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1.
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering ; 17(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027649

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic remains ever prevalent and afflicting—partially because one of its transmission pathways is aerosol. With the widely used central air conditioning systems worldwide, indoor virus aerosols can rapidly migrate, thus resulting in rapid infection transmission. It is therefore important to install microbial aerosol treatment units in the air conditioning systems, and we herein investigated the possibility of combining such filtration with UV irradiation to address virus aerosols. Results showed that the removal efficiency of filtration towards f2 and MS2 phages depended on the type of commercial filter material and the filtration speed, with an optimal velocity of 5 cm/s for virus removal. Additionally, it was found that UV irradiation had a significant effect on inactivating viruses enriched on the surfaces of filter materials;MS2 phages had greater resistance to UV-C irradiation than f2 phages. The optimal inactivation time for UV-C irradiation was 30 min, with higher irradiation times presenting no substantial increase in inactivation rate. Moreover, excessive virus enrichment on the filters decreased the inactivation effect. Timely inactivation is therefore recommended. In general, the combined system involving filtration with UV-C irradiation demonstrated a significant removal effect on virus aerosols. Moreover, the system is simple and economical, making it convenient for widespread implementation in air-conditioning systems.

2.
Nanomaterials ; 12(17):3046, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023952

ABSTRACT

A new method has been developed to impart the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles to resin substrates. A resin substrate immersed in an aqueous solution of silver nitrate was irradiated with gamma ray or high energy electron beams. Silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized on the resin surface directly by chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation. It was experimentally confirmed that various resin materials, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polycarbonate, were applicable for this process. The effects of gamma ray or electron beam irradiation on resin substrates were almost negligible since the irradiation dose was equal or less than that used for sterilization. Despite the small amount of Ag loadings, the obtained samples showed high antibacterial and antiviral activities.

3.
Molecules ; 27(17):5535, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023947

ABSTRACT

As a promising metal-free photocatalyst, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is still limited by insufficient visible light absorption and rapid recombination of photogenerated carriers, resulting in low photocatalytic activity. Here, we adjusted the microstructure of the pristine bulk-g-C3N4 (PCN) and further loaded silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Abundant Ag nanoparticles were grown on the thin-layer g-C3N4 nanosheets (CNNS), and the Ag nanoparticles decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets (Ag@CNNS) were successfully synthesized. The thin-layer nanosheet-like structure was not only beneficial for the loading of Ag nanoparticles but also for the adsorption and activation of reactants via exposing more active sites. Moreover, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect induced by Ag nanoparticles enhanced the absorption of visible light by narrowing the band gap of the substrate. Meanwhile, the composite band structure effectively promoted the separation and transfer of carriers. Benefiting from these merits, the Ag@CNNS reached a superior hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) yield of 120.53 μmol/g/h under visible light irradiation in pure water (about 8.0 times higher than that of PCN), significantly surpassing most previous reports. The design method of manipulating the microstructure of the catalyst combined with the modification of metal nanoparticles provides a new idea for the rational development and application of efficient photocatalysts.

4.
Molecules ; 27(16):5058, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023931

ABSTRACT

This work is devoted to the investigation of heterobimetallic Ru(II) complexes as photosensitizers for room-temperature photoactivated In2O3-based gas sensors. Nanocrystalline In2O3 was synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The obtained In2O3 matrix has a single-phase bixbyite structure with an average grain size of 13–14 nm and a specific surface area of 72 ± 3 m2/g. The synthesis of new ditope ligands with different coordination centers, their ruthenium complexes, and the preparation of heterobimetallic complexes with various cations of heavy and transition metals (Ag+, Pb2+, or Cu2+) is reported. The heterobimetallic Ru(II) complexes were deposited onto the surface of the In2O3 matrix by impregnation. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescent analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. The elemental distribution on the hybrids was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The gas sensor properties were investigated toward NO2, NO, and NH3 at room temperature under periodic blue LED irradiation. It was identified that the nature of the second binding cation in Ru(II) heterobimetallic complexes can influence the selectivity toward different gases. Thus, the maximum sensor signal for oxidizing gases (NO2, NO) was obtained for hybrids containing Ag+ or Pb2+ cations while the presence of Cu2+ cation results in the highest and reversible sensor response toward ammonia. This may be due to the specific adsorption of NH3 molecules on Cu2+ cations. On the other hand, Cu2+ ions are proposed to be active sites for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to N2. This fact leads to a significant decrease in the sensor response toward NO2 and NO gases.

5.
Catalysts ; 12(8):856, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023199

ABSTRACT

Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, collectively known as legionellosis. L. pneumophila infection occurs through inhalation of contaminated aerosols from water systems in workplaces and institutions. The development of disinfectants that can eliminate L. pneumophila in such water systems without evacuating people is needed to prevent the spread of L. pneumophila. Photocatalysts are attractive disinfectants that do not harm human health. In particular, the TiO2 photocatalyst kills L. pneumophila under various conditions, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we confirmed the high performance of TiO2 photocatalyst containing PtO2 via the degradation of methylene blue (half-value period: 19.2 min) and bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (half-value period: 15.1 min) in water. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that the disinfection of L. pneumophila (half-value period: 6.7 min) by TiO2 photocatalyst in water is accompanied by remarkable cellular membrane and internal damage to L. pneumophila. Assays with limulus amebocyte lysate and silver staining showed the release of endotoxin from L. pneumophila due to membrane damage and photocatalytic degradation of this endotoxin. This is the first study to demonstrate the disinfection mechanisms of TiO2 photocatalyst, namely, via morphological changes and membrane damage of L. pneumophila. Our results suggest that TiO2 photocatalyst might be effective in controlling the spread of L. pneumophila.

6.
Catalysts ; 12(8):829, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023197

ABSTRACT

The transmission of pathogens via surfaces poses a major health problem, particularly in hospital environments. Antimicrobial surfaces can interrupt the path of spread, while photocatalytically active titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have emerged as an additive for creating antimicrobial materials. Irradiation of such particles with ultraviolet (UV) light leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate bacteria. The aim of this research was to incorporate TiO2 nanoparticles into a cellulose-reinforced melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) to obtain a photocatalytic antimicrobial thermoset, to be used, for example, for device enclosures or tableware. To this end, composites of MF with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% TiO2 were produced by ultrasonication and hot pressing. The incorporation of TiO2 resulted in a small decrease in tensile strength and little to no decrease in Shore D hardness, but a statistically significant decrease in the water contact angle. After 48 h of UV irradiation, a statistically significant decrease in tensile strength for samples with 0 and 10 wt% TiO2 was measured but with no statistically significant differences in Shore D hardness, although a statistically significant increase in surface hydrophilicity was measured. Accelerated methylene blue (MB) degradation was measured during a further 2.5 h of UV irradiation and MB concentrations of 12% or less could be achieved. Samples containing 0, 10, and 20 wt% TiO2 were investigated for long-term UV stability and antimicrobial activity. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed no changes in the chemical structure of the polymer, due to the incorporation of TiO2, but changes were detected after 500 h of irradiation, indicating material degradation. Specimens pre-irradiated with UV for 48 h showed a total reduction in Escherichia coli when exposed to UV irradiation.

7.
Food Control ; : 109340, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007702

ABSTRACT

The detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in food and food packaging associated with the cold chain has raised concerns about the possible transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in foods transported through cold-chain logistics and the need for novel decontamination strategies. In this study, the effect of electron beam (E-beam) irradiation on the inactivation of two SARS-CoV-2surrogate, viruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), in culture medium and food substrate, and on food substrate were investigated. The causes of virus inactivation were also investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Samples packed inside and outside, including virus-inoculated large yellow croaker and virus suspensions, were irradiated with E-beam irradiation (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 kGy) under refrigerated (0 °C)and frozen (−18 °C) conditions. The titers of both viruses in suspension and fish decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of E-beam irradiation. The maximum D10 value of both viruses in suspension and fish was 1.24 kGy. E-beam irradiation at doses below 10 kGy was found to destroy the spike proteins of both SARS-CoV-2 surrogate viruses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and negative staining of thin-sectioned specimens, rendering them uninfectious. E-beam irradiation at doses greater than 10 kGy was also found to degrade viral genomic RNA by qRT-PCR. There were no significant differences in color, pH, TVB-N, TBARS, and sensory properties of irradiated fish samples at doses below 10 kGy. These findings suggested that E-beam irradiation has the potential to be developed as an efficient non-thermal treatment to reduce SARS-CoV-2 contamination in foods transported through cold chain foods to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans through the cold chain.

8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 947-953, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) technologies have emerged as a promising adjunct to manual cleaning, however, their potential to shorten cleaning times remains unexplored. METHODS: A <10-minute disinfection procedure was developed using a robotic UVGI platform. The efficacy and time to perform the UVGI procedure in a CT scan treatment room was compared with current protocols involving manual disinfection using biocides. For each intervention, environmental samples were taken at 12 locations in the room before and after disinfection on seven distinct occasions. RESULTS: The mean UVC dose at each sample location was found to be 13.01 ± 4.36 mJ/cm2, which exceeded published UVC thresholds for achieving log reductions of many common pathogens. Significant reductions in microbial burden were measured after both UVGI (P≤.001) and manual cleaning (P≤.05) conditions, with the UVGI procedure revealing the largest effect size (r = 0.603). DISCUSSION: These results support the hypothesis that automated deployments of UVGI technology can lead to germicidal performance that is comparable with, and potentially better than, current manual cleaning practices. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide early evidence that the incorporation of automated UVGI procedures into cleaning workflow could reduce turnaround times in radiology, and potentially other hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Radiology , Robotics , Disinfection/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
9.
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research ; 15:277-283, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997376

ABSTRACT

Background: Cold plasma has many characteristics that allow for effective wound healing. Due to its efficacy, we have applied it in treating patients with severe Covid-19 who have soft tissue skin lesions and diseases including burns, pressure ulcers, shingles, and contact or atopic dermatitis. This study aims to assess the general characteristics of Covid-19 patients with soft tissue lesions and to conduct a fundamental evaluation of the efficacy of cold plasmamed beams in treating soft tissue wounds in patients with severe Covid-19. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 20 severe Covid-19 patients with soft tissue lesions at the Intensive Care Center for Covid-19 of Hue Central Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City from September 25 to November 11, 2021. These patients was performed cold plasma irradiation at any stage of wound progression, including new injuries and chronic wounds. Results: Among 915 severe Covid-19 patients treated at our center, 20 patients had soft tissue lesions. Grade I, II, and III pressure ulcers accounted for 70% of the 20 cases of soft tissue lesions and 1.53% of the total patients at the time of the survey. Pressure ulcers were present in only 0.55% of patients (5/915 patients). Eleven out of 20 patients (55.0%) had lesions before admission, and 9 (45.0%) had lesions that appeared after admission. After 14 days of treatment, 14/20 patients had complete epithelialization (70%), and in 18/20 patients, wound exudation had ceased. The wounds became painless;after 3 weeks, the rashes had completely disappeared. Conclusion: The study emphasizes that irradiation with cold plasma contributes to the wound healing process.

10.
Cytotherapy ; 24(5):S164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996731

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: Mill Creek’s human platelet lysate (hPL) is produced using expired human platelets obtained from accredited blood banks in the United States. These platelets were originally intended for use in patient transfusion. The safety of platelets used in transfusion is managed by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), as well as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB). These organizations set standards, including testing for transmissible diseases. The United States record for blood safety is well established, with extremely low rates of disease transmission, making the platelet units used for hPL manufacture low risk. However, over the past few decades, the number of emerging infectious diseases that spread to people has increased. Even though transmission of Covid-19 and other potential emergent pathogens via blood transfusion has not been documented, adventitious agents remain a concern. For that reason, pathogen reduction processes are necessary to improve the safety profile of blood-derived products used in the manufacture of cellbased therapies. One of these processes is the pathogen reduction through gamma irradiation. Methods, Results & Conclusion: Previously, we validated a process to produce gamma irradiated human platelet lysate. To be able to release the gamma irradiated product as a pathogen reduced product, we additionally performed a viral clearance study, which determined the efficacy of the process to actually reduce a potential viral contaminant. Here, we present the results obtained from the viral clearance study performed on our gamma irradiated hPL, and from the expansion of different types of therapeutic cells using our gamma irradiated hPLs, which showed unprecedented levels of product quality and efficiency. Our products are a game changer for the growing market of cell base therapies bioprocessing and manufacturing.

11.
Physica Medica ; 94:S24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996709

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Passive antibody administration through convalescent plasma has shown benefit in treating COVID-19 in the early stages of the disease in patients >65 years old, and in other viral outbreaks. A practical, rapid method to sterilize convalescent plasma while also maintaining antibody function would be valuable for safe treatment in future viral pandemics. Plasma sterilization by irradiation requires kGy of dose to deactivate bacteria and viruses of concern. Conventional lab-based irradiators would require days to reach such doses, while ultra-high dose rate irradiation (FLASH) would require minutes. We present a proof-of-concept on sterilizing plasma with 25 kGy in approximately 3 minutes without damaging the antibodies in the plasma. Methods: A Varian Trilogy LINAC was configured for 16 MeV FLASH electron irradiation. Frozen aliquots of convalescent plasma from patients with COVID-19 were placed in a 3D printed holder submerged in liquid aiming to preserve sample temperature (RT, 4°C or –20°C). The number of pulses was estimated with EBT-XD film. Samples were irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy in ~33,330 pulses over 185 seconds. Antibody binding against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 region of SARS-CoV-2 was measured by ELISA pre- and post-irradiation. Results: Frozen plasma aliquots from 10 COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were irradiated in frozen state to 25 kGy dose. IgG antibody binding against SARS-CoV-2 RBD after irradiation remained at 90.8% of non-irradiated samples (Fig. 1;OD 1.25 vs. 1.36, p<0.0003). (Figure Presented) Fig. 1 ( O034). Plasma aliquots from 10 convalescent plasma samples were irradiated at sterilizing 25-kGy doses. IgG binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen by ELISA is 90.8% compared to unirradiated. Conclusions: FLASH irradiation allows for rapid sterilization of blood plasma from potential pathogens while largely preserving antibody binding function and specificity.

12.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics ; 114(1):A11-A13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1984266
13.
IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978392

ABSTRACT

LED lighting is becoming increasingly pervasive in many areas ranging from ambient lighting, up to applications such as microscope illumination, UV-LED curing and, UV disinfection for air, surfaces, and water. Irradiance uniformity is often a fundamental parameter for guiding the design, comparison, and optimization of the illuminator. To this end, many methods and procedures have been proposed to guide the arrangement of the LED sources, as well as to guide the design of ad-hoc lenses. Nevertheless, there are many applications in which it is important to be able to consider other aspects as well as the uniformity of the irradiance. For this purpose, we propose both a method that allows calculating the irradiance generated by the used LED sources and, performance indicators for guiding the design and comparing different optical layouts.

14.
International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Networks, ICISN 2022 ; 471 LNNS:83-91, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971630

ABSTRACT

N95 disposable respirator masks are of particular importance to the Covid-19 pandemic. The high cost and limited supply of N95 disposable respirators promote research and safe and effective methods of reusing medical masks. The CDC of USA has announced that ultraviolet (UVC) irradiation inactivates SARS-CoV-2, virus, and other microorganisms known to culture on N95, as well as the results affecting mask fit and filterability. In this study, we analyze and evaluate the pathogen inactivation mechanism and the performance of respirators after treatment and perfect the method of ultraviolet irradiation (UVC) to help inactivate of SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, the research team successfully designed, fabricated and tested a semi-automatic system with UVC capacity 0.15 mW/cm2 at 220 nm that inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (3 log reduction) substances analogues of viruses, and other microorganisms grown on N95. The research results aim to commercialize the system technology (1) to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus through the our application of UVC irradiation at the appropriate wavelength and effective dose, and (2) maintain the suitability and N95 filter rate. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
AMAZONIA INVESTIGA ; 11(53):336-347, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1970042

ABSTRACT

Year-round provision of fresh vegetables and green products to the population of Russian regions of 1 and 2 light zones remains an important social and economic task, despite the modern devel-opment of logistics. The need to provide fresh crop production in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased. Agro-industrial greenhouses still rely mainly on traditional light sources. The purpose of this scientific study was therefore to assess the effectiveness of modern LED lights in finishing salad plants in a closed ground relative to traditional sodium light sources. The scientific hypothesis of the research carried out was a thesis about the possible effectiveness of light-emitting diode phytoplants with peak values of red (660nm) and blue (440nm) light spec-trum in comparison with traditional sodium light in artificial finishing of vegetables of protected soil. The study revealed the production, commercial and energy efficiency of salad plants from the plant lamps tested. The study resulted in practical recommendations for producers and further research on the subject.

16.
Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie ; 101:S233, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967661

ABSTRACT

Introduction Reprocessing of medical devices becomes increasingly complex, due to higher hygiene requirements. Former studies revealed satisfactory bactericidal properties of UV-C light disinfection in otorhinolaryngological endoscopes. Especially in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, virucidal properties are of high importance. In this study the virucidal efficacy of UV-C light disinfection was analyzed using a bacteriophage model. Materials and methods MS-2 bacteriophages were used as surrogate for stable viruses with high tenacity. The bacteriophage samples were irradiated for up to three cycles of 25 seconds by UV-C light (D25, UV-Smart Technologies B.V.). A dilution series of the irradiated test samples was mixed with 1x108 CFU of Escherichia coli. After incubation plaque formation of Escherichia coli were counted and hence the phage concentration was determined. Results The initial contamination of the test samples was 1.8x1012 plaque forming units (pfu). After 25 seconds of UV-C light irradiation, a non-significant Log reduction of 2.2 was found (p = 0,82). After 50 and 75 seconds of UV-exposure a significant Log reduction of 3.4 e.g. 5.1 (p = 0.05 e.g. p = 0.004) was found. The control sample showed a titer of 1.2 x 1010 pfu. Conclusion The tested UV system seems to provide a significant virucidal effect after a short time of exposure. In combination with the results of the bacteriological testing it appears suitable for clinical use as a substitute for current disinfection methods.

17.
LANCET ONCOLOGY ; 23(1):E21-E31, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965435

ABSTRACT

High-quality randomised clinical trials testing moderately fractionated breast radiotherapy have clearly shown that local control and survival is at least as effective as with 2 Gy daily fractions with similar or reduced normal tissue toxicity. Fewer treatment visits are welcomed by patients and their families, and reduced fractions produce substantial savings for health-care systems. Implementation of hypofractionation, however, has moved at a slow pace. The oncology community have now reached an inflection point created by new evidence from the FAST-Forward fivefraction randomised trial and catalysed by the need for the global radiation oncology community to unite during the COVID-19 pandemic and rapidly rethink hypofractionation implementation. The aim of this paper is to support equity of access for all patients to receive evidence-based breast external beam radiotherapy and to facilitate the translation of new evidence into routine daily practice. The results from this European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice consensus state that moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy can be offered to any patient for whole breast, chest wall (with or without reconstruction), and nodal volumes. Ultrafractionation (five fractions) can also be offered for non-nodal breast or chest wall (without reconstruction) radiotherapy either as standard of care or within a randomised trial or prospective cohort. The consensus is timely;not only is it a pragmatic framework for radiation oncologists, but it provides a measured proposal for the path forward to influence policy makers and empower patients to ensure equity of access to evidence-based radiotherapy.

18.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112531, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956241

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emphasized effective cleaning and disinfection of common spaces as an essential tool to mitigate viral transmission. To address this problem, decontamination technologies based on UV-C light are being used. Our aim was to generate coherent and translational datasets of effective UV-C-based SARS-CoV-2 inactivation protocols for the application on surfaces with different compositions. Virus infectivity after UV-C exposure of several porous (bed linen, various types of upholstery, synthetic leather, clothing) and non-porous (types of plastic, stainless steel, glass, ceramics, wood, vinyl) materials was assessed through plaque assay using a SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate. Studies were conducted under controlled environmental conditions with a 254-nm UV-C lamp and irradiance values quantified using a 254 nm-calibrated sensor. From each material type (porous/non-porous), a product was selected as a reference to assess the decrease of infectious virus particles as a function of UV-C dose, before testing the remaining surfaces with selected critical doses. Our data show that UV-C irradiation is effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on both material types. However, an efficient reduction in the number of infectious viral particles was achieved much faster and at lower doses on non-porous surfaces. The treatment effectiveness on porous surfaces was demonstrated to be highly variable and composition-dependent. Our findings will support the optimization of UV-C-based technologies, enabling the adoption of effective customizable protocols that will help to ensure higher antiviral efficiencies.

19.
Food Biosci ; : 101803, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944970

ABSTRACT

Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation can effectively inactivate severe acute respiratory; syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in cold-chain seafood. This study evaluated the effects of E-beam irradiation at doses killing SARS-CoV-2 on quality indicators of Atlantic cod. The cod samples were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy E-beam irradiation, and nutrition, texture, color, and sensory attributes were investigated. The results; showed that E-beam irradiation significantly increased thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and decreased hardness, chewiness, and a* value of Atlantic cod (P < 0.05). E-beam irradiation with 10 kGy E-beam irradiation significantly lowered total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and reducing sugar content while increasing moisture and ash content (P < 0.05). A significant color change was observed after irradiation with 2 kGy-7 kGy E-beam (P < 0.05). E-beam irradiation had no effects on sensory attributes (P > 0.05). A dose of 4 kGy was recommended considering the keeping quality in Atlantic cod.

20.
Environ Technol Innov ; 27: 102715, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944959

ABSTRACT

The many instances of COVID-19 outbreaks suggest that cold chains are a possible route for the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, owing to the low temperatures of cold chains, which are normally below 0 °C, there are limited options for virus inactivation. Here, high-energy electron beam (E-beam) irradiation was used to inactivate porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) under simulated cold chain conditions. This coronavirus was used as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. The possible mechanism by which high-energy E-beam irradiation inactivates PEDV was also explored. An irradiation dose of 10 kGy reduced the PEDV infectious viral titer by 1.68-1.76 log10TCID 50 / 100 µ L in the cold chain environment, suggesting that greater than 98.1% of PEDV was inactivated. E-beam irradiation at 5-30 kGy damaged the viral genomic RNA with an efficiency of 46.25%-92.11%. The integrity of the viral capsid was disrupted at 20 kGy. The rapid and effective inactivation of PEDV at temperatures below freezing indicates high-energy E-beam irradiation as a promising technology for disinfecting SARS-CoV-2 in cold chain logistics to limit the transmission of COVID-19.

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