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1.
Journal of Hepatology ; 77:S217-S218, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967497

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: To validate an innovative eradication model for HCV infection in undocumented migrants and low-income refugees living Southern Italy. Method: a prospective, multicenter, collaborative study was started in June 2018 with The studywas stopped in February 2020 due to the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italy and was resumed in February 2021. At the six 1st level centers participating to the study volunteer associations that deal with the first needs of disadvantaged people performed the enrolment and the screening for anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HIV;epidemiological data were collected in an electronic database. Anti-HCV-positive subjects were sent to two 3rd level centers for the clinical, virological and therapeutic evaluation. For the HCV-RNA-positive subjects HCV genotyping and a clinical, biochemical and ultrasound staging was performed. The HCV RNApositive subjects have been treated with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks and followed for 12 months from the end of therapy. Results: Of the 3, 991 migrants observed in the study period, 3, 897 (97.6%) accepted to be screened. They were young (median age 26 years), predominantly male (85.9%) and came from North Africa (3.8%), from Sub-Saharan Africa (68.4%), from Eastern Europe (8.1%), from Indo-Pakistan (17%) and from other countries (2.7%). Of the 3, 897 enrolled subjects, 185 (4.7%) resulted anti-HCV positive. The Figure shows the HCV-cure cascade. All the 185 anti-HCV-positive subjects were linked to care at 3rdID and tested for HCV RNA and 53 (28.6%) resulted HCV-RNA positive. Of these, 46 (86.8%) started DAA regimen with sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir (15 with GT 1b, 10 with 1a, 16 with 3, 3 with 4 and 2 with 2). Forty-two completed the follow-up and 4 was still pending. Of these 42 subjects, 41 (97.6%) showed a SVR12 and SVR 24, and one dropped-out in follow-up after the stop of DAA treatment. No subject had adverse event. (Figure Presented) Conclusion: This model seems to be effective to eradicate HCV infection among a difficult-to-manage population, such as undocumented migrants and low-income refugees

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1253, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967443

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Solid organ transplant recipients were excluded from the pivotal clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Therefore, the safety and efficacy data of the different types of available vaccines in this susceptible population is scarce. The goal of the present analysis was to evaluate the humoral response to the COVID-19 vaccines in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients. Methods. Participants were included from February to September 2021. No prioritized vaccination was performed for OLT patients, and they were included in the regular schedule according to age and place of residency. Controls were otherwise healthy people, mainly family members of patients. All subjects completed the full vaccination schemes, and blood samples were taken after at least 15 days of the complete vaccine doses. The samples were analyzed according to the manufacturer instructions using Liaison XL platform from DiaSorin, LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG (DiaSorin S.p.A., Italy), and SARS-COV-2 IgG II Quant (COV-2 IgG II) (Abbott Diagnostics, IL, USA). Results. In all, 187 participants (133 OLT, 54 controls, median age: 60 years, 58.8% women) were included for the analysis;74.3% had at least one comorbidity (31.6% had hypertension, 32.6% diabetes, 7% neoplasia, and 23% obesity). By vaccine brands, 50.3% received Pfizer-BioNTech, 13.9% received Oxford-AstraZeneca, 10.7% received Sinovac, 7.0% Cansino;16% Sputnik-V and 2.1% received Moderna. The serologic response in OLT patients was lower than in controls (median 549 AU/mL vs. 3450 AU/mL, respectively;p 0.001). A positive humoral response was found in 133 OLT individuals: 89.2% with Pfizer-BioNTech, 60% Oxford-AstraZeneca, 76.9% Sinovac, 55.6% Cansino, 68.2% Sputnik-V, and 100% with Moderna. In controls, only Cansino had a 75% humoral response;all other vaccines had a 100% response. In a multivariable model adjusted for relevant confounders, the antecedent of COVID-19 and Pfizer-BioNTech inoculation were associated positively with the serologic response, while the use of prednisone (compared with other immunosuppressants) interfere with this response. Conclusion. The serologic response to COVID-19 vaccines in OLT patients is lower than otherwise healthy controls. In these patients, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was associated with a higher serologic response. Other variables significantly associated with the humoral response were the COVID-19 antecedent (positively) and prednisone exposure (negatively). At the moment, further analysis is necessary to determine whether this serological response is associated with SARS-COV2 infection or reinfection. (Figure Presented)

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-886, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967380

ABSTRACT

Background: Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes require timely endoscopic surveillance. Aims: This study evaluated the approach of Italian gastroenterologists to the management of such patients. It then assessed the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on clinical outcomes, including interval cancers (cancers diagnosed during the time between two screening exams). Materials and methods: All members affiliated with the leading gastroenterology Italian societies (AIGO, SIED, and SIGE) received an online questionnaire. Data collection occurred between March 8, 2021, and May 3, 2021. Results: One hundred and twenty-one clinicians from 96 Italian hospitals answered, not necessarily experts in the field (males: 73, 60.3%;average clinical experience: 20.13±11.69 years). Many collected family history for genetic risk assessment (74.4%), but only 14.0% used online predictive software. 65.6% discussed cases in multidisciplinary units. Genetic analysis was available to most centers, but only a few hospitals offered dedicated endoscopy (19.0%), outpatient clinics (33.9%), or surgeries (23.1%). Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, clinicians noticed a reduction in the number of patients with hereditary colorectal cancer seen at follow-up. The number of clinicians with a high volume of patients decreased (from 38.8% to 28.1%). Almost half of the clinicians (45.5%) reported a delay in the surveillance (median: 4-12 months). Ultimately, 30.6% detected one interval colorectal cancer or more in at least one of their patients. 8.1% reported up to five interval cancers. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic directly affected the surveillance of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Italy. The worst repercussion was the reported increase in interval cancers during the pandemic. This result was likely due to delays in their endoscopy surveillance. Surveillance should resume, to avoid the possible long-term consequences of its interruption, especially for hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.(Figure Presented)(Figure Presented)

4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-487, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967318

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 249 million people worldwide as of November 2021. Patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are at risk of viral infections either related to their underlying immune dysfunction or the immunosuppressive therapy, but little is known about the impact of COVID19 on outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD) patients. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients in different geographic areas with COVID-19 outbreak. Pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients aged 18 years or older from 7 referral centers in Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, the United States and Italy were included. Case definition of IgG4 RD: elevated serum IgG4 serology with typical features of pancreatobiliary involvement on imaging, EUS, ERCP and/ or typical histopathologic features of IgG4 RD. Medical records were reviewed for IgG4 RD status (organ involvement, disease activity, treatment status), COVID-19 infection and outcome. Outcome measures were incidence and severity of COVID-19 in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients, medical treatment for the IgG4 disease during COVID-19 and incidence of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19. Results: 101 pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients (mean age 66.4 +/- 12.1 years, male 74.3%) from 7 referral centers were included from January 2020 to November 2020. Major comorbidities of patients: none in 21.8%, diabetes in 45.5%, hypertension in 49.5%, ischemic heart disease in 8.9%, chronic liver disease in 8.9%, chronic kidney disease in 9.9% and cancer in 5.0% of patients. IgG4 RD organ involvement: pancreas only in 36.6%, pancreas and bile duct in 16.8%, bile duct only in 14.9%, pancreatobiliary and other organs in 26.7% of patients. The mean serum IgG4 serology level was 4.72+/-7.31 g/L. In 2020, 27.7% of patients had active IgG4 disease while 72.3% of patients were in remission. In 2020, 65.3% of patients received treatment (steroid in 48.5%, thiopurines in 22.7%, steroid and thiopurines in 25.8%, rituximab in 1.5%), while 30.7% of patients were not on treatment. 2 patients (2.0%) had COVID-19 infection, with 1 patient requiring ICU admission. All infected patients recovered from COVID-19 without flare up of IgG4 RD. In 2020, 6.9% of patients had postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19 outbreak due to concern of COVID-19 infection while on immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusion: In this study, low incidence of COVID-19 infection and low rates of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment were observed in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients during COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. (Table Presented)

5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-486, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967317

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 and drastically changed daily life with ensuing stay-at-home orders. Studies have shown that adherence to healthy diet and exercise declined during this time. Internet search query data has been used to understand public interest in health-related behaviors such as smoking cessation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether internet searches for weight loss and bariatric interventions increased at the height of the pandemic. Methods: Google Ads Keyword Planner, a publicly available online tool, was used to obtain the search volumes for the keywords “weight loss,” “bariatric surgery,” “endoscopic weight loss procedure,” “gastric balloon,” and “endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty” per month from November 2017- October 2021. Search volumes were identified globally and by country (US, France, Spain, and Italy). Results: Globally, Google searches for “weight loss” peaked to 1,830,000 queries in April 2020, a 122% increase from April 2019 (Fig. 1a). By country, “weight loss” searches increased in April 2020 by 83% (1.8-fold) in the US, 311% (4-fold) in France, 679% (7.8- fold) in Spain, and 236% (3.4-fold) in Italy compared to the year prior (Fig. 1b,1c). Globally, average searches per month for “weight loss” from Mar 2020-Sep 2021 compared to prepandemic searches increased by 58% (Fig 1a). In the US, average monthly searches from Jul 2020-Sep 2021 increased by 43% for “bariatric surgery,” 16% for “gastric balloon,” 116% for “endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty,” and 309% for “endoscopic weight loss procedure” compared to Nov 2017-Jun 2020 averages (Fig. 2). Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic heightened public interest in weight loss and endoscopic interventions. Several studies have shown that even one month into national lockdowns, people were reporting decreased physical activity, increased snack and alcohol consumption, and weight gain. This may have led to a rise in weight loss Google searches to combat these. Concurrently, research linking obesity with severe COVID-19 was publicized which may have contributed to an interest in weight loss. Elective procedures resumed in most hospitals in the US in summer 2020, possibly explaining the relative peaks in searches for bariatric procedures in July. Notably, interest in both weight loss and bariatric procedures not only increased during the height but have also remained elevated in 2021 as the planet slowly returns to a new normal. Furthermore, while total search volume is higher for ""bariatric surgery,"" there is clearly a rapidly rising interest in endoscopic procedures especially after July 2020. These data present an opportunity for gastroenterologists to provide continued patient education on optimal weight loss strategies varying from lifestyle modification, pharmacologic therapy, endobariatric therapy, and bariatric surgery. (Figure Presented) Figure 1. Google search volumes by month for the search query “weight loss” globally (1a), in the United States (1b), and in Europe (1c) from November 2017-September 2021 (Figure Presented) Figure 2. Google search volume by month for the search queries “bariatric surgery,” “endoscopic weight loss procedure,” “gastric balloon,” and “endscopic sleeve gastroplasty” in the United States from November 2017-September 2021

6.
Health Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1966588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is still widespread. During the pandemic, the internet has been the preferred channel for health-related information, especially for less-educated citizens who tend to be the most hesitant about vaccination. A well-structured web communication strategy could help both to overcome vaccine hesitancy and to ensure equity in healthcare service access. This study investigated how the various regional and local health authorities in Italy used their institutional websites to inform users about COVID-19 vaccinations between March and April 2021. We browsed 129 institutional websites, checking the availability, quality and quantity, actionability and readability of information using a literature-based common grid. Descriptive statistics and statistical tests were performed. The online public dissemination of COVID-19 vaccination information in Italy was fragmented, both across and within regions. The side effects of vaccinations, were often not reported on the websites, thus missing an opportunity to enhance vaccination uptake. More focus should also be placed on readability, since readability indexes showed that they were difficult to understand. Our research revealed that several actions could be implemented to enhance online communication on COVID-19 vaccination. For instance, simplifying texts can make them more understandable and the information reported actionable.

7.
Bio - Based and Applied Economics ; 11(1):21-36, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965143

ABSTRACT

The spread of the COVID-19 virus in Italy during the first phasis of the pandemic (February-May 2020) has caused a large-scale crisis, with an almost immediate decrease of industrial production and a consequent contraction in domestic consumption and external trade. However, the issue of food security was immediately recognized as one of the most sensitive, so that the Government has decreed the priority role of the food system, which has been included among those considered fundamental services and economically essential, allowing the related activities to be carried out during the lockdown. Agricultural production activities transformation, and commercialization remained fully operative during the lockdown;nevertheless, the sector has faced many difficulties related to the contraction of some of the marketing channels (restaurants, on farm sales, agritourism, problems with the logistics and many other ones). To better understand the effects of the initial phasis of the pandemic on the Italian agricultural sector and provide useful information to the government and decision makers, a survey was carried out with a CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing) sent to over 10,000 farmers belonging to the sample of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The number of respondents has been of 733 farms, which represents around 7% of the Italian FADN sample. The results of the questionnaire have been matched with FADN data on the structure and the economic performance of farms, allowing a more precise evaluation of the condition and effects of the pandemic. The results highlight a relevant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency on the agricultural sector: 37% of the interviewed farmers declared a significant liquidity crisis, while 60% predicted a contraction in turnover. These effects are more relevant for the wine, olives, and horticulture types of farming and more frequent in medium/large farms. A better situation has been found for farms which usually outsource processing and/or marketing/sale of the products.

8.
HighTech and Innovation Journal ; 2(4):359-372, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965037

ABSTRACT

In the last year, both offline and online news have had the Coronavirus pandemic as their subject, especially since social networking such as Twitter has significantly increased the news regarding Covid-19. The objectives of the project are: the analysis of news regarding the Coronavirus pandemic was extracted from the Twitter profile of ANSA, a well-known Italian news agency, and the analysis of sentiment and the number of likes for each news extracted The sentiment analysis has been carried out using the MAL lexicon (Morphologically Affective Lexicon), where the tweet is split into words and each paola is associated with a score. Positive (with a score greater than zero), negative (with a score less than zero) and neutral (with a score equal to zero) news were identified. As a result, it emerges that sentiment changes day by day, so it is necessary to use sentiment indicators called indices, but only the positive sentiment index is taken into consideration as the negative one is complementary and the neutral one is almost zero. The positive index is then related to some parameters extrapolated from the Civil Protection site: the number of cases, the number of deaths, and the entry into intensive care. Furthermore, in addition to the parameters listed above, the positivity index is related to the days on which the Prime Minister's Decree (DPCM) was signed. The last relationship analyzed is that between the average number of likes and the number of deaths. The results of the research show that the sentiment of the news from the ANSA Agency contains 62.3% of positive news, 37.3% of negative news, and only 0.3% of neutral news. Furthermore, sentiment is not influenced by the daily parameters: the number of cases, number of deaths, entry into intensive care units, and DPCMs. But there is a relationship between the average of like and the number of deaths. © Authors.

9.
Sociologica ; 16(1):95, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964504

ABSTRACT

The article presents the outcome of a qualitative study on female migrant sex workers involved in street prostitution during the first two waves of COVID-19 in Italy, by focusing on their responses to the challenges posed by the pandemic in terms of economic strain and health hazards. The study, carried out from January 2020 to January 2021, has focused on the street sex market, given that this sector was particularly affected by mobility restrictions adopted during the pandemic, and on the city of Milan since it is one of the main hubs of human trafficking in Europe and one of the main sex markets in Italy, as well as one of the Italian cities most heavily hit by COVID-19. According to the findings of the empirical research - based on interviews and participant observation -, migrant women's experiences in the sex market during the pandemic show two concomitant elements, one referring to agency and the other to exploitation. This outcome has led us to put forward a third balanced theoretical perspective, between the two views polarizing the debate on sex trafficking - namely the "victimization approach" and the "critical approach" - that is grounded on the conceptual tool "layers of vulnerability" discussed in the bioethics debate.

10.
Malawi Medical Journal ; 34(2):73-86, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964317

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThis study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between the number of days elapsed since a country's first case(s) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the total number of tests conducted, and outbreak indicators such as the total numbers of cases, deaths, and patients who recovered. The study compares COVID-19 indicators among countries and clusters them according to similarities in the indicators. MethodsDescriptive statistics of the indicators were computed and the results were presented in figures and tables. A fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to cluster/group the countries according to the similarities in the total numbers of patients who recovered, deaths, and active cases. ResultsThe highest numbers of COVID-19 cases were found in Gibraltar, Spain, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Italy were also of that order with about 1500 cases per million population. Spain and Italy had the highest total number of deaths, which were about 140 and 165 per million population, respectively. In Japan, where exposure to the causative virus was longer than in most other countries, the total number of deaths per million population was less than 0.5. According to cluster analysis, the total numbers of deaths, patients who recovered, and active cases were higher in Western countries, especially in central and southern European countries, which had the highest numbers when compared with other countries. ConclusionThere may be various reasons for the differences between the clusters obtained by fuzzy c-means clustering. These include quarantine measures, climatic conditions, economic levels, health policies, and the duration of the fight against the outbreak.

11.
Diseases ; 10(3)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963775

ABSTRACT

Despite the stunning speed with which highly effective and safe vaccines have been developed, the emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 causes high rates of (re)infection, a major impact on health care services, and a slowdown to the socio-economic system. For COVID-19, accurate and timely forecasts are therefore essential to provide the opportunity to rapidly identify risk areas affected by the pandemic, reallocate the use of health resources, design countermeasures, and increase public awareness. This paper presents the design and implementation of an approach based on autoregressive models to reliably forecast the spread of COVID-19 in Italian regions. Starting from the database of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC), the experimental evaluation was performed on real-world data collected from February 2020 to March 2022, focusing on Calabria, a region of Southern Italy. This evaluation shows that the proposed approach achieves a good predictive power for out-of-sample predictions within one week (R-squared > 0.9 at 1 day, R-squared > 0.7 at 7 days), although it decreases with increasing forecasted days (R-squared > 0.5 at 14 days).

12.
Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1960273

ABSTRACT

Starting from the idea that dreaming could be considered an index of the psychological health of individuals regarding the COVID-19 outbreak, a major risk of psychological maladjustment has been registered for maladaptive daydreamers (MDers;i.e., people with a compulsive fantasy activity associated with distress and psychological impairment). Nevertheless, there is a gap in literature about dreaming in MDers in general and particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dreaming and dream content between probable MDers and non-MDers during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. A total of 3,857 Italian adults (664 probable MDers), completed the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE). Among them, 1,095 participants (222 probable MDers) decided to recount their dreams, subsequently analysed through a cluster analysis performed by T-LAB software. Significantly higher levels of dream recall, emotional intensity of dreams, nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, recurring nightmares about daytime, lucid dreams, interest toward dreams, problem solving and creative dreams, and dreams affecting daytime mood emerged in probable MDers compared to non-MDers. No differences were observed in the emotional tone of dreams. From the quali-quantitative analysis of dream narratives, similar themes emerged in probable MDers and non-MDers, except for a cluster named Dreaming the loss of others, where the non-MDers variable is highly represented. Our results highlight some significant differences between probable MDers and non-MDers with respect to dreaming activity. The massive use of dream activity as an affective regulator emerges for both probable MDers and non-MDers during lockdown. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
19th International Conference on Smart Living and Public Health, ICOST 2022 ; 13287 LNCS:154-165, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958895

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic took a toll on the world’s healthcare infrastructure as well as its social, economic, and psychological well-being. In particular, Italy’s unexpectedly high COVID-19 case and death rate from March to June, 2020, captured headlines due to its speed and virulence. Many governments are currently implementing measures to help contain and slow down the spread of COVID-19. The Social Response to Covid-19 Smart Dashboard was built by researchers at the Metabolism of Cities Living Lab, Center for Human Dynamics in the Mobile Age at San Diego State University and Politecnico di Milano. This dashboard provides an aggregated view of what people in 10 Italian metropolitan cities (Milan, Venice, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples, Bari, Palermo, and Cagliari) tweet during the pandemic by monitoring social media behaviors in the north, center, south, and islands. Moreover, the dashboard is a geo-targeted search tool for Twitter messages to monitor the diffusion of information and social behavior changes which provides an automatic procedure to help researchers to: associate tweets based on geography differences, filter noises such as removing redundant retweets and using machine learning methods to improve precisions, analyze social media data from a spatiotemporal perspective, and visualize social media data in various aspects such as weekly trends, top urls, top retweets, top mentions, and top hashtags. The Social Response to Covid-19 SMART Dashboard provides a useful tool for policy makers, city planners, research organizations, and health officials to monitor real-time societal perceptions using social media. © 2022, The Author(s).

14.
10th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, EWSHM 2022 ; 253 LNCE:3-12, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958877

ABSTRACT

Structural health monitoring (SHM) has been recognized as a useful tool for experimentally assessing the structural behavior of historical buildings over time. If monitoring is performed continuously and for a long time, it allows to evaluate variations in the building’s dynamic response to external factors. The main goal is to estimate the dynamic response of the monitored buildings to daily stresses produced by environmental and anthropogenic factors (variations in ambient temperature and humidity, wind velocity, vibrations produced by vehicular traffic or other anthropogenic noise sources including visitors, service staff, etc.) to distinguish ordinary fluctuations in the buildings’ response from other anomalous behavior. Continuous monitoring also makes it possible to assess the impact of extraordinary events such as extreme weather events, earthquakes, excavations, cultural events involving many people nearby the monitored buildings. Some examples from the authors’ many monitoring campaigns on monuments located in different urban environments are presented. In particular, the effect on one of the monitored buildings of the drastic reduction of seismic noise during the SarsCov2 pandemic lockdown is investigated. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Webology ; 19(2):6451-6464, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958297

ABSTRACT

Digitalization and digital applications play important roles in the business activities and business models of enterprises. This paper investigates the impact of digitalization on customer value creation in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. A quantitative study was conducted with a sample of202 small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. SPSS version 28 was used to examine whether there was a relationship between digitalization and customer value creation. The study shows that factors such as connectivity, customer management and information, business models, technology and processes, and the use of online solutions have a positive impact on creating value for customers in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Based on the results, suggestions for top management of small and medium enterprises to improve customer value creation are provided.

16.
World Journal of Gastroenterology ; 28(26):3081-3091, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957484

ABSTRACT

A relevant gradual reduction of both the incidence rate of acute hepatitis B (AHB) and prevalence of chronic hepatitis B has occurred in Italy in the last 50 years, due to substantial epidemiological changes: Improvement in socioeconomic and hygienic conditions, reduction of the family unit, accurate screening of blood donations, abolition of re-usable glass syringes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-universal vaccination started in 1991, use of effective well tolerated nucleo(t)side analogues able to suppress HBV replication available from 1998, and educational mediatic campaigns against human immunodeficiency virus infection focusing on the prevention of sexual and parenteral transmission of infections. As an example, AHB incidence has gradually decreased from 10/100000 inhabitants in 1985 to 0.21 in 2020. Unfortunately, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has interrupted the trend towards HBV eradication. In fact, several HBV chronic carriers living in the countryside have become unable to access healthcare facilities for screening, diagnosis, clinical management, and nucleo(t)side analogue therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly for anxiety of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), movement restrictions, and reduced gains from job loss. In addition, one-third of healthcare facilities and personnel for HBV patients have been devolved to the COVID-19 assistance.

17.
Glob Netw (Oxf) ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956745

ABSTRACT

We explore how the Chinese diaspora state during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 managed to transform a severe health crisis into a geo-political opportunity for transnational nation-building through diaspora governance based on extensive use of social media technologies. By adopting a multi-scalar perspective, we analyse the intertwined nature of top-down and bottom-up processes of the Chinese Party-state's diaspora mobilization. Based on discourse and ethnographic analysis, we argue that China's diaspora governance exposed a new and strong capacity for extra-territorial governance. We explore how discursive hegemony, social control and diaspora mobilization were achieved by widely employing the Chinese social media application, WeChat. We also contend that this was facilitated by the Italian government's and media's pro-China attitudes to emphasize the importance of considering transnational embeddedness when studying the implementation and impact of interactive online technology for diaspora governance in an illiberal political context.

18.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 59-69, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to quantify the variability of COVID-19 mortality from the beginning of the pandemic to mid-July 2021, in relation to the immigrant status and by Region and period. DESIGN: observational incidence study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population consists of the residents at the beginning of 2020 in seven Regions (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily) aged <=74 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: absolute frequency of deaths occurred in subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, crude and standardized rates (standard: Italian population at the beginning of 2020), and mortality rates ratios (obtained using Poisson models), by immigrant status and stratified by gender, Region of residence, and period. The study period was divided into 5 subperiods: 22.02.2020-25.05.2020, 26.05.2020-02.10.2020, 03.10.2020-26.02.2021, 27.02.2021-16.07.2021. RESULTS: the study includes more than one half of the Italian population and most of the immigrants residing in the country, who are younger than Italians and experienced fewer COVID-19 deaths. Deaths among those who tested positive varied greatly between Regions and periods; standardized rates showed considerable increases over time among immigrants. In terms of rate ratios, there were excesses among immigrant males in the third period (MRR: 1.46; 95%CI 1.30-1.65) and in the fourth period (MRR: 1.55; 95%CI 1, 34-1.81). Among immigrant females, there is an indication of lower risk in the third period (MRR: 0.79; 95%CI 0.65-0.97) and of greater risk in the fourth period (MRR: 1. 46; 95%CI 1.21-1.77). Finally, the effect is modified by the Region of residence, both in the third and in the fourth period for males and only in the fourth period for females. CONCLUSIONS: the risk of premature mortality due to COVID-19 is linked to immigrant status and with an intensity that varies by gender, Region, and period. More accessible tools for prevention, diagnosis and early healthcare can support immigrant communities in managing the risk factors linked to the spread of infections and, in particular, counteract their evolution into more severe disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Citizenship , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily
19.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 49-58, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe trends of overall and intensive care hospitalization for COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic in Italy until June 2021, and to compare the results between foreign and Italian population. DESIGN: retrospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: hospital discharges of 28 million people living in Lombardy, Piedmont, Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy), Toscana and Lazio (Central Italy) occurred between 22.02.2020 and 02.07.2021 in the hospitals located in each considered Region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: two weekly outcomes were examined: 1. the overall number of COVID-19 hospitalizations; 2. the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations in intensive care units. RESULTS: a higher COVID-19 overall and intensive care unit hospitalization was found among the foreign population compared to Italians. The association emerged only after the adjustment for age, and it was consistent among all Regions, though less marked in Lombardy. The association varied across epidemic phases. CONCLUSIONS: the issue of vulnerability of migrants to the risk of severe COVID-19 calls for a diversity-sensitive approach in prevention. The specific country of origin and the prevalence of preventable co-morbidities that are often underestimated in the migrant populations, and related to COVID-19 complications, should be taken into consideration in future analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 41-48, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe differences in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections between Italians and foreigners residing in seven Italian Regions during the different phases of the pandemic and by gender. DESIGN: retrospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: all confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections from 02.02. 2020 to 16.07.2021 in the seven Regions under study were included. Italian resident population calculated by the National Institute of Statistics as of 01.01.2020 was used to calculate the rates. The considered period is divided into 5 sub-periods (phases). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: number of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in the five phases of the pandemic and crude rates by citizenship (Italian vs foreign). Distribution of infections by age group and by week. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates ratios (IRR) were calculated, by Region, gender, and phase of the pandemic. RESULTS: an epidemic curve delay was observed in foreigners in the first phase of the epidemic, in particular in the northern Regions, the most affected in that phase. The first phase of the epidemic was characterized by a greater proportion of cases occurred in people aged over 60 years than the other phases, both in Italians and in foreigners. The incidence among foreigners is higher during the summer of 2020 (intermediate period: June-September 2020) and during the last period (May-July 2021) in all Regions. The overall figure shows a lower incidence among foreigners than Italians, except for males in Tuscany. CONCLUSIONS: the lower incidence rates among foreigners should be interpreted with caution as the available data suggest that it is at least partly attributable to less access to diagnostic tests. Regional differences found in the study deserve further research together with the effect of gender and country of origin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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