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1.
Ekonomika Sel'skokhozyaistvennykh i Pererabatyvayushchikh Predpriyatii ; 5:19-22, 2022.
Article in English, Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100935

ABSTRACT

The article considers various aspects affecting the regional labor market, arising from the coronavirus pandemic, and then aggravated by the imposition of international sanctions against the Russian Federation. It is shown what are the features of a labor-surplus region and its agro-industrial complex. The economic levers and methods allowing to smooth out the negative impact of sanctions measures on the economy of the region, including the agricultural sector, are considered.

2.
Business Inform ; 7:155-161, 2022.
Article in Bulgarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057037

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify the features, problems and perspectives in the development of international tourism in the post-covid world. Analyzing the statistical and forecast data of relevant international organizations, as well as expert opinions of market practitioners, a significant dependence of the tourism system on exogenous factors of negative impact is revealed, and COVID-19 is viewed as the largest crisis in terms of consequences, because the highly globalized world itself contributes to the large-scale and rapid spread of the pandemic. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the periods of development of tourist activity in the world, the following indicators were analyzed: the dynamics of the growth rate of the world economy and world tourism;dynamics of development of sectors of the world economy with the separation of the place of tourism;regional dynamics of international tourist arrivals and revenues from international tourism;loss of jobs in the tourism industry by region of the world as result of the spread of COVID-19, reduced business activity and tourist mobility. All indicators show a significant reduction and there is a relationship with the overall economic and social environment of countries. As result of the study, the main vectors of public policy on countering the consequences of COVID-19 in the tourism sector are defined and attention is focused on the need for consolidated precise and timely actions at all management levels: local, national, and international. An algorithm for overcoming the crisis phenomena in the tourism business caused by the pandemic has been developed, which provides for a set of consistent measures aimed at managing and controlling the crisis, stabilizing the market situation and accelerating the revitalization of the industry, as well as developing a new paradigm for the functioning of world tourism in post- covid realities. Trend tendencies in the further development of international tourism activities are proposed, taking into account changes in consumer preferences, namely: digitalization, virtualization, shifting the vector to domestic tourism, staycation and workation, wellness tourism, deeper awareness of the need for further implementation of the principles of sustainable development, etc.

3.
Event Management ; 26(7):1537-1547, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055458

ABSTRACT

The authors propose a strategy to help event planners pivot and adjust to the post-COVID world. This involves the use of social media and sales force automation (SFA). The authors explain how both of these can be accomplished in a low cost, easy to learn and use manner by adopting LinkedIn. The authors also present three tools that will help the event planner assess if they and their personnel are ready to make such a change. The authors conclude with a set of managerial imperatives that include not only how to be proactive and competitive but also the operational adjustments that will be necessary for the mode of operation, the reach of the planner, how online presence and content will drive awareness, the role and definition of personnel, how client relationships are conducted, and how the different facets of the event itself will change.

4.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

5.
Development Southern Africa ; 39(5):722-737, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050752

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the five waves of the National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) on food security between May 2020 and May 2021. Despite significant investments in social protection, food insecurity and household and child hunger remained stubbornly high. We conclude that given the protracted nature of the pandemic, slow economic recovery, household and child hunger have stabilised at higher levels than before the pandemic. The phasing out of emergency relief coupled with the constrained economic situation, are some of the reasons why levels of food insecurity and hunger are likely to remain high in the near future. Strict lockdown regulations also reduced employment and income from informal economic activities. Social support for vulnerable individuals and households remain an urgent priority. Continuing support targeted at households with children is particularly important given the dire consequences of enduring hunger for stunting, and on children's long-term development.

6.
Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento ; 140:71-88, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046696

ABSTRACT

Sectors strategic to the post Covid-19 economic recovery Parana are identified here by using an input-output matrix and economic indicators calculated from 2018 Parana-Rest of Brazil interregional system data. Intersectoral linkages indices portray food industry, civil construction, commerce and land transport as driving sectors of the state economy. Results concerning production, employment and income are higher for the textile and clothing, commerce, accommodation and food, education, health, and software development sectors, the latter being an important sector for the emergence of micro and small business. Incentive actions directed to strategic sectors in the economic recovery involve professional qualification, microcredit, business incubators, and extension activities focusing the dissemination of new communication and sales technologies.

7.
Louisiana Agriculture ; 65:2, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044964

ABSTRACT

This article presents an overview of the growth of the Louisiana nursery industry and the labour challenges the industry is facing. Labour issues in the nursery industry are not easily solved, considering the nature and seasonality of employment and competition from other industries. Despite the benefits associated with the H-2A guest worker program, particularly securing seasonal workers in times of need, which allows nurseries to cope with labour shortages, few Louisiana nurseries rely on the H-2A program. Moreover, prolonged impact of the COVID-19 pandemic also raises concerns on ways the industry needs may change and how it will affect securing labour.

8.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

9.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

10.
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin ; 71(2):117-132, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040453

ABSTRACT

The primary function of national parks (NPs) is nature conservation, but for the majority of them, tourism also plays an important role. Tourism generates significant incomes, but the benefits are often unequally distributed in space, as are the disadvantages. The karst regions are generally less developed terrains in terms of traditional livelihoods, but due to their special morphology, tourism offers great opportunities. Nonetheless, mass tourism can also pose increased environmental risks. In this article, we examine the above questions on the example of Krka NP, especially from the perspective of tourists, as we conducted a questionnaire survey with visitors. The results confirmed that there is a high degree of spatial inequality both in the awareness of attractions and the distribution of tourist accommodation. This fact has already been recognised by the management of the NP, and serious steps have already been taken to reduce inequality, but their impact is not yet significant enough. Based on the survey, tourism in Krka NP is determined by same-day visits. Tourists who come here primarily consider waterfalls, lakes and rivers to be the most important values of the landscape, while cultural values are considered less significant and even less known. Local products are virtually unknown in the NP palette, so this could be a direction for development. Another point that could be developed is the awareness of visitors in the field of karstification. As the survey was conducted during COVID period, its impact on tourism was also briefly examined. This impact was manifested in the fact that the proportion of retirees and tourist buses was very small, whereas the majority of visitors (90%) arrived in the NP as independent travellers. For one third of foreigners, COVID played a role in choosing Croatia as a destination. As for domestic tourists, two thirds chose to find a destination in Croatia because of COVID.

11.
PLoS Sustainability and Transformation ; 1(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted agriculture in India in many ways, yet no nationally representative survey has been conducted to quantify these impacts. The three objectives of this study were to evaluate how the pandemic has influenced: (1) cropping patterns and input use, (2) farmers' willingness to adopt sustainable agricultural practices, and (3) farmers' COVID-19 symptoms. Phone surveys were conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 with farmers who had previously participated in a nationally representative survey. Values are reported as weighted percent (95% confidence interval). A total of 3,637 farmers completed the survey;59% (56-61%) were small/marginal farmers;72% (69-74%) were male;and 52% (49-55%) had a below poverty line ration card. A majority of farmers (84% [82-86%]) reported cultivating the same crops in 2019 and 2020. Farmers who reported a change in their cropping patterns were more likely to be cultivating vegetables (p = 0.001) and soybean (p<0.001) and less likely to be cultivating rice (p<0.001). Concerning inputs, 66% (63-68%) of farmers reported no change in fertilizers;66% (64-69%) reported no change in pesticides;and 59% (56-62%) reported no change in labor. More than half of farmers (62% [59-65%]) were interested in trying sustainable farming, primarily because of government schemes or because their peers were practicing it. About one-fifth (18% [15-21%]) of farmers reported COVID-19 symptoms in the past month (cough, fever, or shortness of breath) and among those with symptoms, 37% (28-47%) reported it affected their ability to work. In conclusion, COVID-19 infections had started to impact farmers' productivity even during the first wave in India. Most farmers continued to grow the same crops with no change in input use. However, many expressed an interest in learning more about practicing sustainable farming. Findings will inform future directions for resilient agri-food systems.

12.
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics ; 43(1):19-29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034188

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus disease (COVID-19) has led to a remarkable loss of human lives across the world that presents an extraordinary challenge with unfathomable social and economic consequences. The deadly disease caused distortions in agricultural systems, as well as a reduction in food production by compromising the agricultural value chain. The fast spreading nature of the disease necessitated a lockdown action that hurt farmers and the agricultural sectors. However, the overall goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown on the agricultural migrant workers, as well as its perceived implication on food and nutrition security. Data was collected from a cross- section of randomly selected 200 migrant workers (100 from each State) and analyzed with a bivariate regression model. The study revealed that migrant workers' income was reduced by 21.84% in Anambra State and 10.88% in Imo State. Their household food expenditure regrettably increased by 19.12% (Anambra State) and 8.46% (Imo State), increase in food expenditure caused an increase in wage charges by 10.88% (Anambra State) and 23.99% (Imo State). Quality of health care accessibility and food affordability was also affected by the lockdown. To the general economy, it brought about the scarcity of labour and disruption in industrial supply of raw materials with a resultant effect on food shortage. The lockdown adversely influenced food and nutrition security by 30.0% (Anambra State) and 63.3% (Imo State). The study, therefore, concludes the economic lockdown as a measure to tackle the spread of Covid-19 is gradually leading to total economic loss to the nation's gross domestic product. The study, therefore, recommends that a less rigid approach should be adopted maybe through a massive sensitization campaign on the disease spread mechanism and preventive measures.

13.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):136-148, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033964

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to measure and analyze the agribusiness labor market in Minas Gerais state, to verify potential effects of the covid-19 crisis. In 2020, the population employed in agribusiness was 3.9% lower than in 2019, according to microdata by the Continuous National Household Sample Survey (PNAD-Continua) and, in a complementary way, data from the annual report on social information (RAIS) and from the Center for Advanced Studies on Applied Economics (CEPEA). All agribusiness segments, except for the primary segment, showed a decrease in the number of employed workers. The quarterly analysis shows that the biggest decreases occurred in the first two quarters of 2020 and that, although small, some recovery had been seen in the fourth quarter. The most affected job positions workers were those of workers with a formal contract, as well as those without a formal contract and the employers;however, an increase in the number of the self-employed was observed. Workers with lower instruction level were also one of the most affected groups. Creating employment generation programs in the sector, as well as programs that provide the maintenance of the employees and that afford assistance to informal workers and to those who became unemployed during the pandemic are some examples of public policies that may mitigate the negative effects of the crisis.

14.
Journal of Academic Social Science Studies ; 90:521-536, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026423

ABSTRACT

In an ecosystem where globalization and digitalization constantly and rapidly increase, countries constantly develop and change in many subjects like technology, industry, education, climate change, sustainable investment. Group of 20 that comprises developed and developing 19 countries and European Comission, get together and share ideas and develop shared policies so that the economies can develop, progress in a planned and consistent manner, the economic factors are used effectively and thus develop sustainably. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic which emerged in the Wuhan city of China for the first time in December 12, 2019 and which has rapidly spread all around the world and profoundly shaken the economies has slowed down the economic activities as countries have withdrawn, which has had an impact on employment the most. Unemployment is one of the most important economic problems which the countries face and focus on the most to resolve. Therefore in this research, the share of agriculture, which affects the unemployment rates of the G20 member countries constituting more than two thirds of the world economy on an annual basis since 2000, within GPD, the inflation rate, import and export rates have been tested using the panel data analysis method. It has been concluded that the model fit the random effects model according to the Hausman test. Following that the assumptions were tested, and it was concluded that the model had heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation and interunit correlation. The final model was obtained with the Driscoll-Kraay test, which corrected all three. According to the findings achieved with this model, it was determined that the unemployment rate was affected by agriculture's share within the GDP in the same way as the export rates and that it was affected reversely by the inflation rate and the import rates.

15.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2333-2349, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026414

ABSTRACT

The fragility of global food supply chains, which signals food shortages and increases in food prices in recent years, has reached the highest level with the government's lockdown measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to highlight the disruptions in global food supply chains brought about by the ongoing COVID -19 pandemic and present the impact of these disruptions on food security. Supply-side and demand-side shocks that bring about deterioration of the flow in food supply chains and disruptions that threaten food security have made access to adequate and nutritious food an issue as significant as the pandemic. In the food supply chain, panic-oriented buying behaviors by consumers, job and income losses due to changes in labor markets and inflation have occurred as demand-side effects. Labor shortages, disruptions in transportation networks, restrictions imposed by countries, the opportunities of digital technology, and the spread of e-commerce have emerged as supply-side effects. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused negative effects on food security, jeopardizing availability, access, utilization, and stability with supply-side and demand-side shocks. In the conclusion part of the study, the resiliency of food systems, automation of food supply chains, the safety of employees and the importance of monitoring supply chain activities in online environments, the social security policies and practices of the state for vulnerable groups experiencing food insecurity, and food sovereignty were discussed.

16.
International Labour Review ; 161(2):245-266, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2019316

ABSTRACT

Drawing on ethnographic data from the 2019 SyrianFoodFutures and the 2020 From the FIELD projects, this article provides insights into the early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugee labour in agriculture in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In spring 2020, movement restrictions and supply chain disruptions caused displaced Syrian farmworkers to lose their jobs and face increased food insecurity. The authors situate their findings in the context of host countries' use of legal ambiguity in governing refugees, Middle Eastern agriculture's reliance on migrant labour, and the region's long-standing food insecurity. They conclude that formalizing refugee labour cannot alone address exploitation.

17.
Tourism Review ; 77(5):1385-1399, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2018592

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of leadership style and trust in leadership on employees' affective commitment under the epidemic situation. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 580 valid questionnaires were collected online targeting the hospitality and tourism employees working from home during the particular period of the COVID-19 Coronavirus crisis. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data with AMOS software. Findings: The findings indicated that perceived transformational leadership was a positive predictor of trust in leadership and affective commitment. In addition to the positive contribution to commitment, trust in leadership also mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Originality/value: The current study contributes to the literature on leadership and organizational commitment. The results of this study may provide a valuable guide to organizations, leaders and young employees.

18.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):135-140, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012668

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to examine the effect of COVID 19 Lockdown among day Old Chick Producers and Marketers in Ibadan South West Local Government Area (Poultry hub) of Oyo State, through the administration of questionnaire and interpersonal interview to retrieve relevant research information. The socio-economic appraiser of the stakeholders revealed that participants are predominantly male(65%), married(61.0%), most are educated (88.0%) and were Christians (40.0%) and Muslims (60.0%) based on their religious faith. Effect of Lockdown on production (100%), reduction in price, cost of ingredients with consequential reduction in level of employment. The result also reveals that the cost of ingredients, was seriously affected before (80.0%), during (65.0%) and after (98.0%) COVID-19 pandemic respectively. The result shows that the mean of the total variable cost is N28325.98, the mean of the gross margin is also positive (N322307.44), the net income is (N 272380.21) while the mean of the total fixed cost is (N400428.00). This implies that the level of profitability of poultry production in the study area is profitable. Based on the findings, it has been identified that some factors are hindering the development of poultry farms as regards large production, which will cater for the entire population of the people in the study area and the nation entirely. It therefore recommends that government should improve on the loan credit guarantee schemes available for the public and ensure the availability of well-tested, highly productive machines and reduce cost of feed.

19.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 57(26/27):39-47, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011611

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the importance of skills, especially through vocational training, for the rural non-farm sector in overcoming the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The difference-in-differences technique has been used to assess the differential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the earnings of skilled and unskilled self-employed activities. The primary data have been collected from 880 rural non-farm self-employed (RNFS)individuals who hailed from different regions of Karnataka. Although every section of the rural non-farm activities has been adversely affected due to the pandemic, the impact is more severe on unskilled individuals as compared to skilled individuals. Therefore, policymakers need to pay attention to enhancing the provision of formal vocational training for RNFS individuals on a grander scale.

20.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank 2022. (10143):38 pp. 24 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011146

ABSTRACT

This paper uses high-frequency phone survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda to analyze the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on work (including wage employment, self-employment, and farm work) and income, as well as heterogeneity by gender, family composition, education, age, pre-COVID19 industry of work, and between the rural and urban sectors. The paper links phone survey data collected throughout the pandemic to pre-COVID-19 face-to-face survey data to track the employment of respondents who were working before the pandemic and analyze individual-level indicators of job loss and re-employment. Finally, it analyzes both immediate impacts, during the first few months of the pandemic, as well as longer run impacts through February/March 2021. The findings show that in the early phase of the pandemic, women, young, and urban workers were significantly more likely to lose their jobs. A year after the onset of the pandemic, these inequalities disappeared and education became the main predictor of joblessness. The analysis finds significant rural/urban, age, and education gradients in household-level income loss. Households with income from nonfarm enterprises were the most likely to report income loss, in the short run as well as the longer run.

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