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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19848, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551843

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease causes various neurological disorders. Of these, stroke is the most devastating and difficult to manage in epidemic conditions. An increase in the rate of acute ischemic stroke in hospitalized coronavirus patients and stroke with large vessel occlusion due to COVID-19 disease have been reported in recent publications. The management of these patients is difficult and becomes even more challenging in epidemic conditions. A 71-year-old man suddenly developed left-sided weakness while he was hospitalized for COVID-19 disease. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography showed a terminus of the right internal carotid artery. The occluded vessel was completely recanalized by endovascular therapy. Left-sided hemiparesis resolved completely. As a result of this study, cryptogenic stroke was considered in the etiology of stroke. In this report, we present a case of stroke with COVID-19, who developed large vessel occlusion accompanied by splenic infarction while hospitalized due to COVID-19 disease and was successfully treated with endovascular thrombectomy under epidemic conditions.

3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 96: 221-226, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487856

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS). Here, we characterize our institutional experience with management of COVID-19 and AIS. Baseline demographics, clinical, imaging, and outcomes data were determined in patients with COVID-19 and AIS presenting within March 2020 to October 2020, and November 2020 to August 2021, based on institutional COVID-19 hospitalization volume. Of 2512 COVID-19 patients, 35 (1.39%, mean age 63.3 years, 54% women) had AIS. AIS recognition was frequently delayed after COVID-19 symptoms (median 19.5 days). Four patients (11%) were on therapeutic anticoagulation at AIS recognition. AIS mechanism was undetermined or due to multiple etiologies in most cases (n = 20, 57%). Three patients underwent IV TPA, and three underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of which two suffered re-occlusion. Three patients had incomplete mRNA vaccination course. Fourteen (40%) died, with 26 (74%) having poor outcomes. Critical COVID-19 severity was associated with worsened mortality (p = 0.02). More patients (12/16; 75%) had either worsened or similar 3-month functional outcomes, than those with improvement, indicating the devastating impact of co-existing AIS and COVID-19. Comparative analysis showed that patients in the later cohort had earlier AIS presentation, fewer stroke risk factors, more comprehensive workup, more defined stroke mechanisms, less instance of critical COVID-19 severity, more utilization of IV TPA, and a trend towards worse outcomes for the sub-group of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 severity. AIS incidence, NIHSS, and overall outcomes were similar. Further studies should investigate outcomes beyond 3 months and their predictive factors, impact of completed vaccination course, and access to neurologic care.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 11(3): 87-91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that atrial fibrillation (AF) is more prevalent in the large vessel occlusion (LVO) subgroup of acute ischaemic stroke patients. Given the association between left atrial enlargement (LAE) and AF, we sought to evaluate the feasibility of assessing LAE on non-gated CT and its association with LVO in the hyperacute stroke setting. METHODS: We analysed our prospectively collected database that included all stroke patients referred for consideration of endovascular treatment between April 14, 2020, and May 21, 2020. During this period, a CT chest was included in our regional stroke protocol to aid triage of patients suspected for COVID-19 from which cardiac measurements were obtained. Patients were dichotomized into LVO and no-LVO groups, and LA measurements were trichotomized into normal, borderline, and enlarged. Univariate analyses were performed between groups. RESULTS: Of the included 38 patients, 21 were categorized as LVO and 17 as no LVO. There was a statistically significant association between LAE and LVO (p = 0.028). No significant difference was demonstrated between groups for the baseline AF and other clinical characteristics, except for baseline NIHSS (p = 0.0005). There was excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.969) for LA measurements. CONCLUSION: Our study provides preliminary data to suggest LAE is more prevalent in the LVO stroke subgroup at presentation and can be reliably assessed on non-gated CT in the hyperacute setting. These findings have potential implications for stratifying secondary management and may prompt a more rigorous pursuit of occult AF or other cardiac causes of stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 14: 577-582, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) due to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to an unprecedented worldwide pandemic with diverse respiratory symptoms as well as systemic manifestations and complications. The neurological manifestations of COVID-19 include, but are not limited to, headache, cerebrovascular disease, and skeletal muscle injury. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present a case of stroke with large vessel occlusion in a middle-aged man, who recently recovered from severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. This patient is not known to have any medical illness or surgical history and has no cerebrovascular risk factors. Moreover, the patient underwent extensive investigations, including neuroimaging, cardiac and laboratory work-up with no evidence of stroke etiology. CONCLUSION: The mechanism of cerebrovascular events in the setting of COVID-19 is still uncertain and probably multi-factorial. The prevailing hypothesis is a strong thrombotic tendency, which may even be prolonged after complete recovery. In our patient's case, hypercoagulability in the context of viral infection is the most likely mechanism for the stroke. Further studies are needed to find out the exact pathogenesis of thromboembolic events in the setting of COVID-19 infection as well as the efficacy, safety, dosage, and duration of anticoagulants in such conditions.

6.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(12): 1338-1342, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336048

ABSTRACT

This article reports two cases of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in which occlusion of large cerebral arteries occurred. These occurred in a female patient in the early stage of COVID-19 and in the second case in the late stage. One female patient could be successfully treated with i.v. thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Coagulopathy in the course of COVID-19 can result in severe stroke with poor outcome even in younger patients. With respect to the etiology of arterial occlusions (COVID-19-induced hypercoagulopathy, cardiomyopathy, vasculitis) there is a necessity for further research.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 28(1): 58-64, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232409

ABSTRACT

AIM: The epidemic of COVID-19 has greatly affect the world health care system, particular measures have been taken not only to provide safety for health care providers but also to maintain the treatment quality. We evaluate the effect of COVID-19 epidemic to acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) received endovascular treatment (EVT) in our institution. METHODS: AIS patients with LVO who underwent EVT in the period of January 1st to April 30th between 2015 and 2020 from our stroke center. The baseline characteristics, working flow time, safety and efficacy outcome and the hospitalization status were retrospectively reviewed, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There is significant decline in the number of AIS patients with LVO treated compared with the previous year (36 Vs 72 patients) during the epidemic period. The door to puncture time was significantly prolong (225 minutes versus 115 minutes) as well as the length of hospital stay with increase of the hospitalization costs (P < 0.05 for all). There is no significant difference on the safety and efficacy outcome, such recanalization rate, incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, functional independence and mortality during the epidemic (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Prolongation of the working time flow during the COVID-19 epidemic did not influence the safety and efficacy of EVT in AIS patients with LVO. However, special policy and particular measures in this circumstances is still need to evolve to improve the treatment quality.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 635856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172971

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: There is little information on the acute cerebrovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among COVID-19 patients and evaluate their clinical and radiological characteristics in comparison with non-COVID-19 CVD. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, COVID-19 patients whom presented with CVD in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were compared with non-COVID-19, CVD patients, admitted to Qena University Hospital, prior to the pandemic. The following data were collected: clinical history and presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging (MRI or CT), chest CT, and some laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-five (12.5%) of the 439 patients with COVID-19 had acute CVD. Of them, 42 (9.6%) had ischemic stroke while 13 patients (2.9%) had hemorrhagic CVD. In the 250 cases of the non-COVID-19 group, 180 had ischemic stroke and 70 had hemorrhagic stroke. A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 who presented with ischemic stroke had large vessel occlusion (LVO), which was significantly higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with CVD (40 vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001). Comorbidities were recorded in 44 (80%) cases. In COVID-19 ischemic stroke patients, risk factors [hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and comorbidities (hepatic and renal) were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients. In addition, 23.5% had hemorrhagic CVD, and six patients with LVO developed hemorrhagic transformation. Conclusion: Acute CVD among patients with COVID-19 was common in our study. LVO was the commonest. Hypertension, IHD, and anemia are the most common risk factors and could contribute to the worsening of clinical presentation. Comorbidities were common among patients with CVD, although a large number had elevated liver enzymes and creatinine that were partially due to COVID-19 infection itself. The current results begin to characterize the spectrum of CVD associated with COVID-19 in patients in Upper Egypt. Registration ID: The ID number of this study is IRB no: 17300470.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105806, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the healthcare systems across the world but its impact on acute stroke care is just being elucidated. We hypothesized a major global impact of COVID-19 not only on stroke volumes but also on various aspects of thrombectomy systems. AIMS: We conducted a convenience electronic survey with a 21-item questionnaire aimed to identify the changes in stroke admission volumes and thrombectomy treatment practices seen during a specified time period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was designed using Qualtrics software and sent to stroke and neuro-interventional physicians around the world who are part of the Global Executive Committee (GEC) of Mission Thrombectomy 2020, a global coalition under the aegis of Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, between April 5th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: There were 113 responses to the survey across 25 countries with a response rate of 31% among the GEC members. Globally there was a median 33% decrease in stroke admissions and a 25% decrease in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic period until May 15th, 2020 compared to pre-pandemic months. The intubation policy for MT procedures during the pandemic was highly variable across participating centers: 44% preferred intubating all patients, including 25% of centers that changed their policy to preferred-intubation (PI) from preferred non-intubation (PNI). On the other hand, 56% centers preferred not intubating patients undergoing MT, which included 27% centers that changed their policy from PI to PNI. There was no significant difference in rate of COVID-19 infection between PI versus PNI centers (p=0.60) or if intubation policy was changed in either direction (p=1.00). Low-volume (<10 stroke/month) compared with high-volume stroke centers (>20 strokes/month) were less likely to have neurointerventional suite specific written personal protective equipment protocols (74% vs 88%) and if present, these centers were more likely to report them to be inadequate (58% vs 92%). CONCLUSION: Our data provides a comprehensive snapshot of the impact on acute stroke care observed worldwide during the pandemic. Overall, respondents reported decreased stroke admissions as well as decreased cases of MT with no clear preponderance in intubation policy during MT. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The corresponding author will consider requests for sharing survey data. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval as it did not involve patient level data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors
10.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 632036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127990

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection can lead to a prothrombotic state. Large vessel occlusion, as well as malignant cerebral stroke have been described in COVID-19 patients. In the following months, given the increase in COVID-19 cases, an increase in malignant cerebral SARS-CoV2 associated strokes are expected. The baseline situation of the patients as well as the risk of evolution to a serious disease due to the virus, depict a unique scenario. Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure indicated in patients who suffer a malignant cerebral stroke; however, it is unclear whether the same eligibility criteria should be used for patients with COVID-19. To our knowledge seven cases of decompressive craniectomy and malignant cerebral stroke have been described to date. We report on a 39-year-old female with no major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, apart from oral contraception, and mild COVID-19 symptoms who suffered from left hemispheric syndrome. The patient underwent endovascular treatment with stenting and afterward decompressive craniectomy due to a worsening neurological status with unilateral unreactive mydriasis. We present the case and provide a comprehensive review of the available literature related to the surgical treatment for COVID-19 associated malignant strokes, to establish whether the same eligibility criteria for non-COVID-19 associated strokes should be used. Eight patients, including our case, were surgically managed due to malignant cerebral stroke. Seven of these patients received decompressive craniectomy, and six of them met the eligibility criteria of the current stroke guidelines. The mortality rate was 33%, similar to that described in non-COVID-19 cases. Two patients had a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and both survived after decompressive craniectomy. Our results support that decompressive craniectomy, using the current stroke guidelines, should be considered an effective life-saving treatment for COVID-19-related malignant cerebral strokes.

12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(5): 105642, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented strain on the health care system. An adaptive strategy for the handling of thrombectomy for patients with large vessel occlusion has evolved at our center to optimize patient care while also minimizing risk of virus transmission. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the new thrombectomy protocol by comparing thrombectomy times and patient outcomes during the pandemic and pre pandemic period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent emergent thrombectomy from April 4th, 2020 to August 25th, 2020 (pandemic period) and between December 2nd, 2019 to April 3rd, 2020 (pre-pandemic period). The new protocol centered on a standardized approach to airway management in patients considered 'high-risk' for infection. An array of patient-specific factors and outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference in door-to-recanalization or other time parameters between the two groups (138 minutes during the pandemic vs. 129 minutes pre-pandemic; p=0.37). However, outcomes measured as discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were worse for patients during the pandemic (mRS ≤ 2, 10/58; 17.2% during pandemic vs. 24/68; 35.3% pre-pandemic, p = 0.02). No neurointerventional providers have been found to contract COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our approach to mechanical thrombectomy during the COVID-19 era was associated with similar recanalization rates but worse clinical outcomes compared to pre pandemic period. Further studies are necessary to identify factors contributing to worse outcomes during this ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Stroke/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Management , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
14.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106436, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate overall ischemic stroke volumes and rates, specific subtypes, and clinical presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a multicenter observational study from eight states across US. METHODS: We compared all ischemic strokes admitted between January 2019 and May 2020, grouped as; March-May 2020 (COVID-19 period) and March-May 2019 (seasonal pre-COVID-19 period). Primary outcome was stroke severity at admission measured by NIHSS stratified as mild (0-7), moderate [8-14], and severe (>14). Secondary outcomes were volume of large vessel occlusions (LVOs), stroke etiology, IV-tPA rates, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of the 7969 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, 933 (12 %) presented in the COVID-19 period while 1319 (17 %) presented in the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Significant decline was observed in the mean weekly volumes of newly diagnosed ischemic strokes (98 ± 3 vs 50 ± 20,p = 0.003), LVOs (16.5 ± 3.8 vs 8.3 ± 5.9,p = 0.008), and IV-tPA (10.9 ± 3.4 vs 5.3 ± 2.9,p = 0.0047), whereas the mean weekly proportion of LVOs (18 % ±5 vs 16 % ±7,p = 0.24) and IV-tPA (10.4 % ±4.5 vs. 9.9 % ±2.4,p = 0.66) remained the same, when compared to the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, an increased proportion of patients presented with a severe disease (NIHSS > 14) during the COVID-19 period (29.7 % vs 24.5 %,p < 0.025). The odds of being discharged to home were 26 % greater in the COVID-19 period when compared to seasonal pre-COVID-19 period (OR:1.26, 95 % CI:1.07-1.49,p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 period there was a decrease in volume of newly diagnosed ischemic stroke cases and IV-tPA administration. Patients admitted to the hospital had severe neurological clinical presentation and were more likely to discharge home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurology/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Neurol Res Pract ; 2: 44, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have altered emergency workflows established to optimize the outcome of patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. AIMS: We here analyzed workflow time intervals and functional outcomes of LVO patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy (ET) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. METHODS: We compared the frequency, pre- and intrahospital workflow time intervals, rates of reperfusion, and functional outcome of patients admitted from March 1st to May 31st 2020 with patients admitted during the same time interval in 2019 to 12 university and municipal hospitals across Germany (N = 795). RESULTS: The number of LVO patients treated with ET between March to May 2020 was similar when compared to the same interval in 2019. Direct-to-center patients and patients admitted through interhospital transfer in 2020 showed similar pre- and intrahospital workflow time intervals compared to patients admitted in 2019, except for a longer door-to-groin time in patients admitted through interhospital transfer in 2020 (47 min vs 38 min, p = 0.005). Rates of reperfusion were not significantly different between 2020 and 2019. Functional outcome at discharge of LVO patients treated in 2020 was not significantly different compared to patients treated in 2019. CONCLUSION: Pre- and intrahospital workflows, ET efficacy, and functional outcome of LVO patients treated with ET were not affected during the COVID-19 pandemic in our large cohort from centers across Germany.

16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105609, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012468

ABSTRACT

The case of a 70-year-old male presenting an ischemic stroke related to COVID-19 infection is described. He was initially admitted to the hospital with respiratory insufficiency syndrome secondary to pneumonia caused by SARS Co2. In the next days, he developed rapid neurological deterioration characterized by drowsiness which progressed to deep coma. D-dimer was elevated. Brain CT scan showed bilateral massive ischemic stroke located in the anterior circulation, CT angiogram showed occlusion in the left internal carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery. The deterioration of the patient continued and he subsequently died. Large vessel occlusion has been reported in COVID-19 patients, but this clinical presentation is usually unilateral. Cases of bilateral occlusion of large vessels have not been previously reported in COVID-19 patients. This report shows that bilateral massive stroke may occur in COVID-19 cases and it should be suspected in patients who show rapid neurological deterioration without focal deficits.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Coma/etiology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Thrombectomy
17.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(1): 20-25, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992113

ABSTRACT

This commentary will focus on the role of thrombectomy for the treatment of embolic stroke during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We will begin with review of recently promulgated guidelines for use of thrombectomy in COVID-19-associated stroke. We will then survey the reported experience of thrombectomy applied to treatment of large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke in COVID-19. We will conclude by discussing unusual challenges confronted by neuro-interventionalists seeking to perform thrombectomy in COVID-19 patients with acute LVO stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Embolic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolic Stroke/blood , Embolic Stroke/diagnosis , Embolic Stroke/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(12): 822-839, 2020 Dec 26.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940637

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the stroke medical care system is unavoidably undergoing major changes such as a decrease in the number of stroke patients receiving consultation, delay in consultation, and a decrease in the number of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Stroke incidence in COVID-19 patients is approximately 1.1%. The features of stroke with COVID-19 have been elucidated: higher incidence in ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke, increasing number of young patients, high D-dimer levels, and higher risk in elderly patients with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. In patients with COVID-19, venous thromboembolism is more common than arterial thromboembolism, and stroke is more common than acute coronary syndrome. Protected code stroke (PCS) has been proposed which provides safe, effective and prompt treatment under complete infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
19.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(5): 760-764, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921111

ABSTRACT

Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) is currently the most frequently reported neurological complication of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This article will elaborate the clinical features of inpatients with COVID-19 and AIS and the pathophysiological mechanism of AIS under the background of COVID-19. Through a detailed search of relevant studies, we found that the incidence of AIS among COVID-19 patients varied from 0.9% to 4.6%, and AIS has been observed in many people without an underlying disease and cardiovascular risk factors as well as young people. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of COVID-19 patients with AIS was higher than historical AIS patients, and the proportion of large vessel occlusion (LVO) was about 64.2%. COVID-19 patients with AIS generally have high levels of D-D dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), suggesting systemic hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state. The pooled mortality of COVID-19 patients with AIS was 38% and the mortality of LVO patients is higher (45.9%). Compared with COVID-19-negative AIS patients in the same period in 2020 and 2019, COVID-19 patients with AIS had a worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/blood , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Neurohospitalist ; 12(1): 48-56, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917893

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a healthcare worker who presented with a large vessel acute ischemic stroke in setting of a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a review of the emerging literature on COVID-related stroke. A 43-year-old female presented with right-sided hemiparesis, aphasia and dysarthria. She had a nonproductive of cough for 1 week without fever, fatigue or dyspnea. A CT Head, CT angiography and CT perfusion imaging revealed a M1 segment occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery requiring transfer from a primary to a comprehensive stroke center. A nasopharyngeal swab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to arrival at the accepting center. During the thrombectomy a 3 cm thrombus was removed. Thrombus was also evident in the 8 French short sheath during closure device placement so a hypercoagulable state was suspected. Stroke work-up revealed a glycosylated hemoglobin of 8.7%, elevation of inflammatory markers and an indeterminate level of lupus anticoagulant IgM. On discharge home, she had near complete neurological recovery. This case highlights suspected mechanisms of hypercoagulability in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the importance of optimizing stroke care systems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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