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1.
Journal of Facilities Management ; 20(4):586-605, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1961337

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The high consumption of energy by buildings may have enhanced land degradation, flooding, air pollution and many other hazardous environmental issues. However, green practices in buildings have been proved as one of the successful technologies to mitigate these issues. Past studies have shown lax green practices in Nigerian buildings. Concerning public hospital buildings, this is yet to be explored. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the barriers to green practices and proffer possible policy solutions to promote hospital green buildings.Design/methodology/approach>In attaining these objectives, the view of hospital building contractors, design team, hospital management and policymakers in the relevant ministries/agencies was engaged via virtual interviews. The collated data were analysed and presented in the thematic pattern.Findings>Findings show that green building construction is extremely low in Nigeria, but the worst hit is the health-care buildings across the states. Government/policy-related, organisational/leadership-related, financial-related, technical-related, design team-related and stakeholders’ behaviour-related barriers emerged as the main six themes of barriers affecting public hospital green buildings implementation initiatives. Findings show that proffering possible policies to addressing these barriers may improve public hospital green construction across the states.Research limitations/implications>This paper is limited to barriers to green buildings implementation in public hospitals in Nigeria, and data collection was through virtual interviews but does not affect the strength of the findings. Thus, this paper suggests that the sub-themes and variables/items that emerged from the collated data as presented in Figure 1 can be further developed quantitatively via questionnaire survey to validate and improve the reliability of results from this paper.Practical implications>As part of this study’s implications, suggestions from this paper will stir up policymakers’ decisions, to be tailored towards achieving green buildings implementation initiatives in Nigerian public hospitals.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is probably the first that attempted to investigate the barriers to green buildings implementation in public hospitals in Nigeria.

2.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15131, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic school closures on the mental health of school students with chronic diseases. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed to students from 4th-9th grade diagnosed with chronic diseases at Osaka Medical College Hospital and their parents or caregivers. Questionnaires from 286 families were returned by mail after the schools reopened. The students were divided into the "psychosomatic disorder" group (group P, n = 42), the "developmental disorder" group (group D, n = 89), and the "other disease" group (group O, n = 155). Using students' self-reports on the Questionnaire for Triage and Assessment with 30 items, we assessed the proportion of students with a high risk of psychosomatic disorder in three groups. We investigated how the students requiring the support of somatic symptom (SS) felt about school during school closure. Further, using parents' and caregivers' answers, SS scores were calculated before and during school closure and after school reopening. RESULTS: The proportion of students with a high risk of developing psychosomatic disorder increased in all groups. For the students in Group P, the response "I did not want to think about school" indicated an increase in SS scores, and for the students in Group O, "I wanted to get back to school soon" indicated a decrease. Furthermore, especially in Group P students, SS scores decreased transiently during school closure and increased after school reopening. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of school closure on mental health differed depending on students' diagnoses and feelings about school during school closures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Schools , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Chronic Disease , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychophysiologic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have hindered the development of fundamental movement skills in preschoolers. This serial cross-sectional study compared fundamental movement skills by age group before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019-2020), among Japanese preschoolers aged 3-5 years. METHODS: Of the 22 preschools within Unnan City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan, 21 (95.5%) and 17 (77.3%) participated in the 2019 and 2020 surveys, respectively. We analyzed 608 and 517 preschoolers in both surveys. Fundamental movement skills were objectively assessed with a 25 m run, standing long jump, and softball throw, based on the Japanese physical activity guidelines for preschoolers. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the fundamental movement skills data between periods. RESULTS: For the 25 m run, participants aged 5 years were faster before than during the pandemic (p = 0.018), while participants aged 3 and 4 years showed no significant differences. Participants aged 3-5 years showed no significant differences before and during the pandemic for the standing long jump (p ≥ 0.072). For the softball throw, all grades scored higher before than during the pandemic (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic impeded the development of fundamental motor skills, especially for object control skills. This highlights the need for interventions aimed at developing fundamental motor skills in preschoolers during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior
4.
Webology ; 19(1):7175-7185, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958380

ABSTRACT

China and the U.S. have the biggest markets in the world. They both established diplomatic links in 1979 and the bilateral trade was developed swiftly just after China joined the United Nations Organization (UNO) in 1971. America is the Chinese top one export market and the most significant source of foreign investment. However, the main worldwide economic event in 2018 was the Sino-U.S. trade war. In March 2018, the U.S. threatened to levy high duties on Chinese imports. The equivocal shift of import and export of the Sino-US trade relations were distinctively caught in China's trade surplus with the United States, which brought divergence to the trade relations. Consequently, the Sino-U.S. trade imbalance was the main reason behind why Trump incited the trade war. This paper actually analytically discusses the phenomenon of Sino-U.S. trade war as it is considered as a test case for the new American President Joe Biden.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957328

ABSTRACT

A combination of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions as well as social restrictions has been recommended to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, social contact surveys play an essential role as the basis for more effective measures. This study attempts to explore the fundamental basis of the expansion of COVID-19. Temporal bidirectional causalities between the numbers of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases (NCCC) and individual mobilisations with consumption motives across prefecture borders in three metropolitan regions in Japan were analysed using vector autoregression models. Mobilisation with consumption in pubs from Kanto to Tokai contributed to the spread of COVID-19 in both regions. Meanwhile, causal mobilisation with consumption motives in Kansai also contributed to the expansion of COVID-19; however, the pattern was dependent on the industrial characteristics of each prefecture in Kansai. Furthermore, the number of pub visitors in Kanto immediately decreased when NCCC increased in Kanto. In contrast, the causal mobilisations for the expansion of COVID-19 in the Tokai and Kansai regions were unaffected by the increasing NCCC. These findings partially proved the validity of the conventional governmental measures to suppress pub visitors across prefectural borders. Nevertheless, the individual causal mobilisations with consumption motives that contributed to the increasing COVID-19 cases are not identical nationwide, and thus, regional characteristics should be considered when devising preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Causality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Motivation , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Circ J ; 86(8): 1237-1244, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and new-onset AF (NOAF) are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the effect of AF on clinical outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of AF, especially NOAF, on the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Methods and Results: This study analyzed 673 COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors (CVDRF). Patients were divided into 3 groups; pre-existing AF (n=55), NOAF (n=28), and sinus rhythm (SR) (n=590). The baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 68 years, 65.4% were male, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 15.6%. The NOAF group demonstrated a higher in-hospital mortality rate (42.9%) than the pre-existing AF (30.9%) and SR (11.2%) groups (P<0.001). Patients with NOAF had a higher incidence of acute respiratory syndrome, multiple organ disease, hemorrhage, and stroke than those with pre-existing AF and NOAF. NOAF was independently associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting for pre-existing AF and 4C mortality score (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.71 [1.63-13.6], P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NOAF had significantly worse outcomes as compared to patients with pre-existing AF and SR. The incidence of NOAF would be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , Risk Factors
7.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; : 100541, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956256

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy is a global public health threat. We present unique data that characterises those who experienced reversals of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in Japan. Methods: We administered a questionnaire on vaccination intention among 30053 Japanese adults aged 20 years or older before the COVID-19 vaccination was available to the general population (first survey) and conducted a follow-up survey on vaccination status one year later in February 2022 (second survey). Those who responded in the first survey that they did not intend to be vaccinated or were unsure and then responded in the second survey that they were vaccinated or intend to be vaccinated were asked about the reasons for their change of heart. Based on previous literature and expert opinion, 31 reasons for changing vaccination intention were compiled and respondents were asked to choose which among them applied to themselves, with multiple responses possible. Based on the results of those responses, each individual was then clustered using the Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) dimensionality reduction technique and Ordering Points To Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm. We then identified unique characteristics among each of the sub-populations (clusters). Findings: In the second survey we received 19195 responses (response rate 63.9%), of which 8077 responded 'no' or 'not sure' in the first survey regarding their intention to be vaccinated. Of these, 5861 responded having received or intending to receive the vaccine (72.6%). We detected six and five sub-populations (clusters) among the 'no' group and 'not sure' group, respectively. The clusters were characterized by perceived benefits of vaccination, including the COVID-19 vaccine, awareness of the COVID-19 vaccination status of those close to them, recognition of the social significance of COVID-19 vaccination for the spread of infection, and dispelled concerns about short-term adverse reactions and the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine. Work and personal relationship reasons were also found to be a unique overarching reason for vaccination changes of heart only among those who did not intend to vaccinate. Interpretation: Those who changed their intention to accept COVID-19 vaccination as well as their unique characteristics as detailed in this study will be important entry points when discussing how to promote vaccination to those who are hesitant to vaccinate in the future. Funding: The present work was supported in part by a grant from the Kanagawa Prefectural Government of Japan and by AIST government subsidies.

8.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; : 100540, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956255

ABSTRACT

Background: Research characterizing changes of heart with respect to vaccine intention is scarce, and very little research considers those who were initially vaccine willing but became hesitant. Here, we sought to assess the factors related to reversals of vaccine willingness. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, national survey on vaccination intention among Japanese adults aged 20 years or older, with the first questionnaire performed in February-March 2021 (N = 30,053) and the follow-up in February 2022 (N = 19,195, response rate 63.9%). The study population comprised those who reported vaccine willingness in the first survey, with the outcome variable being development of vaccine hesitancy at follow-up. We performed a regression analysis of vaccination status using sociodemographic, health-related, psychologic/attitudinal, and information-related variables as predictors. We used the sparse group minimax concave penalty (MCP) to select the optimum group of covariates for the logistic regression. Findings: Of 11,118 (57.9%) respondents who previously expressed interest in vaccination, 10,684 (96.1%) and 434 (3.9%) were in the vaccine willing and hesitant groups, respectively. Several covariates were found to significantly predict vaccine hesitancy, including marital status, influenza vaccine history, COVID-19 infection/testing history, engagement in COVID-19 preventive measures, perceived risks/benefits of the COVID-19 vaccine, and attitudes regarding vaccination policies and norms. The use of certain information sources was also associated with vaccine hesitancy. Interpretation: Sociodemographic, health-related, psychologic/attitudinal, and information-related variables predicted the development of vaccine hesitancy among those with prior willingness. Most of these predictors were also associated with vaccination status. Funding: The present work was supported in part by a grant from the Kanagawa Prefectural Government of Japan and by AIST government subsidies.

9.
BMJ Global Health ; 4:A19, 2019.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956802

ABSTRACT

CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic and civil organisations founded in Davos in 2017 to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. To date, CEPI has received multi-year funding from Norway, Germany, Japan, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust. CEPI has also received single-year investments from the governments of Australia, Belgium, and Canada. It has reached $630 million of its $1 billion funding target. The European Commission has announced a contribution in kind of € 250 million that will support relevant projects through EC mechanisms. Since its launch in January 2017, CEPI has announced two Calls for Proposals. The first was for candidate vaccines against MERS-CoV, Nipah and Lassa viruses. The second was for the development of platforms that can be used for rapid vaccine development against unknown pathogens. From the first call, CEPI has, so far, announced six partnership agreements and this means 4 lassa vaccine candidates, 3 MERS-CoV vaccine candidates and 1 Nipah vaccine candidate have been selected for development. Learn more at CEPI.net. Follow us at @CEPIvaccines.

10.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 64-66, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955552

ABSTRACT

As countries worldwide take steps such as vaccination campaigns to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, academia is actively promoting the timely sharing of scientific information across borders. As an international academic journal, Global Health & Medicine (GHM) has quickly accepted COVID-19-related papers and published results of series of studies since the beginning of 2020. In particular, the "First Special Issue on COVID-19" (April 2020) and the "Second Special Issue on COVID-19" (April 2021) included a wide range of articles presenting frontline data on the COVID-19 response in Japan, China, the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom, West Africa, and other various countries and areas worldwide. This "Third Special Issue on COVID-19" (April 2022) features the practical experiences of front-line clinicians, researchers, and other healthcare professionals from Japan and it presents updated data on i) national policy, ii) research, iii) clinical practice, and iv) the vaccination campaign. Our hope is that the rapid publication and sharing of information will help, in any way possible way, in the global fight against COVID-19.

11.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 137-140, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955551

ABSTRACT

Newly developed anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) drugs are being rapidly approved in countries worldwide. These new drugs are being approved after testing with a limited number of cases, and in real-world clinical practice, unknown and potentially serious adverse events that could not be detected in clinical trials may emerge. Accordingly, in the event of an adverse drug reaction for which a causal relationship with these new drugs cannot be ruled out, it is vital to promptly report the details of the case to the regulatory authorities. To date, through close cooperation between physicians and pharmacists, we have reported four cases of adverse drug reactions for which a causal relationship to anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs cannot be ruled out. Herein, we introduce safety measures taken by pharmacists when using these new drugs in the hospital, and a system for reporting to the regulatory authorities when adverse events occur.

12.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 101-107, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955548

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to have drastic consequences for patients, healthcare workers, and the health system. Its cardiovascular implications have been well described in previous studies, but original reports from Japan are sparse. Validating overseas findings in the Japanese clinical settings is crucial to improve local COVID-19 care and to clarify the pandemic's impacts in the country. This review of available literature demonstrates that in Japanese patients and clinical settings too, there is a close relationship between COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system including cardiovascular complications. On the contrary, secondary effects on cardiovascular practice including service disruptions, telemedicine, and epidemiological changes in Japan have been relatively small.

13.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 94-100, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955547

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as an increase in serum creatinine within 48 h or 1 week, or a decrease in urine output within 6-24 h. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) plays an important role in patients with severe AKI. In addition to direct cytotoxicity caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) experience endothelial cell damage, increased thrombogenic inflammation, and impaired immune responses. It has been reported that the more severe the case, the greater overproduction of cytokines and the more advanced the multiorgan failure. The kidney is widely recognized as one of the primary target organs; and COVID-19 positive AKI has been reported to have a greater rate of subsequent decline in renal function than COVID-19 negative AKI. Blood purification therapy has been used to prevent or alleviate organ damage in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Cytokine regulation is one of the primary therapeutic goals for these patients. Even with the widespread use of vaccines and antibody therapy, a certain percentage of patients develop moderate-to-severe diseases.

14.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 116-121, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955544

ABSTRACT

Emergency physicians perform endotracheal intubations for patients with COVID-19. However, the trends in the intubation for COVID-19 patients in terms of success rate, complications, personal protective equipment (PPE) information, barrier enclosure use, and its transition have not been established. We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 cases that required tracheal intubation at four hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area between January 2020 and August 2021. The overall intubation success rate, operator experience, and infection control methods were investigated. We then compared the early and late phases of the pandemic for a period of 8 months each. A total of 211 cases met the inclusion criteria, and 133 were eligible for analysis. The intubation success rate increased from 85% to 94% from early to late phase, although the percentage of intubations performed by emergency medicine residents increased significantly in the late phase (p = 0.03). The percentage of light PPE use significantly increased from 65% to 91% from early to late phase (p < 0.01), whereas the percentage of barrier enclosure use significantly decreased from 26% to 0% (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the infection prevention methods during intubation became more simplified from early to late phase.

15.
JMIR Infodemiology ; 2(1): e32335, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951934

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccines are considered one of the most effective ways for containing the COVID-19 pandemic, but Japan lagged behind other countries in vaccination in the early stages. A deeper understanding of the slow progress of vaccination in Japan can be instructive for COVID-19 booster vaccination and vaccinations during future pandemics. Objective: This retrospective study aims to analyze the slow progress of early-stage vaccination in Japan by exploring opinions and sentiment toward the COVID-19 vaccine in Japanese tweets before and at the beginning of vaccination. Methods: We collected 144,101 Japanese tweets containing COVID-19 vaccine-related keywords between August 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021. We visualized the trend of the tweets and sentiments and identified the critical events that may have triggered the surges. Correlations between sentiments and the daily infection, death, and vaccination cases were calculated. The latent dirichlet allocation model was applied to identify topics of negative tweets from the beginning of vaccination. We also conducted an analysis of vaccine brands (Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca) approved in Japan. Results: The daily number of tweets continued with accelerating growth after the start of large-scale vaccinations in Japan. The sentiments of around 85% of the tweets were neutral, and negative sentiment overwhelmed the positive sentiment in the other tweets. We identified 6 public-concerned topics related to the negative sentiment at the beginning of the vaccination process. Among the vaccines from the 3 manufacturers, the attitude toward Moderna was the most positive, and the attitude toward AstraZeneca was the most negative. Conclusions: Negative sentiment toward vaccines dominated positive sentiment in Japan, and the concerns about side effects might have outweighed fears of infection at the beginning of the vaccination process. Topic modeling on negative tweets indicated that the government and policy makers should take prompt actions in building a safe and convenient vaccine reservation and rollout system, which requires both flexibility of the medical care system and the acceleration of digitalization in Japan. The public showed different attitudes toward vaccine brands. Policy makers should provide more evidence about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines and rebut fake news to build vaccine confidence.

16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 18, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community health activities by public health nurses (PHNs) are known to improve lifestyle habits of local residents, and may encourage the practice of infectious disease prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the association between prefecture-level COVID-19 incidence rate and the number of PHNs per population in Japan, by the COVID-19 variant type. METHODS: Our data were based on government surveys where prefectural-level data are accessible to the public. The outcome variable was the COVID-19 incidence rate (i.e., the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population for each variant type in 47 prefectures). The explanatory variable was the number of PHNs per 100,000 population by prefecture. Covariates included socioeconomic factors, regional characteristics, healthcare resources, and health behaviors. The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the COVID-19 cases. We performed stratified analyses by variant type (i.e., wild type, alpha variant, and delta variant). RESULTS: A total of 1,705,224 confirmed COVID-19 cases (1351.6 per 100,000 population) in Japan were reported as of September 30, 2021. The number of PHNs per 100,000 population in Japan was 41.9. Multivariable Poisson regression models showed that a lower number of PHNs per population was associated with higher IRR of COVID-19. Among all COVID-19 cases, compared to the highest quintile group of the number of PHNs per population, the adjusted IRR of the lowest quintile group was consistently significant in the models adjusting for socioeconomic factors (IRR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.55-5.54), regional characteristics (1.73, 1.28-2.34), healthcare resources (3.88, 2.45-6.16), and health behaviors (2.17, 1.39-3.37). These significant associations were unaffected by the variant type of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We found that the COVID-19 incidence rate was higher in prefectures with fewer PHNs per population, regardless of the COVID-19 variant type. By increasing the number of PHNs, it may be possible to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Japan and provide an effective human resource to combat emerging infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses, Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Hepatol Res ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949313

ABSTRACT

AIM: Achieving hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination requires continuous and sustained high volumes of diagnosis and treatment which have been affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed COVID-19 effect on hepatitis-related services in Japan and compare Japan's situation with global survey. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey of hepatologist of the Japan Society of Hepatology from August to October 2021 by using the same questionnaire from which a survey was conducted globally to address the COVID-19 effect on hepatitis-related services. Hepatologists responded based on own impression of their affiliated institutions. RESULTS: A total of 196 hepatologists participated from 35 prefectures including 49.5% were in managerial positions. Around 40% survey participants reported a 1-25% decline in HBV and HCV screening and confirmatory testing. In addition, 53.6% and 45.4% reported no decline in HBV and HCV treatment initiation, respectively. Comparing any level of decrease, less decline was observed in Japan for screening (HBV: 51% vs 56.3%, HCV: 51% vs 70.9%) and treatment initiation (HBV: 32.7% vs 52.4%, HCV: 41.8% vs 66%) from global survey. However, Patient anxiety/fear (67.4%), and loss of staff due to COVID-19 response (49.0%) were reported as challenges to resume services to pre-COVID-19 levels. CONCLUSION: Although in Japan all-inclusive decline in HBV and HCV related services were lower than in other countries, a greater decline was observed in HBV and HCV screening and diagnosis than in treatment initiation. Prolonged anxiety/fear among patients, loss of staffs and facilities on COVID-19 responses must be addressed to achieve the hepatitis elimination by 2030. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
IJID Reg ; 4: 53-58, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945221

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Longer reporting lags after symptom onset reportedly exert a substantial impact on onward transmission, increasing outbreak probability. Our study investigated the risk factors associated with reporting lag. Methods: Using active epidemiological surveillance data for all symptomatic cases reported in Osaka Prefecture during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic (February 1-May 13, 2020), multivariable regression analyses were implemented to estimate the effects of exposure variables on reporting lag, by controlling for potential confounders. Results: Cases in their 30s showed a longer reporting lag than cases ≥ 80 years old. Cases who lived in areas with a high COVID-19 incidence demonstrated a longer reporting lag. Cases with a history of visiting a nightlife district also showed longer reporting lag than cases without such a history. Healthcare workers and cases with immunodeficiency both displayed shorter reporting lags than others. Conclusion: Identifying newly infected cases as soon as possible and increased testing capacity for all age groups, and for individuals with a history of visiting high infection-risk areas, represented important measures in shortening reporting lags in the first wave period. The evidence from this study may provide lessons for controlling future emerging diseases.

19.
Asian Ethnology ; 81(1/2):107-124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940063

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic at the time of writing this article (November 2020), the 2008 Lehman Shock, and governmental revitalization policies introduced by the Abe government have resulted in a rise in urban lifestyle migrants who relocate to rural areas across Japan for noneconomic reasons. This ethnographic article focuses on individuals in Tokushima and Shimane Prefectures. Critically questioning conventional notions of work and lifestyle, these individuals struggle to implement their ideal lifestyles in their rural environments that are often characterized by deeply ingrained local societal norms and values. Drawing on longitudinal fieldwork since 2016, I will examine three cases of lifestyle migrants who have chosen to pursue radically different careers. While they make great efforts to blend into the community that they have relocated to, they also refer to transnational features in their pursuit of experimental lifestyles. This multi-sited ethnography aims to explore the "power of the between" by Paul Stoller (2009) and the "potential of the liminal" coined by Vincent Crapanzano (2004) as my interlocutors courageously carve out original careers that are catered to their own needs, but also engage with the local community.

20.
Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935695

ABSTRACT

As the Covid pandemic underscores global supply chain risks, there is a debate on whether to bring US manufacturing back from overseas. This paper provides insights into the heated debate on the global supply chain by examining the competitive manufacturing environments of China, Japan, and South Korea. More specifically, we conduct a cross-national survey and empirically investigate the manufacturing strategies employed by manufacturing managers in the top Asian players: China, Japan, and South Korea. We examine four dimensions of the manufacturing strategies: quality, inventory, flexibility, and top management involvement. Our findings indicate that Japanese manufacturers are more committed to the cumulative approach to quality management and see enhanced flexibility as a strategic priority. While Chinese managers are also committed to achieving quality, they are more delivery-driven and thus are more likely to occasionally accept slightly off-quality components from suppliers to "save" an order. However, in all three countries, managers with a high focus on quality also focus on just-in-time management and in turn, on flexibility. There is significantly less agreement among Chinese managers, compared to their Japanese and Korean counterparts, that the top management should be involved in operational planning, goal setting, and the provision of rewards.

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