and economic growth jointly affected the sensitivity of export growth to transportation cost.

4.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034170

ABSTRACT

The relationship between international trade and animal health is particularly important in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization - WTO. Supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), SPS measures are scientifically justified and play an important role in placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related to health and animal trade. The objective of this study was to discuss the interactions between the international meat trade and the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases of viral origin, in a debate on how the current Covid-19 pandemic could change the consumer behavior related to health and hygiene issues, and how the meat sector was affected by SPS measures, highlighting the relevance of Brazil in this context.

5.
Journal of Academic Social Science Studies ; 90:521-536, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026423

ABSTRACT

In an ecosystem where globalization and digitalization constantly and rapidly increase, countries constantly develop and change in many subjects like technology, industry, education, climate change, sustainable investment. Group of 20 that comprises developed and developing 19 countries and European Comission, get together and share ideas and develop shared policies so that the economies can develop, progress in a planned and consistent manner, the economic factors are used effectively and thus develop sustainably. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic which emerged in the Wuhan city of China for the first time in December 12, 2019 and which has rapidly spread all around the world and profoundly shaken the economies has slowed down the economic activities as countries have withdrawn, which has had an impact on employment the most. Unemployment is one of the most important economic problems which the countries face and focus on the most to resolve. Therefore in this research, the share of agriculture, which affects the unemployment rates of the G20 member countries constituting more than two thirds of the world economy on an annual basis since 2000, within GPD, the inflation rate, import and export rates have been tested using the panel data analysis method. It has been concluded that the model fit the random effects model according to the Hausman test. Following that the assumptions were tested, and it was concluded that the model had heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation and interunit correlation. The final model was obtained with the Driscoll-Kraay test, which corrected all three. According to the findings achieved with this model, it was determined that the unemployment rate was affected by agriculture's share within the GDP in the same way as the export rates and that it was affected reversely by the inflation rate and the import rates.

6.
Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences ; 44(2):242-248, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026021

ABSTRACT

Low self-sufficiency rate and the higher foreign dependence rate of about 87% have seriously threatened the soybean safety in China. In recent years, with the changes of the international situation and the COVID-19 epidemic, soybean production, processing and consumption in China have attracted more attention at home and abroad. China unveiled "No. 1 central document" proposed a soybean revitalization plan in 2019, putting forward the goal of "one expansion and two improvements" to strengthen the competitiveness of China's soybean industry in the international agricultural market. This paper reviewed the current situation of soybean production, processing, trade and consumption in China in recent years, and upgraded strategies to enhance China's soybean industry and enhanced the self-sufficiency rate according to China's national conditions.

7.
Research Series - Economic Policy Research Centre 2022. (157):52 pp. 39 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011810

ABSTRACT

Background: Uganda's budget authority has faced increased fiscal pressure caused by a sudden drop in revenues from the economic slowdown and new expenditure pressures associated with COVID-19 impacts. Consequently, the country has responded by reprioritizing the budget towards 7 sectors, i.e., agriculture, health, education, trade and industry, social development, works and energy. These sectors respond to the government's objective of increasing household and firm production and productivity, providing jobs, reducing the health impacts of coronavirus, supporting poverty reduction efforts, promoting exports and enhancing economic growth. Methods and Data: This paper estimates public development budget allocative and technical efficiency for 7 priority sectors that address government policy objectives. Both allocative and technical efficiency are analysed using ratio calculation. However, for some cases, technical efficiency is analysed based on the difference between target and actual outcomes. We calculate the ratios for the 7 sectors based on the votes and outputs. Furthermore, we use a threshold of 80%, which we deem sufficient to determine whether a budget output is inefficient or not. Budget outputs below 80% are considered to be underperforming. Data on allocative efficiency was provided by MoFPED directorate of budget and that on technical efficiency from budget performance reports. The study period considered for this paper runs from 2016/17 to 2020/21. Findings: While we observe high allocative efficiency in a majority of the proposed reprioritisation sectors, there is much variation in budget funds and their utilisation due to: i. A missing link between policy objectives and budgets. Notably, there is a mismatch between wage and non-wage or capital expenditure (CAPEX) allocations, implying inadequate human resources are required to implement the policy objectives, consequently leading to poor outcomes despite the funding provided for CAPEX. This was endemic in the agriculture and health sectors. ii. Duplication of budget outputs reduces flexibility and accountability and increases monitoring costs. This calls for the consolidation of similar budget outputs, but this should be done with consultation from key stakeholders. iii. There are variations in utilisation of domestic relative to the external development financing with unmet outcomes. This could be a case of stringent donor monitoring requirements and delays in procurement. This calls for strict monitoring of the domestic development financing to ensure results. iv. Relatedly, health budgets exhibit an over-reliance on external financing. However, donor funds are largely not integrated into government budgets and may challenge any planned re-allocation. Hence, there is a need to open a discussion with the donors on the possibility of re-channelling financing to other key priority sectors/outputs in line with the country's short-term goals. v. Generally, as observed in the health and education sectors, budgeting is still based on the output/ institution-based system rather than service. This makes it complex to pool resources, spend and strategically purchase goods and services. There is a need to build stronger linkages between budget allocations and sector priorities. This can also enable the implementation of strategic purchasing and incentivize accountability for sector performance. vi. In addition, there is generally an absence of proper transition towards programme-based budgeting (PBB). For example, numerous budget outputs in the trade, tourism and industry sector do not have performance indicators that weaken the link between strategies, annual plans, sector policies and budgets. vii. Generally, we recommend that new road construction should be paused in the short term so that the available funds can be rechannelled to other urgent and critical areas.

8.
Business Excellence ; 16(1):33-54, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994822

ABSTRACT

Pricing management is part of farm management with the purpose of increasing profitability and competitiveness. It is based on the production cost and purchase price which difference affects to the financial result. The aim of this research is to identify milk price volatility at the Croatian and EU level, international trade, as well as to identify trends for the period from 2016 to 2020 and to simulate changes for the next period from 2021 to 2025. The analyzed data were taken from the Eurostat and processed using time and harmonized index. Milk production in the EU-27 for 2020 is 23 mil. tons of milk and averages 65 kilograms milk consumption per capita. The lowest average production price of milk in the analyzed period at the EU-27 level was in 2016 (28 per 100 kg of milk) and in following years it is up to 35 per 100 kg. The market situation reflects the consequence of the abolition of quotas in the dairy industry (2015) and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In period from 2021 to 2025, a slight growth and slowdown in milk production of 2.83% compared to 2020 and an increase in the average producer milk prices in 2025 by 9.6% compared to 2020 are projected. This research contributes to identifying the sources of difficulties in managing prices. The guidelines have been developed for more efficient price management in order to improve the competitiveness and market positioning.

9.
SwissHerdbook Bulletin 2021. (2):72 pp. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989219

ABSTRACT

This bulletin highlights the effects of COVID-19 in the dairy cattle sector with emphasis on milk prices and milk yield.

10.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 746(14), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1973012

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on the economic sector, including the agricultural sector. This research will look at the agricultural sector's condition, especially the welfare of farmers represented in the value of the Framers' Term of Trade (FTT) during the COVID-19 pandemic and will forecast FTT for September 2020. This research uses Farmers' Term of Trade (FTT) data obtained from the Indonesian Statistics Bureau (BPS). FTT data were used from January 2016 to August 2020. The Single Exponential Smoothing (SES), used to forecast the FTT value in September 2020, and the determination of the most optimal forecasting value used Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The results showed that the TFF value, recorded during the COVID-19 pandemic, experienced a drastic decline in May 2020 with a TFF value of 99.46. The forecasting calculations using the SES and MAPE methods showed that the most optimal FTT value for September 2020 was 100.63, with a MAPE value of 19.97 percent.

11.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (93):38 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965130

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the economic costs of COVID-19 and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique, relying on a social accounting matrix. It produces numerical results that represent the direct effect on (or 'shocks' to) the economy associated with the pandemic. We distinguish four channels-supply, demand, investment, and export-by which the state of emergency and other efforts influence economic activity. Our simulation suggests that the Mozambican economy lost a total of 3.6 per cent growth in 2020 and that total employment was 1.9 per cent down compared to a scenario without COVID-19. The main part of this loss is foreign-instigated, resulting from a demand reduction for Mozambican products by the rest of the world. The most heavily affected economic sectors are trade and accommodation and mining. Furthermore, our simulation implies that the production factors of capital and urban labour are more affected than rural labour. Moreover, the multisector multiplier analysis brings out the high dependence of Mozambique on a small number of export items (including tourism). Accordingly, Mozambique should promote economic diversification and explore the potential of reducing Mozambique's vulnerability to foreign shocks.

12.
ITTO Tropical Forest Update ; 29(1):30-31, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929149

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on the tropical timber sector. An ITTO survey of stakeholders shows that the measures are having devastating impacts on the tropical timber sector. Correspondents in Brazil, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Viet Nam were asked in April to use their networks to seek answers to questions on the impacts of the pandemic. Highlights of the responses are: (1) unemployment;(2) economic decline;(3) low output production in the forestry and timber sector;and (4) financial losses in timber sector.

13.
Research on World Agricultural Economy ; 3(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1925009

ABSTRACT

The 1991 Indian reforms aimed at economic liberalization, as a part of its economic structural adjustment, and transformed the nation's economy into a more global market-based and service-oriented system, which revolutionized its agricultural trade facet. The new regime paved the way for the self-reliant Indian agriculture to expand its roots into the spheres of global competitiveness and export orientation. India enjoys competitive advantage in the international market and considering the growth in India's exports of major agricultural commodities. This study employed Constant Market Share model to analyze the export performance of its various facets such as diversification, instability, elasticity, competitiveness, etc. The findings revealed that India's growth performance of major agricultural commodities' exports both in terms of quantity and value was found satisfactory (except wheat and cashew nuts, shelled (quantity)) during 1991-2020. During the recent past decade, i.e., 2011-2020, World Demand Effect (WDE) is the main sources of India's agricultural export performance (due to general rise/fall in world demand given a constant market share of the India, unlike Market Distribution Effect (MDE), Commodity Composition Effect (CCE) and the Residual Competitiveness Effect (RCE) due to high inconsistency arising out of changes in external environment). Both MDE and RCE with respect to commodity-wise exports and CCE and RCE with respect to country-wise exports are found negative for majority of commodities and countries (markets) respectively. Consistently negative CCE for exports of agricultural products, total and across major export destinations were found more disheartening and this should deserve special attention. So, it is imperative to boost the export competitiveness of agricultural commodities from India and the future prospects of exports depend on how much the latest surge in COVID-19 infections in India affects its agricultural production and global demand conditions.

14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(5):363-365, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924838

ABSTRACT

In order to strictly control and prevent the risk of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission through imported cold-chain foods, Shanghai has implemented many multiple countermeasures, including "Three Points Intermediate Sites, One Transit Cold Storage" and "Four Drive Linkage". Shanghai cold-chain information traceability system and other operating mechanisms have been established, according to the guidance of "One Single Plan". The multilevel, overall, traceable, life cycle and whole process and closed-loop control regulatory system, called "Shanghai mode of control" for imported cold-chain food has been basically formed, which would facilitate precise regulation and management of create an accurate management system for imported cold-chain foods.

15.
International Journal of Agriculture Innovation, Technology and Globalisation ; 2(4):351-371, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1923726

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19, the agro-industrial sector continues to prove a significant role in the contribution of Vietnamese economic power. It is essential to be aware of the performance-competition relationship which helps agro-process enterprises improve their business and respond quickly to market changes. We implemented an input-output-performance analysis by employing a qualitative case-study approach at four large manufacturing exporters by adapting the iceberg model and 'philosophy' of technovation performance. As a result, we found that the input-output process of technovation occurs mutually from the export competitive advantages in both direct and indirect ways. Moreover, by assigning four cases to one of four concordant positions, the matrix of technovation performance-competitiveness as an analytical tool was established, helping managers allocate resources and capital to select and build their own business strategy. The implications for theory and managerial practices are explained and presented.

16.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):9885-9894, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905181

ABSTRACT

This research paper analyses the changes and fluctuations thathappened in the prices of the stocks in the Information Technology sector in India during the period January 2020 to December 2020 in the five companies:TCS, Infosys, Wipro, HCL and Tech Mahindra using the closing prices of NIFTY Index to analyse. Further, the study has analysed the performance of the stocks of these five companies and also investigated the factors influencing the fluctuations. The major factor appears to be the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The companies were found to encounter a dip in their stock prices as an impact. While comparing the result of the analysis, it has also been found that the major dip in the stock prices has occurred during the period of March to May 2020.

17.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

18.
Single commodity export dependence and the impacts of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa 2022. 31 pp. 28 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904718

ABSTRACT

As recent trade disputes have led the United States to broaden export markets, the macroeconomic and developmental characteristics of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ostensibly indicate the region will likely be a destination for U.S. agricultural exports in upcoming years. However, many of these character-istics are symptomatic of the economic development struggles prevalent in the region, which present significant challenges to sustained development. Trade in high-value commodities, for example, may offer economic growth, but the benefits are not necessarily diffused throughout the broader economy. Serving as the primary source for economic growth, foreign exchange, and export revenue, exports of high-value commodities can create terms-of-trade shocks during periods of significant fluctuations in international prices. This can limit a country's ability to trade effectively and alter trade flows due to the resultant depreciating exchange rate. The current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has created such a period of intense price volatility, offering a unique opportunity for modeling potential effects of a global shock on trade with these nations. This working paper illuminates the impact that this volatility can have on U.S. agricultural product export values to SSA. By simulating the effects of declining oil prices in 2020 and subsequent years through a shock to gross domestic product (GDP) in oil-depen-dent nations-i.e., Angola and Nigeria-we can evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural trade for key U.S. export commodities to SSA.

19.
Policy Brief - Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development 2021. (35):6 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897543

ABSTRACT

This policy brief summarizes a report which applies a systematic literature review methodology to survey the evidence on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on sub-Saharan African food systems, particularly with respect to domestic food value chains, regional/international food trade, and food and nutrition security. This evidence synthesis gives rise to several recommendations for policy makers, some of which are immediately applicable while others would be relevant if a lockdown were reintroduced in a future crisis.

20.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture Food Science and Technology ; 10(4):549-554, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893608

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, turned into a major global pandemic and has caused many deaths around the world. Covid-19 pandemic has adversely affected every aspect from economy, education to health system. During Covid-19 pandemic, access to foodstuffs has become even more important, and some countries have imposed restrictions on exports of basic food items for fear of food shortages. These restrictions and quotas are feared to disrupt the flows of trade for staple foods such as wheat, corn and rice, which has deepened the concerns for food security. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on wheat price, production and trade and to review the policies of wheat exporter countries. According to the results of the study, Covid-19 did not cause fear in wheat markets, and no shortages of wheat are expected in the short term. Although countries have reduced the measures they have taken as of May, uncertainties regarding food safety still persist for the coming years. World economies have shrunk significantly as a result of the drastic measures they have taken against covid-19, which could worsen the situation for low income households.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL