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1.
Bulgarskii Meditsinski Zhurnal / Bulgarian Medical Journal ; 17(1):44-55, 2023.
Article in English, Bulgarian | GIM | ID: covidwho-20243937

ABSTRACT

Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and with high mortality rates due to Coronavirus disease 2019, mainly because of the older age in this group of patients, comorbidities, compromised immune status due to uremia, as well as inability to keep social isolation because of the necessity for regular physical presence in dialysis facility. Several retrospective studies of patients on MHD in Europe, America and Asia, show high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in this group of patients with very high rates of critical course of the disease and high mortality rates, reaching more than 40% The aim of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors among patients on intermittent hemodialysis for infection with SARS-CoV-2 as well as predictors of severe COVID-19 and fatal outcome. Materials and methods. We analyzed 69 patients receiving intermittent dialysis in Aleksandrovska University Hospital - Hemodialysis Unit. 34 of them have been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the period from September 2020 (when the first case of the disease was registered for our dialysis center) up to March 2022, and are compared with a control group of 35 dialysis-dependent patients without COVID-19. Data about comorbidities, main laboratory and radiologic findings, need of hospitalization and treatment in ICU, as well as data for conducted treatment, are collected from electronic medical records. To identify predictors of severe COVID and poor outcome we compared the group of survivors with the one of non-survivors. Results. There are no significant differences between patients on MHD with and without COVID-19 except higher frequency of COPD and hypoproteinemia in the positive group. Older age, female gender, history of smoking, lymphopenia with neutrophilia, treatment in ICU and need of mechanical ventilation, signs of malnutrition - hypoproteinemia and lower levels of serum creatinine, are risk factors for severe disease and fatal outcomes. Conclusions. The course of COVID infection in dialysis-dependent patients is severe and with high mortality rate, in line with other studies worldwide. Malnutrition is the main risk factor for COVID and also main predictor for poor outcomes.

2.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1987-1988, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243531

ABSTRACT

BackgroundKidney transplant patients due to both primary kidney involvement of chronic/autoimmune inflammatory diseases and end-stage kidney disease related to amyloidosis are followed up in rheumatology clinics. Biological agents one of the treatment options in kidney transplant recipients with chronic/autoimmune inflammatory disease.ObjectivesHowever, there is insufficient data on the development of infection in kidney transplant recipients who received biological treatment. Herein, we aimed to determine the incidence of serious infections in patients with kidney transplant recipients who are received biological therapy.MethodsKidney transplant recipients who are received biological agents due to rheumatologic disease were included in the study. Patients' demographic features, transplantation data, biological treatment, development of infection and severity of infection were screened retrospectively. Infections that requiring hospitalization were defined as severe infections.ResultsA total of 31 patients were included in the study, 14 (45%) of whom were female and mean age was 41 ±9 years. Twenty-five patients (80%) of them were non-preemptive kidney transplant and mean duration of hemodialysis before the transplantation was 40 ±40 months. Twenty-three patients (74%) had end stage kidney failure due to FMF-amyloidosis(Figure-1-). Seventeen patients (54%) received anakinra, 11 patients (35%) received canakinumab and 3 patients (10%) received etanercept with other immunosuppressive treatment. Mean treatment duration of biological agents was 4.2±2.6 years. Two patients developed solid organ malignancy and one patient developed hematological malignancy after transplantation. Sixteen of the patients (52%) were hospitalized at least once due to infection and 4 patients (13%) died due to infection. The cause of decease in two patients was COVID-19.ConclusionRheumatic diseases are an important cause of end-stage renal disease and definitive treatment is kidney transplantation. Kidney transplant recipients due to rheumatological disease also use biological agents in the post-transplantation period. Kidney transplant recipients have higher risk for the development of infection since they receive immunosuppressive therapy and use of biologic agents may further increase the risk for development infection. Meyer et al reported that infection developed in 54 of 187 solid organ transplant recipients using biological agents.[1] Mean treatment duration of biological agents was 12 months in this study. The incidence of infection was 54% in our study. Mean treatment duration of biological agent was 4.2 year was considered main reason for higher incidence of infection in our study.Reference[1]Meyer F, Weil-Verhoeven D, Prati C, Wendling D, Verhoeven F. Safety of biologic treatments in solid organ transplant recipients: A systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021 Dec;51(6):1263-1273. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.08.013. Epub 2021 Aug 26. Erratum in: Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2022 Aug;55:152015. PMID: 34507811.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

3.
SciMedicine Journal ; 4(1):13-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20240435

ABSTRACT

Objective: Covid-19 is a highly infectious viral disease, and our understanding of the impact of this virus on the nervous system is limited. Therefore, we aimed to do a systematic analysis of the neurological manifestations. Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of patients with major neurological syndromes (MNS) in Covid-19 over 6 months. Results: We had 39 patients with major neurological syndromes (MNS). The most common MNS was cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (61.53%), in which ischemic stroke (83.33%), cortical sinus thrombosis (12.50%), and haemorrhagic stroke (4.16%) were seen. Among ischemic stroke patients, 50% had a large vessel occlusion, and 66.66% of patients with CVD had a significant residual disability. Cranial neuropathy (15.38%), GBS (10.26%), encephalitis (7.26%), and myelitis (5.12%) were the other MNS. Among the three encephalitis cases, two had CSF-Covid-19 PCR positivity and had severe manifestations and a poor outcome. Associated comorbidities included hypertension (30.76%), diabetes mellitus (12.82%), chronic kidney diseases (7.69%), and polycythaemia vera (2.56%). Lung involvement was seen in 64.1% of patients. Mortality was 17.94% in MNS with Covid-19. Conclusions: The most common major neurological syndrome associated with Covid-19 is CVD with increased frequency of large vessel occlusion causing significant morbidity and mortality. Simultaneous lung and other systemic involvement in MNS results in a deleterious outcome.

4.
Signa Vitae ; 19(3):121-131, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238371

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) might be successful if carefully selected in adult patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia. The main objective of this study was to identify the early predictors of NIV failure. Adult patients with left ventricle ejection fraction (LV EF) <50% admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory failure were enrolled in this multicenter prospective study after obtaining informed consents (study registrationID: ISRCTN14641518). Non-invasive ventilation failure was defined as the requirement of intubation after initiation of NIV. All patients were assessed using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores at admission, while their Heart rate Acidosis Consciousness Oxygenation and Respiratory rate (HACOR) and lung ultrasound (LUS) scores in addition to blood lactate were assessed at NIV initiation and 12 and 24 hours later. A total of 177 patients were prospectively enrolled from February 2019 to July 2020. Of them, 53 (29.9%) had failed NIV. The mean age of the study cohort was 64.1+or- 12.6 years, with a male predominance (73.4%) and a mean LV EF of 36.4 +or- 7.8%. Almost 55.9% of the studied patients had diabetes mellitus, 45.8% had chronic systemic hypertension, 73.4% had ischemic heart disease, 20.3% had chronic kidney disease, and 9.6% had liver cirrhosis. No significant differences were observed between the NIV success and NIV failure groups regarding underlying morbidities or inflammatory markers. Patients who failed NIV were significantly older and had higher mean SOFA and APACHE II scores than those with successful NIV. We also found that NIV failure was associated with longer ICU stay (p < 0.001), higher SOFA scores at 48 hours (p < 0.001) and higher mortality (p < 0.001) compared with the NIV success group. In addition, SOFA (Odds Ratio (OR): 4.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.59-7.88, p < 0.001), HACOR (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 0.97-4.18, p = 0.036) and LUS (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.014-1.106, p = 0.027) scores and blood lactate levels (OR: 9.35, 95% CI: 5.32-43.26, p < 0.001) were independent factors for NIV failure. High initial HACOR and SOFA scores, persistent hyperlactatemia and non-decrementing LUS score were associated with early NIV failure in patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia, and could be used as clinical and paraclinical variables for early decision making regarding invasive ventilation.

5.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1695, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20235742

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAlthough renal involvement is an rare extra-articular involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), medications and accopamyning comorbidities may adversly affect renal functions [1].ObjectivesTo determine the frequency and impact of CKD in patients with AS using biologic disease modyfying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs).MethodsBetween 2005 and November 2021, 3207 patients diagnosed with AS according to the modified New York criteria were enrolled in the Hacettepe University biological database (HUR-BIO). The 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline was used for the definition of CKD to evaluate the renal function of patients. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated with the MDRD (modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula, taking into account the creatinine value, age and gender parameters of the patients [2]. CKD was detected in 39 (1,2%) patients. Age-sex matched 41 non-CKD AS patients were selected as the control group. Demographic and clinical characteristics and mortality rates of AS patients with and without CKD were compared.ResultsOf 39 AS-CKD patients, 25 (64.1%) had CKD before the initation of bDMARD and and 14 (35.8%) developed CKD during follow-up after treatment was started. Patients with AS-CKD had longer duration of symptoms and disease (Table 1). Comorbidities such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and amyloidosis were more prevalent in patients with AS-CKD. At a median follow-up of 2.48(0.1-20.1) years, mortality was observed in 11(28.2%) patients in the AS-CKD group, while no mortality was observed in the age-sex matched AS-nonCKD group (p<0.001, Figure 1). The mortality rate in patients with AS-CKD was 12.6 per 1000 patient-years, and 4 (10.2%) of deaths were during the COVID-19 pandemia.Figure 1.Table 1.AS-CKD group (n=39)AS-nonCKD group (n=41)PTotal AS patients, (n=3207)Age, mean(SD), years68.2 (12.0)58.8(12.6)-47.9±(11.2)Male, n(%)27 (69.2)27(65.9)-1716(53.5)53.1)Symptom duration, years median (min-max)20 (5-42)11(2-30)0.0110(1-44)Disease duration, years median (min-max)14,5(5-42)7(1-29)0.046(1-37)HLA-B27 positivity, n(%)13(33.3)12(29.2)0.5826/2014(41.0)Uveitis, n(%)6/354/360.2339/2946(11.5)Inflammatory bowel disease, n(%)4/353/360.4135/2946(4.58)Smoking, ever, n(%)22/34 (64.7)20/36(55.5)0.31781/2942(60.5)BMI (kg/m2), mean(SD)28 (6.08)28.2(5.01)0.828.1(5.5)Amiloidosis, n(%)14/36(38.9)1(2.4)<0.00133/2949(1.11)Comotbidities n(%)• Diabetes Mellitus,7/34(20.6)4/36(11.1)0.2199/2949(6.7)• Hypertension27/34(79.4)9/36(25)<0.001442/2949(14.9)• CAD8/21(38.1)1/25(4)0.005110/1882(5.8)• COPD5/21(23.8)0/240.004117/1774(6.59)CRP, med(min-max)1.6(0.4-12.4)1.77(0.1-23.6)0.81.07(0.1-45)• at the initiation of bDMARDs, at the last visit,0.7(0.16-14)0.55(0.1-7.5)0.30.5(0.1-14)ESR, med(min-max)• at the initiation of bDMARDs,48(12-140)30(2-96)0.119(1-140)• at the last visit, med(min-max)25(3-93)15(2-70)0.113(1-110)BASDAI, mean (SD)• At the initiation of bDMARDs4.5(±2.1) 5.46(±2.07) 0.5 5.7(±2.04) • At the last vizit3.94(±2.35)2.95(±2.33)0.093.69(±2.5)CAD: Coronary artery disease, COPD: Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI: Body mass index, BASDAI: Bath AS Disease Activity IndexConclusionBoth comorbid disease burden and mortality seem to be increased in patients with AS-CKD. Increased mortality was more pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemia.References[1]Coşkun, B.N., et al., Anti-TNF treatment in ankylosing spondylitis patients with chronic kidney disease: Is it effective and safe? Eur J Rheumatol, 2022. 9(2): p. 68-74.[2]Stevens, P.E. and A. Levin, Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med, 2013. 158(11): p. 825-30.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

6.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases ; 14(4):373-381, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2326842

ABSTRACT

Since Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first appeared in China in December 2019, the globe has been dealing with an ever-increasing incidence of COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019). In addition to respiratory disorders, 40% of patients present with gastrointestinal (GI) involvement. Abdominal pain is the most common indication for computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. After GI tract involvement, solid visceral organ infarction is the most prevalent abdominal abnormality in COVID-19. This review aims to gather the available data in the literature about imaging features of solid abdominal organs in patients with COVID-19. Gallbladder wall thickening and distension, cholelithiasis, hyperdense biliary sludge, acalculous cholecystitis, periportal edema, heterogeneous liver enhancement, and liver hypodensity and infarction are among hepatobiliary imaging findings in CT, particularly in patients admitted to ICU. Pancreatic involvement can develop as a result of direct SARS-CoV2 invasion with signs of acute pancreatitis in abdominal CT, such as edema and inflammation of the pancreas. Infarction was the most prevalent renal and splenic involvement in patients with COVID-19 who underwent abdominal CT presenting with areas of parenchymal hypodensity. In conclusion, although solid abdominal organs are rarely affected by COVID-19, clinicians must be familiar with the manifestations since they are associated with the disease severity and poor outcome.

7.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 25(2), 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2326616

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) is the virus causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Apart from respiratory disease, this virus can affect different organs. Objectives: Therefore, multiple mechanisms have been hypothesized for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in COVID-19. In this study, we evaluate the incidence and prognosis of AKI in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study assessed 397 COVID-19 patients hospitalized between April 1, 2020, and September 30, 2021. Patients with a sudden rise of serum creatinine level, more than 0.3 mg/dl in two days or more than 50% of the initial level in one week, were diagnosed with AKI. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical features were compared in AKI patients with patients without AKI. Results: A total of 397 patients with a mean age +or- standard deviation of 55.42 +or- 15.26 years were included in the study. According to diagnostic criteria, 48 (12.1%) patients developed AKI. Old age, a history of hypertension, and chronic renal failure were suggested as risk factors for AKI. High levels of C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, Lactate Dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and serum phosphorus upon arrival were also associated with an increased risk of AKI. In addition, the incidence of hypernatremia and hyperkalemia increased mortality in patients with AKI. Conclusion: The incidence of AKI in admitted COVID-19 patients affects the duration of hospitalization, the chance of ICU admission, and mortality. It is important to limit the use of nephrotoxic drugs and to maintain water-electrolyte balance to prevent the incidence of AKI and improve the outcome.

8.
Pediatric Nephrology: Eighth Edition ; : 707-733, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2325783

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are associated with a number of renal diseases in children resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The role of viral infections in the pathogenesis of kidney disease has been largely based on clinical and histologic kidney findings in temporal association with a systemic viral infection and the demonstration of kidney cells infected with viral particles. Viral infections associated with productive viral replication in the kidney of immunocompromised hosts are of particular concern for children. Here, we will discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, outcomes, and treatment of the most relevant kidney diseases associated with viral infections in children, excluding those occurring in kidney transplant recipients, which are discussed elsewhere in this textbook (see chap. 84, Renal transplantation: infectious complications). Well-defined associations between a viral infection and kidney disease have been made for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hantaviruses, and the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In children with immunodeficiency states, herpes viruses, polyomavirus, and adenovirus have been recognized to induce kidney diseases. The roles of other viruses in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases are not clearly defined and remain speculative. With increasing application of molecular techniques, the understanding of the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases is expected to increase. In addition, more specific antiviral treatments and vaccines are currently under development and are expected to improve the outcome of viral-mediated kidney diseases in children. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2009, 2016, 2022.

9.
Science & Healthcare ; 25(1):16-25, 2023.
Article in Russian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2325735

ABSTRACT

Introduction: According to scientific studies, a high incidence of thrombotic events is known in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Less than 50% of pulmonary embolisms (PE) are associated with signs of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Background: To identify significant risk factors for thrombosis thrombosis (DVT) in intensive care patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study that included 465 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients underwent computer tomography of the chest organs, ultrasound angioscanning of lower extremities, body mass index was calculated, the presence of comorbotity diseases and indicators of volumetric blood saturation were considered. The level of D-dimer in blood plasma, coagulation parameters (fibrinogen, factor VIII) were taken from laboratory parameters in calculations. For subgroups with 5 or fewer people, the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used. For quantitative variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. For multiple variables, ordered logistic regression models were built, with likelihood ratio tests performed to compare the models. Results: A total of 465 patients were included in the study. Comorbidities were present in 435 of 465 patients (93.55%) had at least one comorbidity. The most common was arterial hypertension - 370 (79.57%), followed by chronic heart failure - 196 (42.15%), obesity - 161 (34.62%), diabetes mellitus - 144 (30.97%), chronic renal failure (CRF) -58 (12.47%) and oncological diseases -25 (5.38%). The average body mass index was 29.7 kg/m2. In patients with DVT and venostasis, the body mass index (BMI) was more than 30 kg/m2 than without DVT (32.57+or-10.92 kg/m2, and 30.24+or-6.85 kg/m2, versus 29.22+or-6.46 kg/m2, respectively). Ultrasound angioscanning (USAS) confirmed deep vein thrombosis in 60 patients (13.8%) and was associated with older age (71.12+or-13.98 versus 67.20+or-11.16, p < 0.006), venous stasis was detected in 56 patients (12%) no DVT was detected in the rest of the studied patients. In the majority of cases, DVT was detected in the tibial segment -26 (43.33%), in 18 (30%) patients it was diagnosed in the popliteal veins and in 14 (23.33%) cases in the femoral segment. Diabetes mellitus (p=0.041), obesity (p=0.01) and CRF (p=0.028) were also significant risk factors for DVT. Conclusions: Significant risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in intensive care patients with COVID-19 are high levels of D-dimer (>=2.33 g/ml) and comorbidities such as obesity, chronic kidney failure, and diabetes mellitus.

10.
International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research ; 11(1):35-47, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2324567

ABSTRACT

Regarding the investigation of the factors related to the hospitalization of patients with Mucormycosis after being infected with Covid-19, several preliminary studies have been conducted in the hospital, but these studies were conducted in a small environment and have a smaller sample size. Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review study is to examine the factors affecting the hospitalization of patients with mucormycosis after being infected with covid-19. Methods: The current systematic review study was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines (preferred reporting items for systematic seviews and meta-analyses). For this study, the keywords "2019-nCoV", "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronaviruses", "Hospitaliz", "Factor" and "Mucormycosis" in MagIran, SID, ISI, embase databases, ProQuest, PubMed, scopus were searched. Results: diabetes mellitus, old age, high body mass index, kidney disease, high blood pressure and smoking significantly increase the need for hospitalization in patients with mucormycosis after contracting covid-19. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the risk of hospitalization due to Mucormycosis after the covid-19 disease is significantly related to obesity, old age and underlying diseases..

11.
The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online) ; 136(1575):33-41, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313071

ABSTRACT

aims: To describe the epidemiology, clinical features and healthcare impact of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease in Hawke's Bay from 2016 to 2021, to inform public health efforts. methods: The case definition of iGAS for this study was isolation of group A streptococcus (GAS) from blood culture. "Severe iGAS" included cases that required intensive care admission or died within 60 days. Cases were identified retrospectively from the Te Whatu Ora Te Matau a Māui Hawke's Bay laboratory database. Clinical data were obtained from inpatient electronic health records. results: A total of 93 cases of iGAS were identified in Hawke's Bay during the 6-year study period. The overall age-standardised incidence of iGAS was 5.6 per 100,000 (95%CI 4.1-7.4). The incidence was significantly higher among people of Pacific, Māori and Asian ethnicities than European/Other ethnicities, and higher in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Skin infections were the most common source (70% of cases). Thirty-seven cases (41%) were classified as severe, including 11 deaths (12% case fatality rate). conclusions: Further action is required to address inequities in social determinants of skin health in Hawke's Bay. Mandatory national notification of iGAS would provide opportunity for improved surveillance of GAS-related disease, and consideration of a public health response to iGAS disease in New Zealand.

12.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 42(3): 298-311, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293852

ABSTRACT

Hemoperfusion has been considered a promising adjuvant treatment for chronic diseases and some acute states when specific removal of pathogenic factors from the bloodstream is desired. Over the years, advances in adsorption materials (e.g., new synthetic polymers, biomimetic coating, and matrixes with novel structures) have renewed scientific interest and expanded the potential therapeutic indications of hemoperfusion. There is growing evidence to suggest a prominent place for hemoperfusion as an adjuvant treatment in the setting of sepsis or severe coronavirus disease 2019 and as a therapeutic option for chronic complications associated with accumulated uremic toxins in patients with end-stage renal disease. This literature review will describe the principles, therapeutic perspectives, and the emerging role of hemoperfusion as a complementary therapy for patients with kidney disease.

13.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 80(8): 487-494, 2023 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304774

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed medications. Various adverse clinical effects of PPIs have been reported in the literature, particularly over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to review published data primarily describing adverse effects associated with PPI use and to help clinicians determine which patients may still benefit from therapy despite safety concerns. SUMMARY: Associations between PPIs and the following have been described: bone fracture, acute and chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal infections, deficiencies in vitamin B12 and magnesium, and coronavirus disease 2019 and respiratory infections. For inclusion in this review, studies must have evaluated potential adverse events associated with PPIs as a primary or secondary objective. Increased risks of bone fracture, acute and chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal infections, and magnesium deficiency were consistently reported, albeit mostly in studies involving low-quality data (case-control and/or observational studies) and subject to bias. In the only pertinent randomized controlled trial to date, chronic pantoprazole use was associated with a greater risk of enteric infections relative to placebo use; there was no significant between-group difference in any other adverse event evaluated. PPIs continue to be recommended by the American College of Gastroenterology as a first-line treatment for management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and in the acute period following upper gastrointestinal and ulcer bleeding. CONCLUSION: Higher-quality data is needed to better understand PPI-associated risks of the adverse effects listed above. Until then, clinicians may consider greater vigilance with PPI use; however, the data does not demonstrate a need for wide adoption of de-escalation strategies solely out of safety concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Fractures, Bone/chemically induced , Risk Assessment , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
14.
Vestnik Rossiyskoy voyenno meditsinskoy akademii ; 3:511-520, 2022.
Article in Russian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2299365

ABSTRACT

The clinical and epidemiological features of acute kidney injury in severe and extremely severe pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are considered. An observational prospective study was conducted with the inclusion of 117 patients, including 75 men and 42 women, suffering from severe and extremely severe pneumonia associated with COVID-19, who were treated in the intensive care unit of the 1586th Military Clinical Hospital in 2020-2022. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 21 (17.9%) patients (stage 1 in 10, stage 2 in 4, and stage 3 in 7 patients), kidney dysfunction was recorded in 22 (8.8%) patients (serum creatinine was higher than normal, but does not reach the diagnostic criteria of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes). Four patients underwent renal replacement therapy. The probability of kidney damage increases with age (the average age of the patients with acute kidney damage is 65 (58;71) years, and those without acute kidney damage was 47.5 (41;55) years;p = 0.0001). Compared with patients without acute kidney injury, patients with acute kidney injury scored higher on the scales NEW (p = 0.000975), SMRT-CO (p = 0.011555), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (p = 0.000042). Among those suffering from acute kidney injury, significantly more pronounced manifestations of systemic inflammation were determined (leukocytes, p = 0.047324;platelets, p = 0.001230;ferritin, p = 0.048614;and D-dimer, p = 0.004496). In the general cohort, the mortality rate was 22.2%, whereas a significant intergroup difference in mortality was observed, i.e., 52.4% in patients with acute kidney injury and 15.62% in those without acute kidney injury (Chi-squared criterion, 13.468;p < 0.001). Invasive artificial lung ventilation was performed in 19.66% of the patients, and a significant intergroup difference was identified, with 66.7% in patients with acute kidney injury and 9.38% in patients without acute kidney injury (Chi-squared criterion, 35.810;p < 0.001). The durations of treatment in the intensive care unit in patients with and without acute kidney injury were 9 (7;14) and 6 (4;10) days, respectively. After the treatment, all patients with acute kidney injury had fully recovered kidney function upon discharge. In general, acute kidney injury occurs in almost every fifth patient with severe and extremely severe pneumonia associated with COVID-19, aggravates the condition of patients, and increases mortality. The alertness of doctors regarding acute kidney injury and early diagnosis and timely nephroprotective treatment may reduce the possibility of adverse disease outcomes.

15.
Cells ; 12(6)2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299608

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a neurohormone that is mainly secreted by the pineal gland. It coordinates the work of the superior biological clock and consequently affects many processes in the human body. Disorders of the waking and sleeping period result in nervous system imbalance and generate metabolic and endocrine derangements. The purpose of this review is to provide information regarding the potential benefits of melatonin use, particularly in kidney diseases. The impact on the cardiovascular system, diabetes, and homeostasis causes melatonin to be indirectly connected to kidney function and quality of life in people with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, there are numerous reports showing that melatonin plays a role as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and cytoprotective agent. This means that the supplementation of melatonin can be helpful in almost every type of kidney injury because inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress occur, regardless of the mechanism. The administration of melatonin has a renoprotective effect and inhibits the progression of complications connected to renal failure. It is very important that exogenous melatonin supplementation is well tolerated and that the number of side effects caused by this type of treatment is low.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Melatonin/metabolism , Quality of Life , Antioxidants/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
16.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 39(5): 731-737, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, causes, medical interventions, and mortality outcome of acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) among COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the delta pandemic in Vietnam. METHODS: The medical records of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in Vietnam from July to October 2021 were retrospectively collected. Data regarding age, sex, comorbidities, COVID-19 severity, onset time of AGIB, therapeutic interventions for AGIB, and mortality outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1567 COVID-19 inpatients, 56 (3.6%) had AGIB. The independent risk factors for AGIB in COVID-19 inpatients included age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, p = .003), male sex (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26, p = .03), chronic liver disease (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 2.97-13.00, p < .001), and chronic kidney disease (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.01-4.65, p = .047). Among 34 AGIB patients undergoing endoscopy, upper AGIB was determined in 24 (70.6%) patients. Peptic ulcer disease and hemorrhagic erosive gastritis were the most common causes (64.7%, 22/34). The therapeutic interventions for AGIB included blood transfusion (76.8%, 43/56), endoscopic hemostasis (23.5%, 8/34), and surgery (1.8%, 1/56). The mortality rate in the AGIB group was significantly higher than that in the non-AGIB group (46.4% vs. 27.7%, OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.32-3.87, p = .002). However, the majority (76.9%) of deaths in COVID-19 inpatients with AGIB were not bleeding-related. CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, chronic liver disease, and chronic kidney disease are risk factors for AGIB among COVID-19 inpatients. Peptic ulcer disease is the most common cause. COVID-19 inpatients with AGIB have a higher risk of mortality, but a large percentage of deaths are not bleeding-related.


Since there is not enough information of sudden digestive tract bleeding among Asian populations with COVID-19, this study aimed to measure the proportion of existing cases, causes, medical treatments and deaths of sudden digestive tract bleeding in COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized during the Delta-variant pandemic in Vietnam. We collected medical records of 1567 COVID-19 patients from a specialty hospital in Vietnam from July to October 2021. Sudden digestive tract bleeding was present in 3.6% of COVID-19 inpatients. The risk of sudden digestive tract bleeding was higher in COVID-19 patients who were old, male, or had long-term liver or kidney disease. The most common cause of sudden digestive tract bleeding among COVID-19 inpatients were stomach ulcers. In addition, COVID-19 inpatients with sudden digestive tract bleeding had a higher risk of death, but a large proportion of deaths were not bleeding-related.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptic Ulcer , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Inpatients , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Risk Factors , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects
17.
J Med Life ; 15(6): 797-804, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277174

ABSTRACT

Patients with hemodialysis face various problems with self-care behavior. Therefore, these patients need to control and manage adherence to enhance self-care, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has particularly high morbidity in the elderly and co-morbid peoples. Self-efficacy was identified as a number of psychological factors that improve adherence and treatment outcomes among hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to investigate self-efficacy among patients with hemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic. A comparative descriptive research design was used to conduct the study. A convenience sample of 95 hemodialysis patients (male and females) was selected from Port-Said city, Egypt, and 115 hemodialysis patients (male and females) were selected from Saudi Arabia. Data collection included a structured interview with three parts assessing socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and self-efficacy. This study revealed a statistically significant difference between Egyptian and Saudi hemodialysis patients, mainly in the main score and levels of self-efficacy (p=0.001). There is a significant relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and chronic disease self-efficiency among Egyptian hemodialysis patients in terms of sex, age, marital status, work, and level of education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Self Efficacy
18.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 22(9):1258-1265, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2263483

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of 95 patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to Hankou Hospital of Wuhan, and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment of severe cases. Methods: From January to March 2020, 95 patients with severe COVID-19 were admitted to a designated Hankou Hospital of Wuhan. The clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, chest CT, respiratory support, drug treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: Among the 95 patients, there were 76(80.0%) severe cases (severe group) and 19 (20.0%) critically ill cases (critically ill group);the average ages of the two groups were (56.9 .. 14.0) and (66.2 .. 14.1) years old, respectively. The main symptoms included fever [85 (89.5%)], cough [73 (76.8%)] dyspnea [57 (60.0%)], sputum expectoration [32 (33.7%)], diarrhea [20 (21.1%)], etc. The initial symptom was fever [64 (67.4%)], followed by cough [17 (17.9%)]. The main comorbidities were hypertension [29 (30.5%)], diabetes [18 (18.9%), coronary heart disease [12 (12.6%)], etc. Liver injury was the most frequently seen complication which occurred in 35 patients (36.8%), while myocardial damage in 20 patients (21.1%), heart failure in 10 patients (10.5%), and renal damage in 8 patients (8.4%). The level of urea nitrogen [7.5 (3.1-36.6) mmol/L], creatinine [88.0 (46.0-681.0) mol/L], aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [49.0 (8.0-2 290.0) U/L], total bilirubin [12.4 (6.8-112.4) mol/L], white blood cells [8.7 (2.7-16.3) .. 109], neutrophil count [7.9 (1.0-14.6) .. 109/L], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) [35.6 (0.1-37.9) mg/L] and procalcitonin (PCT) [0.3 (0.1-9.6) ng/mL] in the critically ill group were higher than the severe group [4.5 (1.5-14.6) mmol/L, 70.0 (34.0-149.0) mol/L, 30.5 (10.0-184.0) U/L, 7.8 (1.4-24.5) mol/L, 4.5 (1.7- 10.7) .. 109/L 3.1 (0.6-9.1) .. 109/L, 31.8 (0.1- 40.4) mg/L, 0.1 (0.0- 1.2) ng/mL], and the difference were statistically significant (P all < 0.05);the albumin level reflecting nutritional status [30.2 (24.6-36.4) g/L] was lower than the severe group [35.2(23.5-44.5)g/L], and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral ground glass opacity or patchy shadows in the lungs of all patients. A total of 77 patients (82.1%) were discharged, and 13 patients (13.7%) died;of which, the mortality of the critically ill group was 68.4% (13 out of 19). Conclusions: The majority of patients with severe COVID- 19 were elderly. The main clinical manifestations were fever, cough, and dyspnea. Most patients had underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The occurrence of organ dysfunctions such as liver injury, cardiac damage, heart failure and kidney injury might be an important cause of death. The mortality of severe patients with COVID-19 was high, and treatment was even tough.

19.
American Family Physician ; 107(3):222, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2277977

ABSTRACT

An article in this issue of American Family Physician describes the importance of spirometry in making an accurate diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and in distinguishing between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.1 An analysis of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study—a prospective cohort study of more than 3,000 participants—found that the use of race corrections in spirometry interpretation did not help to predict chronic lower respiratory disease events any more accurately than the use of race-neutral calculations.2 This analysis demonstrated how a 65-year-old man with a specific height, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC) would receive a percentage-predicted FEV1 result of 70% (i.e., moderate lung disease) using a White race correction as opposed to a result of 82% (i.e., normal lung function) using a Black race correction because of assumptions that Black patients have a smaller lung capacity.2 Thus, a Black patient could receive a false-negative interpretation of results and be deprived of symptomatic treatment or more targeted counseling for underlying asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Others have raised concerns about the use of race-based spirometry in assessing recovery following COVID-19 infection, which could result in missing the diagnosis of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction.3

20.
Cureus ; 15(2): e34899, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253791

ABSTRACT

The association of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has been well-documented in the literature previously but is often undiagnosed in clinical practice. In this case report, we present a case of a woman with distal RTA who presented with nausea, vomiting, and confusion. The case shows the diagnostic value of urine studies when evaluating a patient who has exaggerated and unexplained electrolyte losses and how this will change management. Recognizing the extra glandular manifestations of patients with SS is important for patient care to prevent delays in care and treatment.

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