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1.
UCL Open Environ ; 3: e022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232146

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the UK government mandated the use of face masks in various public settings and recommended the use of reusable masks to combat shortages of medically graded single-use masks in healthcare. To assist decision-making on the choice of masks for future pandemics, where shortages may not be a contributing factor, the University College London (UCL) Plastic Waste Innovation Hub has carried out a multidisciplinary comparison between single-use and reusable masks based on their anatomy, standalone effectiveness, behavioural considerations, environmental impact and costs. Although current single-use masks have a higher standalone effectiveness against bacteria and viruses, studies show that reusable masks have adequate performance in slowing infection rates of respiratory viruses. Material flow analysis (MFA), life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost comparison show that reusable masks have a lower environmental and economic impact than single-use masks. If every person in the UK uses one single-use mask each day for a year, it will create a total of 124,000 tonnes of waste, 66,000 tonnes of which would be unrecyclable contaminated plastic waste (the masks), with the rest being the recyclable packaging typically used for transportation and distribution of masks. Using reusable masks creates >85% less waste, generates 3.5 times lower impact on climate change and incurs 3.7 times lower costs. Further behavioural research is necessary to understand the extent and current practices of mask use; and how these practices affect mask effectiveness in reducing infection rates. Wearing single-use masks may be preferred over reusable masks due to perceptions of increased hygiene and convenience. Understanding behaviour towards the regular machine-washing of reusable masks for their effective reuse is key to maximise their public health benefits and minimise environmental and economic costs.

2.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; 182:113346, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2328295

ABSTRACT

Plastic waste pollution has grown exponentially since the 1950s. This situation was exacerbated when the volume of personal protective equipment (PPE)-based plastic waste surged after the COVID-19 pandemic. Plastic waste management such as landfills and incineration have adverse effects on the environment and human health due to the leaching of hazardous chemicals and the emission of toxic gases. Modern solutions such as biodegradable plastics and green brick technology are expensive and not well developed to valorize the current accumulation of plastic waste. This has led to the emergence of thermal degradation processes, which is faster and more realistic to solve the PPE-based plastic waste buildup. Pyrolysis and gasification systems to valorize plastic waste into hydrocarbons and fuels are discussed and compared with examples respectively. Scoping review approach is employed to conduct this study. To further increase the value of the final product of plastic waste management, the integrated pyrolysis system to upcycle plastic waste to carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and the factors affecting the production of non-condensable gases are critically reviewed. The importance of feedstock composition, catalyst type, pyrolysis operating condition (including gas condition and temperature profiles) based on various studies is discussed. The potential and limitation of an integrated pyrolysis system are assessed from kinetic analysis, economic analysis and life-cycle assessment. This review is expected to contribute to the industrial-scale development of sustainable upcycling of plastic waste and enhance the production of desirable gas components for CNM synthesis for environmental sustainability.

3.
Sustainability ; 15(8):6633, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2293602

ABSTRACT

Corporations and small/medium enterprises (SMEs) are subject to a variety of external and internal pressures that often lead to changes in their corporate governance structures and accounting/reporting systems. The environment in which these organizations are collocated has undergone a deep process of change, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, the blockchain, and the energy industry crisis. Business activities represent a critical and a vital component of human existence across the globe—one that is not restricted to a financial standpoint—and their impact on societal, environmental and animal conditions is now undisputed. However, these activities are frequently coupled with allegations of their being the actual causes of those disruptions and collapses that persist in escaping the scrutiny of international governments. For the effective delivery of sustainable business activities, the concepts of governance and accountability are crucial, and the future of the inhabitants of planet Earth is arguably dependent on the ability of corporations (through their entire value chain) to govern themselves well and to demonstrate accountability to their many stakeholders. This should be achieved through the adoption of good governance standards which are well accepted, and that are globally harmonised with ‘Environmental, Social and Governance' (ESG) reporting tools that are able to strategically assess and evaluate risk exposure and provide forward-looking information. In this critical context, few studies have actually examined these issues thoroughly, and, because the findings of those studies have been contradictory, there is still no definitive understanding of the causes of weak accounting and reporting tools for ESG dynamics under conditions of disruption. A systematic literature network analysis (SLNA) is used in this study to examine the evolution of the ESG reporting research domain based on existing relationships (e.g., aggregation, cross-citations and isolation) among authors contributing to the field. The findings demonstrate the current state of the art, disclosing interesting and timely future research directions. Furthermore, this study employs a novel approach known as SLNA to conduct the analyses, confirming its efficacy as a tool for dynamic analysis also within the field of sustainability accounting research.

4.
Mathematics ; 11(8):1926, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2300709

ABSTRACT

Facial-image-based age estimation is being increasingly used in various fields. Examples include statistical marketing analysis based on age-specific product preferences, medical applications such as beauty products and telemedicine, and age-based suspect tracking in intelligent surveillance camera systems. Masks are increasingly worn for hygiene, personal privacy concerns, and fashion. In particular, the acquisition of mask-occluded facial images has become more frequent due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These images cause a loss of important features and information for age estimation, which reduces the accuracy of age estimation. Existing de-occlusion studies have investigated masquerade masks that do not completely occlude the eyes, nose, and mouth;however, no studies have investigated the de-occlusion of masks that completely occlude the nose and mouth and its use for age estimation, which is the goal of this study. Accordingly, this study proposes a novel low-complexity attention-generative adversarial network (LCA-GAN) for facial age estimation that combines an attention architecture and conditional generative adversarial network (conditional GAN) to de-occlude mask-occluded human facial images. The open databases MORPH and PAL were used to conduct experiments. According to the results, the mean absolution error (MAE) of age estimation with the de-occluded facial images reconstructed using the proposed LCA-GAN is 6.64 and 6.12 years, respectively. Thus, the proposed method yielded higher age estimation accuracy than when using occluded images or images reconstructed using the state-of-the-art method.

5.
Int J Life Cycle Assess ; 28(3): 291-303, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292482

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The recently published first Life-LCA case study of a human being (0-49 years) did not use primary data for the "childhood and youth stage" (0-17 years). Consumption was assumed to contribute 50% of the calculated 48th baseline year. This led to uncertainties as consumer behavior changes from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, transport emissions and environmental impacts before birth were neglected. Therefore, this paper analyzes the prenatal and infancy phase (0-3 years) to develop the Life-LCA method and database further and evaluate generic assumptions. Methods: The Life-LCA method sets the reporting unit to newly defined prenatal and infancy phases. The reporting flow describes the range of all consumed products attributable to an infant. Primary data was collected with a sample of three study objects-a pregnant mother, a newborn baby, and a 3-year-old infant-living in Germany. The following environmental impact assessment categories are considered: climate change (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), and photochemical ozone creation (POCP). Results and discussion: Prenatal and infancy phase burdens account for a GWP of 4,011 kg CO2-eq., an AP of 22.3 kg SO2-eq., an EP of 10.7 kg PO4-eq., and a POCP of 1.7 kg C2H4-eq. The share of the prenatal phase is around 15-20% for all impact categories. Transport is a hotspot for GWP (30-60%) and POCP (45-70%) in both phases. AP (50%) and EP (45-50%) are dominated by food products, mainly meat (45%) and dairy products (35%). For the prenatal phase, energy and water consumption at birth rank third in GWP (8%). Diapers account for 6% (GWP) of the environmental burden in the infancy phase. Assumptions made in the first Life-LCA study connect closely with the values calculated for the first three years of infancy. A remaining challenge is allocating the impacts between infants and parents and developing a methodology for assessing data quality. Conclusion: Focusing on two new life phases has led to the subdivision of the "childhood and youth stage" and an extension of the system boundaries. The results' uncertainty was reduced by developing a new set of specific datasets focusing on several study objects. The case study results show the importance of primary data collection for evaluating generic assumptions. Additional studies on childhood and adolescence from 3 to 17 years are suggested for a robust assessment of the complete "childhood and youth stage." Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11367-022-02129-7.

6.
20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability, ECCM 2022 ; 6:355-362, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2272361

ABSTRACT

Drone technology is widely available and is rapidly becoming a crucial instrument in the functions of businesses and government agencies worldwide. The demand for delivery services is accelerating particularly since the Covid-19 pandemic. Both companies and customers want these services to be efficient, timely, safe, and sustainable, but these are major challenges. Last-mile delivery by lightweight short-range drones has the potential to address these challenges. However, there is a lack of consistency and transparency in assessing and reporting the sustainability of last-mile delivery services and drones. This paper presents a critical review of published assessments (specifically lifecycle assessment and circularity). The study reveals a lack of comprehensive studies, and a need to examine composite and battery manufacturing developments and provides key considerations for future study development. © 2022 Mitchell et al.

7.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2266540

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of creative classes in sustainable agriculture development through creating shared value in rural Japan by applying latent class analysis (LCA), structural equation modeling (SEM) and cognitive map analysis to the results of a questionnaire survey of farmers. Two hypotheses were set for verification: "There are a certain number of Japanese farmers who belong to the creative class” (H1) and "The creative class is highly entrepreneurial, appreciates the attractiveness of agriculture, prefers sustainability policies and seeks to create shared value in agriculture" (H2). We obtained analytical results as follows. First, from the results of the latent class analysis (LCA), farmers were classified into four classes (class 1: Majority, class 2: Early adopter, class 3: Laggard, class 4: Innovator). In addition, Class 4 (innovator) was interpreted as the creative class because most respondents answered positively about creative thinking, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, innovation orientation, social capital and cognitive changes due to the COVID-19 epidemic. Second, the analysis of the structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the factors affected the entrepreneurship, namely preference for agricultural policy and impact on creating shared value in agriculture in the creative class. In other words, we found that the evaluation of the multi-functionality of agriculture influences each element for entrepreneurship of the creative class, and also influences the preference for agricultural policy and creation of shared value. Thirdly, analysis of cognitive maps revealed that creative classes contribute to sustainable agricultural and rural development through the creation of shared value. However, in current Japan, the creative classes are concentrated in urban areas and farmers highly value the risk of failure, so there is no virtuous cycle for the entrepreneurial environment to shape entrepreneurial attitudes. Therefore, it is important for policies to develop creative classes in flatland agricultural areas and mountainous areas, and build networks for the creative classes among different regions. © 2023, The Japan Section of the Regional Science Association International.

8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 15(5)2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277309

ABSTRACT

Hospitals generate huge amounts of nonwoven residues daily. This paper focused on studying the evolution of nonwoven waste generated in the Francesc de Borja Hospital, Spain, over the last few years and its relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective was to identify the most impacting pieces of nonwoven equipment in the hospital and to analyze possible solutions. The carbon footprint of the nonwoven equipment was studied through a life-cycle assessment. The results showed an apparent increase in the carbon footprint in the hospital from 2020. Additionally, due to the higher annual volume, the simple nonwoven gown used primarily for patients had a higher carbon footprint over a year than the more sophisticated surgical gowns. It can be concluded that developing a local circular economy strategy for medical equipment could be the solution to avoid the enormous waste generation and the carbon footprint of nonwoven production.

9.
Glycoconj J ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281561

ABSTRACT

The S protein forming the homotrimeric spikes of pathogenic beta-coronaviruses, such as MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, is a highly glycosylated protein containing mainly N-glycans of the complex and high-mannose type, as well as O-glycans. Similarly, the host cell receptors DPP4 for MERS-CoV and ACE2 for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, also represent N- and O-glycosylated proteins. All these glycoproteins share common glycosylation patterns, suggesting that plant lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities could be used as carbohydrate-binding agents for the spikes and their receptors, to combat COVID19 pandemics. The binding of plant lectins to the spikes and their receptors could mask the non-glycosylated receptor binding domain of the virus and the corresponding region of the receptor, thus preventing a proper interaction of the spike proteins with their receptors. In this review, we analyze (1) the ability of plant lectins to interact with the N- and O-glycans present on the spike proteins and their receptors, (2) the in vitro and in vivo anti-COVID19 activity already reported for plant lectins and, (3) the possible ways for delivery of lectins to block the spikes and/or their receptors.

10.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science ; 1135, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2244442

ABSTRACT

Malaysia, wearing face mask during Covid-19 outbreak were mandatory. This action has caused significant surge in face mask production which deem to affect environment and human health. This paper evaluates and compared the environmental impacts, in a life cycle assessments perspective between disposable surgical face mask and reusable cloth face mask using cradle-to-grave approaches according to ISO 14040. The environmental impacts were assessed based on nine midpoint impact categories which are ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, acidification, eutrophication, smog formation, human health cancer and non-cancer, human health particulates and ecotoxicity. The functional unit for both types of face masks is a person wearing face mask as protection every day for one year (365 masks for disposable surgical face mask and 3 masks for reusable cloth face mask). The LCA tool used was OpenLCA software with Ecoinvent consequential 3.7.1 version database and TRACI 2.1 for impact method assessment. The study showed that reusable cloth face mask had the lowest impact compared to disposable surgical face mask across the assessed midpoint impact categories. This study suggested incineration as the best disposal method for the End-of-Life (EoL) of both face masks. Sensitive analysis also performed by manipulating the amount of face mask used per individual and it was found that the amount of mask used had significant effects to the environmental performance. © 2023 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160842, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150572

ABSTRACT

An integrated approach was employed in the present study to combine life cycle assessment (LCA) with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess an existing sewage treatment plant (STP) at Roorkee, India. The midpoint LCA modeling revealed that high electricity consumption (≈ 576 kWh.day-1) contributed to the maximum environmental burdens. The LCA endpoint result of 0.01 disability-adjusted life years per person per year (DALYs pppy) was obtained in terms of the impacts on human health. Further, a QMRA model was developed based on representative sewage pathogens, including E. coli O157:H7, Giardia sp., adenovirus, norovirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The public health risk associated with intake of pathogen-laden aerosols during treated water reuse in sprinkler irrigation was determined. A cumulative health risk of 0.07 DALYs pppy was obtained, where QMRA risks contributed 86 % of the total health impacts. The annual probability of illness per person was highest for adenovirus and norovirus, followed by SARS-CoV-2, E. coli O157:H7 and Giardia sp. Overall, the study provides a methodological framework for an integrated LCA-QMRA assessment which can be applied across any treatment process to identify the hotspots contributing maximum environmental burdens and microbial health risks. Furthermore, the integrated LCA-QMRA approach could support stakeholders in the water industry to select the most suitable wastewater treatment system and establish regulations regarding the safe reuse of treated water.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sewage , Humans , Animals , Wastewater , Escherichia coli , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Assessment , Water , Life Cycle Stages , Water Microbiology
12.
International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042692

ABSTRACT

Purpose The inclusion of sustainability in higher education courses has been debated in recent decades and has gained particular emphasis throughout the COVID-19. This paper aims to show how the context of the pandemic, which demanded the transition from in-person classes to virtual classes, was used to illustrate better the concepts of life cycle assessment (LCA) for Production Engineering students in a Brazilian University. Design/methodology/approach The research strategy used was action research. Throughout the discipline offering, the environmental impacts resulting from in-person and remote classes were comparatively assessed through a practical activity using LCA. Students' behaviour and perception of the activities were recorded by the professor and discussed with the other researchers on the team. At the end of the course, students answered a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with different aspects of the discipline, and these data were analysed via Fuzzy Delphi. Findings The results focus on discussing the pedagogical aspects of this experience and not the environmental impacts resulting from each class modality. It was possible to notice a greater engagement of students when using a project that directly involved their daily activities (food, transportation, use of electronics, etc.) compared to the traditional approach of teaching LCA concepts. In this traditional approach, the examples focussed on the industrial sector, a more distant context from the reality of most students. Student feedback demonstrated great acceptance by them regarding the approach adopted. Originality/value This study contributes to expanding debates about sustainability insertion in higher education and the training of professionals more aligned with the sustainable development agenda.

13.
Applied Sciences ; 12(16):8120, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023098

ABSTRACT

Featured ApplicationThe use of these indices, which make it possible to compare the environmental efficiency between hospitals with similar characteristics, will facilitate the adoption of measures, the development of impact mitigation plans, and the implementation of good practices in environmental topics that will guide the health sector toward sustainability scenarios.In the past decades, the use of indices and indicators to report on the environmental performance of organisations has increased exponentially. However, the available studies did not address the topic of obtaining indicators that show the environmental behaviour of the health sector. The main objective of this research, therefore, was aimed at the calculation of environmental efficiency indices in the hospital sector, taking a regional hospital as a case study and considering the environmental aspects identified during the development of its healthcare activity in 2019. The results obtained provided information on the potential environmental impacts triggered by every aspect of the operation of a hospital in the course of its activities that focus on patient care. The results demonstrated that the aspects related to transportation of patients, workers, and materials had the greatest impact on the global environmental indices we calculated. For the environmental efficiency indices of hospital activities, the most significant environmental aspects were materials consumption and waste generation.

14.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; : 133222, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1966816

ABSTRACT

From an economic point of view, the tourism sector is one of the most important in the world with religious tourism, such as pilgrimages, being a growth area. Tourism activities also make a significant contribution to CO2 emissions (roughly 8% of the world's carbon emissions). In this framework, the main objective of this research is to develop an integrated sustainable model by assessing the impact of pilgrimages to the Camino Lebaniego (Lebaniego Way) in the Cantabrian region, which is one of the most popular routes in northern Spain. To do this, it is necessary to quantify the environmental impacts of this activity since this is a key element in establishing appropriate and effective environmental management programmes. This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, focused on the Carbon Footprint (CF) impact category, to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of this activity considering ‘a pilgrim who completes the route in three days’ as the selected functional unit (FU). In addition, the sub-sectors of accommodation, food and beverages, and waste management are taken into account. Following this route generated a total of 13.69 kg CO2 eq./FU, of which accommodation and the services offered there contributed almost 71.47%, food was 17.08%, and waste management 11.45%. The evening meal and propane consumption were the hotspots in the hostel, accounting for almost 74% of the total impact, so alternatives were proposed to reduce the impacts associated with these. In terms of transport, it was found that for the same destination, it was better to use a car rather than a plane, because the associated CO2 emissions were lower. Finally, these aspects are discussed and improvement measures for reducing GHG emissions are proposed, involving the introduction of good practices and environmental commitments from the pilgrims themselves, as well as enterprises and local communities. Ecolabels and environmental certifications should become a key tool for sending this signal to the market as should the use of public transport to the destination, among other actions. Ultimately, religious and nature tourism seems to be on the upturn, and it is likely that pilgrimage routes could be the next post-COVID travel trend.

15.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1945561

ABSTRACT

Advancements in polymer science and engineering have helped the scientific community to shift its attention towards the use of environmentally benign materials for reducing the environmental impact of conventional synthetic plastics. Biopolymers are environmentally benign, chemically versatile, sustainable, biocompatible, biodegradable, inherently functional, and ecofriendly materials that exhibit tremendous potential for a wide range of applications including food, electronics, agriculture, textile, biomedical, and cosmetics. This review also inspires the researchers toward more consumption of biopolymer-based composite materials as an alternative to synthetic composite materials. Herein, an overview of the latest knowledge of different natural- and synthetic-based biodegradable polymers and their fiber-reinforced composites is presented. The review discusses different degradation mechanisms of biopolymer-based composites as well as their sustainability aspects. This review also elucidates current challenges, future opportunities, and emerging applications of biopolymeric sustainable composites in numerous engineering fields. Finally, this review proposes biopolymeric sustainable materials as a propitious solution to the contemporary environmental crisis. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd.

16.
Environ Dev Sustain ; : 1-28, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942185

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to evaluate the life cycle impact and the circularity of face masks to support government public policies in extreme consumption of these products as in the case of the Covid-19. The reference case was the Brazilian context for using and consuming Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Two types of face masks were defined for analysis: handmade reusable face masks made with cotton fabric and single-use face masks made with nonwoven fabric. To achieve this goal, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) steps following ISO 14040 and the Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) by the Ellen Macarthur Foundation were applied. The results obtained show that the reuse of face masks has a better environmental performance over five uses. The comparative analysis between the ReCiPe 2016 and IMPACT World+ methods shows that the impact categories linked to human health are the most important in terms of environmental impact. Nevertheless, the trend toward improved environmental performance for the handmade reusable face mask has continued. The possibility of recycling shows that the reintegration of material after the use of the product could improve the environmental performance of both face masks. Finally, the reuse increases the circularity of cotton fabric masks compared to nonwoven fabric masks according to MCI. In this way, it is possible to observe that the handmade reusable face mask has a better environmental performance and a higher circularity than the single-use face mask. Thus, the results of the environmental performance and circularity of the face masks may support the decision of government agents to guide the public in the use of face masks, not only contributing to the protection of health against Covid-19, but also reducing the environmental impact of PPE. Furthermore, the methodological steps adopted in the study gives greater reliability in the conclusions obtained.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157261, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926894

ABSTRACT

Sustainable tourism should be promoted as a new system for the sustainable management of resources from a socioeconomic and environmental point of view. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop a tool capable of assessing the impacts associated with the sector and to identify which actions are currently being addressed in order to achieve the desired sustainability. This timely study aims to describe the current framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application to the tourism sector. To address these questions, a total of 83 documents (77 reviews and 6 international reports) were evaluated, assessing the geographical distribution, the temporal evolution of the publications, as well as the most relevant characteristics of the tourism industry articles were evaluated such as, life cycle inventory (LCI), system boundaries, functional unit (FU), methods, environmental indicators and impact categories considered. The study identifies key recommendations on the progression of LCA in tourism sector. As important results, it stands out that 94 % of articles were from the last decade and 21 % of the articles reviewed cover sustainable tourism term, considering the three dimensions. This review showed that in LCA studies the most common method was CML 2001; the most widely used environmental indicator was the Carbon Footprint (CF) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) was the impact category used in all the studies. Hence, LCA is a highly effective tool capable of assessing direct and indirect carbon emissions in tourism as well as the socioeconomic and environmental impacts generated in this sector. COVID-19 pandemic is also an object of discussion in the framework of the sustainable tourism together with advocating support for the eco-labelling and digitalisation of the tourism experiences as valuable tools to minimize environmental negativities, to promote mechanisms to access green markets and to frame successful synergies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Footprint , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Pandemics
18.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 363:132440, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867328

ABSTRACT

Controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under rapid economic development is a major global challenge and must be addressed in order to avoid major impacts of climate change. Therefore, the accounting of GHG emissions is an important basis for regional climate change mitigation plans. In order to work towards achieving this, a standardization of GHG emissions accounting methodologies should be developed, which will promote a deep decarbonization at different geographical scales. This study builds a complete GHG emissions inventory of the Cornell University campus, quantifying the university's Scope 1, 2, and 3 GHG emissions and identify the main emissions sources. use an EIO-LCA model to investigate the GHG emissions connected to the campus procurement system. The impact of COVID-19 is explored from the perspectives of campus energy systems, transportation, and products & services consumption, which helped to determine the driving forces of GHG emissions fluctuation during the pandemic. Results show that overall, Scope 3 emissions contributed to the largest share of Cornell's GHG emissions (60.4%), followed by Scope 1 (37.8%) and Scope 2 (1.7%). The total GHG emissions of Cornell University in 2019 and 2020 were 463.5 and 404.7 thousand metric tons CO2e, respectively. During the COVID pandemic, the campus GHG emissions dropped by 10.99% in 2020 when compared to the 2019 level. When compared to 2019, 2020 Scope 1 GHG emissions reduced by 8.9%, Scope 2 GHG emissions increased by 39.5% and Scope 3 dropped by 16.1%. This study provides a comprehensive GHG accounting framework for universities in order to reach sustainable and carbon-neutral campus targets and analyzes the impact of unpreceded crises on campus life and the environment.

19.
Procedia CIRP ; 105: 25-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788187

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic (COVID-19) is causing disruptions to energy, finance, tourism, and trade industries all around the world. These disruptions are the result of quarantining and lockdowns that cause reductions in production and consumptions. This change in production and consumption rates has environmental consequences. This study investigates the environmental effects of COVID-19 lockdown in the United States by Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (IO-LCA) approach. The analysis is based on extraction of economic data in the US. The simulated results are based on different durations and strategies of lockdown measures. Among all industrial categories, utilities, which include power generation and supply, water supply, and natural gas supply sectors, saw the most significant reductions by approximately 110 kt CO2-eq in the first quarter and 265 kt CO2-eq in the second quarter of 2020. The assessed reductions were the results of both direct emission reductions caused by the shutdown of certain industries and also indirect emission reductions from upstream industries. The proposed methodology provides an effective guideline to predict the greenhouse gases emissions, which can be used as a prediction method for different regions in the world.

20.
Foods ; 11(7)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785604

ABSTRACT

The public catering sector has important responsibilities in seeking a change toward more sustainable choices for many aspects related to the environmental impacts of their services. The environmental impact of production processes can be studied through life cycle assessment (LCA), which allows a greater awareness of choices and has rarely been applied to catering. In this work, we studied the impacts of two dishes (braised meat and cauliflower meatballs) in a school canteen, their impacts were studied using the daily energy requirement (expressed in kcal) as a functional unit. Global warming potential (GWP) and nonrenewable energy (NRE) were calculated starting from the supply of raw materials up to distribution. Electricity and the act of cooking the meatballs accounted for more than 60% of the measured impact in terms of GWP, whereas, less markedly, they dominated in terms of nonrenewable energy used. In the case of braised meat, the total impact was, however, attributable to the life cycle of the meat (between 60% and 76%) and the consumption of electricity (between 19% and 27%), whereas for all other factors, the contribution was never particularly high. Additionally, a discussion on the correct functional unit to be used proposed the environmental impact of different recipes as an additional criterion for nutritionists during the composition of the menu. An integrated system appears important for changing policies and behaviors and the application of LCA can be a tool capable of contributing to the construction of a holistic instrument of sustainability.

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