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1.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) ; 85(2): 122-136, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818324

ABSTRACT

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents and surgical approaches may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.

2.
J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis ; 27: e20200157, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206218

ABSTRACT

A new concept of multisystem disease has emerged as a long-term condition following mild-severe COVID-19 infection. The main symptoms of this affection are breathlessness, chest pain, and fatigue. We present here the clinical case of four COVID-19 patients during hospitalization and 60 days after hospital discharge. Physiological impairment of all patients was assessed by spirometry, dyspnea score, arterial blood gas, and 6-minute walk test 60 days after hospital discharge, and computed tomographic scan 90 days after discharge. All patients had fatigue, which was not related to hypoxemia or impaired spirometry values, and interstitial lung alterations, which occurred in both mechanically ventilated and non-mechanically ventilated patients. In conclusion, identifying the prevalence and patterns of permanent lung damage is paramount in preventing and treating COVID-19-induced fibrotic lung disease. Additionally, and based on our preliminary results, it will be also relevant to establish long-term outpatient programs for these individuals.

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