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1.
Statistical Journal of the IAOS ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2198511

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, the challenges related to the decline in the financing of statistical production and the cooperation of respondents was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This scenario led national statistical offices (NSOs) to accelerate consideration of alternative data sources to complement or even replace traditional survey data. In this context, the use of big data to produce statistics has become promising. The use of big data for statistics is already in practice in many parts of the Global North and has also been spreading rapidly in the South. Part of the success of this trend is due to the support of the United Nations Committee of Experts on Big Data and Data Science for Official Statistics (UNCEBD), in particular its four Regional Hubs for Big Data. To learn the extent of the use of big data for official statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean, the United Nations Regional Hub for Big Data in Brazil conducted a study of the practices of NSOs in the region. A very promising scenario was found regarding the use of big data from satellite imagery, web scraping and other big data sources, for applications such as the production of price statistics, land use and cover patterns and migration. [ FROM AUTHOR]

2.
ABCD, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva ; 35:e1708, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on surgical education in Latin America, decreasing residents' surgical training and supervised clinical practice.

3.
Globalization and Health ; 18(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196359

ABSTRACT

Background: Claims of inconsistency in epidemiological data have emerged for both developed and developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): In this paper, we apply first-digit Newcomb-Benford Law (NBL) and Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) to evaluate COVID-19 records reliability in all 20 Latin American countries. We replicate country-level aggregate information from Our World in Data. Result(s): We find that official reports do not follow NBL's theoretical expectations (n = 978;chi-square = 78.95;KS = 4.33, MD = 2.18;mantissa =.54;MAD =.02;DF = 12.75). KLD estimates indicate high divergence among countries, including some outliers. Conclusion(s): This paper provides evidence that recorded COVID-19 cases in Latin America do not conform overall to NBL, which is a useful tool for detecting data manipulation. Our study suggests that further investigations should be made into surveillance systems that exhibit higher deviation from the theoretical distribution and divergence from other similar countries. Copyright © 2022, The Author(s).

4.
Journal of Politics in Latin America ; 13(1):3-4, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2194555

ABSTRACT

[...]we commit to continuing to publish high-quality, peer-reviewed research that provides a deeper understanding of political processes, institutions, and actors of the Latin American region. [...]we renew JPLA's approach to the study of Latin American politics within a framework of methodological and theoretical pluralism. Additionally, Latin America continues to be the most violent region in the world. [...]the emergence of COVID-19 posed further challenges to the region.

5.
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy ; 38(3):208-222, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2185267

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a debate around the world on whether pension systems should be used to support individuals in economic distress. In Latin America, Chile, Bolivia and Peru have passed legislation allowing withdrawals from pension pots, yet with some significant variation. We argue that these measures cannot be simply understood because of the COVID-19 emergency alone but should also take into consideration the combination of legacies from previous pension re-reforms and the political institutional setting. We find that where previous re-reforms have been difficult to implement or have not been implemented at all and the institutional setting makes change difficult, measures that lead to a significant amount of savings being withdrawn may be favoured by political actors as a way to break the stalemate. By contrast, where re-reforms have been largely implemented and the political institutional setting poses few barriers to change, withdrawals may be more limited. ©

6.
24th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2022 ; 13518 LNCS:62-73, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173818

ABSTRACT

Tourism has a substantial impact on the economy of different regions of the world such as Latin America, however due to the health crisis generated by COVID-19 this sector has been one of the most affected, for this reason, different investigations have been carried out focused on solving the problems generated by the pandemic. Therefore, it has become necessary to implement new technological alternatives that allow promoting alternative tourism;for example, take virtual tours of different tourist attractions with the help of virtual or augmented reality. In this article we present a proposal for a virtual reality application focused on promoting tourism in Peru using a user-centered design. To make this proposal, an analysis of tourism in Peru was carried out, analyzing the impact of the pandemic in Peru and the most visited attractions in the city of Arequipa to select the scenarios to be virtualized. An important aspect of the proposed is the creation of a user-centered design, for which a set of functions focused on users was proposed, such as the use of a map to select the tourist attractions to visit, showing updated information of the tourist attractions, the use of multiple methods of movement in virtual reality environments and a camera that allows taking pictures when navigating the virtual scenario. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar ; 51(4), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2169638

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the development of COVID-19 vaccines, the world population has been increasingly interested in learning about them. Objective: To perform a search analysis on COVID-19 vaccines in South American countries. Methods: Observational, descriptive, and retrospective study;of data obtained from the Google Trends tool. The use of 6 terms ("COVID-19 vaccine", "Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines", "Pfizer vaccine", "Sinopharm vaccine", "side effects of Pfizer vaccine", "side effects of Sinopharm vaccine") was compared in nine Spanish-speaking South American countries. Results: The country with the highest search result for the term "COVID-19 vaccine" was Bolivia. Regarding the search for the term "COVID vaccine effectiveness" in South American countries, there is a strong trend in Peru, Ecuador, Argentina and Chile, between January and July 2021. Conclusion: There was no decrease in the general interest regarding the 6 terms used for this study;however, the general interest in coronavirus vaccines among Google search engine users has presented changes in the trend, while the popularity of COVID-19 vaccine side effects has increased, showing significant variation according to the context of each country. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Foreign Languages and Cultures ; 6(2):056-073, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2207100

ABSTRACT

The construction of the concept of Latin America has been through different processes regarding its structure and acceptance, from the colonial period to the automatic realignment to the United States, with rare exceptions, and a reorganization with the emergence of multilateralism and the multipolar world. The ion, hitherto almost an axiom in the subcontinent, that it is a western region, leads us to the elaboration of this article, which seeks to present Latin America's post-western and de-westernized character in an environment of restructuration of its political economy, its actors, scenarios and, finally, theories. Thus, we present here a review of the state of the art political economy of Latin America and its perspectives in this shifting world, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, Hunan Normal University Press. All rights reserved.

9.
Ars Pharmaceutica ; 64(1):28-52, 2023.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2205716

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The recognition of the COVID-19 disease as a pandemic posed a challenge to the National Drug Regulatory Authorities (NRAs). They had to develop guidelines, procedures, create working groups and partnerships to maximize the efficiency of vaccine evaluation, review and licensure. The aim of this article is to present the procedures used in the United States, European Union and Latin America to license the use of vaccines against COVID-19;in order to determine whether the multiplicity of procedures has led to the registration of a large number of vaccines. Method: A review of the pharmaceutical legislation used for the issuance of COVID-19 vaccines licenses during the health emergency was carried out. The information was collected up to October 15, 2022. The sources consulted were government websites of the NRAs: United States, European Union, and Latin America. Results: The United States and the European Union used activities included in their standard flows, such as pre-Investigational New Drug, scientific advice and rolling review, respectively. Latin America, on the other hand, made extensive use of reliance and emergency use authorization in order to access as many vaccines as possible. Conclusions: The procedures used are diverse, but all of them are oriented to provide a rapid pandemic containment product. This diversity results in the presence of different vaccines in the United States, European Union and Latin America. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR]

10.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(6):442-446, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2205340

ABSTRACT

This work addresses the origin and development of post-COVID-19 syndrome, which consists of the persistence of different symptoms over time as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on a narrative review of the scientific literature, a brief analysis of the new term is made, specifying the conceptual definition, characteristic symptoms, the various implications for people's health, and the responses to specific care measures that have been implemented. It concludes with a wake-up call to the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean in order for care and surveillance to be provided to this public health problem.

11.
Gaceta Medica de Mexico ; 158(6):451-455, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205311

ABSTRACT

This work addresses the origin and development of post-COVID-19 syndrome, which consists of the persistence of different symptoms over time as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on a narrative review of the scientific literature, a brief analysis of the new term is made, specifying the conceptual definition, characteristic symptoms, the various implications for people's health, and the responses to specific care measures that have been implemented. It concludes with a wake-up call to the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean in order for care and surveillance to be provided to this public health problem. Copyright © 2022 Academia Nacional de Medicina de Mexico,.

12.
Vestnik RUDN International Relations ; 22(4):788-801, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205104

ABSTRACT

Annually growing public debt of Latin American countries is a source of a consistent increase in regional crisis potential. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated political instability and deepened socio-economic imbalances in the region. The chronic dependence on debt financing increases the region's vulnerability to external shocks and makes it much more challenging to implement public policies to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The purpose of the article is to reveal the increasing nature of the debt risks inherent in the Latin American countries, and to propose measures to overcome them. The authors summarize the views of leading Russian and foreign experts on the debt sustainability of the region. Based on the statistical data of international organizations, regional development institutions, as well as analytical materials published by Bloomberg, Fitch, White & Case or Deloitte, the authors analyze the approaches to solving the Latin American debt problem. However, considering recent debt dynamics, new public borrowings may cause a deterioration of the regional debt sustainability in the future. This issue reinforces the uncertainty in international investment circles regarding the future solvency of the Latin American region. The situation in the Latin American countries is exacerbated by the uncertainty whether positive rates of economic growth resume in the medium term that have been lost due to volatile global commodity prices. The study examines the prospects for regional economic stabilization in Latin America and the Caribbean, including through the use of new debt financing mechanisms to meet current financial needs and minimize the risks of financial vulnerability. © 2022, RUDN UNiversity. All rights reserved.

13.
Infectio ; 26(4):441-449, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205092

ABSTRACT

The vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as a priority strategy to safeguard public health. However, disparities in productive, acquisitive and distributional capacity have led to delays in immunization, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Consequently, global coverage is expected to achieve herd immunity against COVID-19 by 2023 or 2024, although with highly variable coverage percentages among countries. In Latin America, immunization against COVID-19 faces different challenges to achieve herd immunity. To date (February 6, 2022), the countries that had several doses needed to immunize their populations with at least two doses (number of doses between population) were Peru (520.7%), Chile (458.4%), Argentina (298.0%), Brazil (236.6%), Bolivia (206.0%) and Uruguay (unconfirmed doses). On the other hand, Uruguay (210.7%) and Chile (238.3%) have applied twice as many doses as their populations. Argentina (194.3%), Brazil (173.6%), Ecuador (170.3%), Peru (170.3%), Costa Rica (161.1%), and Panama (153.5%) are on the way to achieving this goal. In addition, Latin American countries also showed an insufficient distribution of vaccines and a storage capacity limited to only a few cities and multiple frequencies of vaccine hesitancy. Due to these scenarios, the production of more vaccine doses and equitable distribution to the rest of the population within the Latin American region should remain a public health priority to achieve collective immunity in the shortest time possible. Copyright © 2022 Asociacion Colombiana de Infectologia. All rights reserved.

14.
World Economy and International Relations ; 66(12):89-97, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204772

ABSTRACT

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), also known as the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, is a strategy of China's entry into international markets through the building of land and sea trade corridors with the necessary infrastructure. According to the Chinese government's statements, any State and any international organization can join the project that creates an inclusive cooperation platform. The aim of this article is to analyze the implementation of BRI in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as well as to identify changes that occur in this process under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary sources are statistical data, government documents, papers of international organizations and forums, think tank reports, speeches by officials, media publications, etc. In the course of the study, the following results are obtained: recent scientific works on the topic are systematized, the issues considered in them are highlighted;the main documents related to the BRI and China-LАС cooperation are listed and briefly characterized;the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the implementation of BRI in the region is identified. The author comes to the conclusion that, on the one hand, the BRI is a kind of rebranding of China's policy towards Latin America and the Caribbean. On the other hand, this initiative strengthens China's presence in the region. It has become especially noticeable in the COVID-19 pandemic context. In addition, there is a strategic expansion of the project itself and its goals, which may lead to a significant increase in tension between China and the USA. © 2022, Russian Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

15.
Juridicas ; 19(1):293-325, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204285

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on a comparative study between the structures, regulation and challenges of small and medium size businesses (SMEs) in Australia and two Latin American jurisdictions – Chile and Cuba - with the object of exploring ways in which SME-propitious ecosystem can be configured in an unprecedented crisis situation. It examines the legislation, bodies and regulation in place which deal with SME issues, including consumer protection, and the differing contextual considerations, taking cognizance of the challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the paper explores ways in which SMEs can be assisted and advised of their legal rights, including the provision of clinical and advisory support at a university level, and considers the steps taken by governments in mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. To compare practices and learn from them the research utilizes three case studies and contrasts the issues faced in an emerging economy such as Cuba with more established frameworks such as Chile and Australia, both OECD countries. © 2022, Juridicas. All Rights Reserved.

16.
Law of Justice Journal ; 36(2):69-104, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202679

ABSTRACT

The current international pandemic situation caused by the COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted economic activity and development worldwide. However, digital enabled activities have proven a relative stronger resilience, and, worldwide, most economic sectors have shifted to digital platforms to continue operating. In this context, the drafting of digital economy regulations has become a relevant policy issue for governments across the Asia Pacific region. Nevertheless, the absence of multilateral regulations in this area has become an obstacle for achieving common regulatory frameworks to deal with digital economy issues, for which regional and bilateral agreements have begun to draft regulations. The proliferation of digital economy provisions in preferential agreements may lead to the so called "spaghetti bowl”. From here, the objective of this paper is to contribute to the governance of digital economy among APEC economies, through the characterization of free trade agreements signed between APEC and Latin American economies. This selection was made due to the diversity of agreements that can be found within this subregion. In this context, the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement (DEPA), led by Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore has become a reference point that could serve as a steppingstone towards common regulatory frameworks in this matter. The paper concludes that DEPA may be used as a benchmark for the development of regulations that will help boost cross border e-commerce in APEC economies for a post pandemic sustainable recovery. © 2022, University of Passo Fundo. All rights reserved.

17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e44, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205507

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify surveys that included questions about disability during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the period 2020-2021; and based on this, to determine what actions the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean implemented in the areas of education, health, and social protection that explicitly included the population with disabilities. Methods: Documents from the national statistics institutes of the countries of the region were reviewed, as well as the Socioeconomic Impact Assessment platform and webpages of international institutions such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, seeking to identify national or regional surveys implemented during 2020 and the first half of 2021. Additionally, a documentary analysis was conducted of the measures implemented in the health, education, and social protection sectors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These documents were studied to determine whether the population with disabilities was explicitly mentioned. Results: Twenty-three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean collected information from statistical surveys during 2020-2021. Of these, only four (Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru) included questions on disability in their national surveys and although some specific surveys were conducted for the population with disabilities, in the region there is a general lack of associated data on this population during the pandemic. Only 10 countries explicitly included the population with disabilities in health measures, 12 in education, and 13 in social protection. Conclusions: The lack of data on the population with disabilities in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 pandemic shows that this population remains invisible in information collection processes. This is associated with the low number of countries that explicitly included the population with disabilities in policies implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic.


Objetivo: Identificar pesquisas que incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência realizadas no período de 2020-2021 da pandemia de COVID-19 e, a partir dessa informação, determinar as ações em saúde, educação e assistência social empreendidas nos países da América Latina e do Caribe e que incluíram explicitamente pessoas com deficiência. Métodos: Documentação obtida dos institutos nacionais de estatística dos países da Região, da plataforma Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (avaliação do impacto socioeconômico) e de sites de organismos internacionais (como Banco Mundial, Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento e Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe) foi analisada com o objetivo de identificar as pesquisas nacionais ou regionais realizadas em 2020 e no primeiro semestre de 2021. Também foi realizada uma pesquisa documental da regulamentação para ações em saúde, educação e assistência social destinadas a enfrentar a pandemia de COVID-19, com vistas a identificar a menção explícita de pessoas com deficiência. Resultados: Vinte e três países da América Latina e do Caribe fizeram a coleta de dados estatísticos em pesquisas realizadas no período 2020-2021. Apenas quatro países incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência em pesquisas nacionais: Colômbia, Costa Rica, México e Peru. Apesar de ter havido pesquisas direcionadas para pessoas com deficiência, a Região em geral carece de dados relativos à situação dessa população na pandemia. Somente 10 países empreenderam ações em saúde com a inclusão explícita de pessoas com deficiência, 12 em educação e 13 em assistência social. Conclusões: A falta de dados sobre a situação das pessoas com deficiência nos países da América Latina e do Caribe durante a pandemia de COVID-19 demonstra a invisibilidade deste segmento populacional nos processos de coleta de dados. Como resultado, um número reduzido de países incluiu explicitamente as pessoas com deficiência nas políticas implementadas para o enfrentamento da pandemia.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 928612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199083

ABSTRACT

The new COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), that probably originated in Wuhan, China, and has currently infected 505,817,953 people and caused 6,213,876 deaths in the world. On the American continent, 152,265,980 cases and 2,717,108 deaths have been reported to WHO (World Health Organization). The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents an epidemiological challenge due to its population's heterogeneity and socioeconomic inequality. A particularly vulnerable population is that of children with cancer, and their mortality from COVID-19 has been reported to be 3.6% globally. This work aimed to study the lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with cancer in the Latin American region. Our objective was to systematically review published scientific literature and search hospital databases in Latin America to explore mortality in this region. A median of mortality of 9.8% was found in the articles analyzed. In addition, we collected five databases from Latin American hospitals. We concluded that there was an underestimation in the mortality registry of this group of patients in the analyzed region. Therefore, although the causes are unknown, it is necessary to strengthen the case-reporting system to determine the reality in complex and particular areas such as Latin America.

19.
Urban Climate ; : 101412, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165921

ABSTRACT

Between March and June 2020, activity in the major cities of Latin America declined due to containment efforts implemented by local governments to avoid the rapid spread of COVID-19. Our study compared 2020 with the previous year and demonstrated a considerable drop in tropospheric NO2 levels obtained by the SENTINEL 5P satellite in major Latin American cities. Lima (47.5%), Santiago (36.1%), São Paulo (27%), Rio de Janeiro (23%), Quito (18.6%), Bogota (17.5%), Buenos Aires (16.6%), Guayaquil (15.3%), Medellin (14.2%), Mexico (7.6%), Belo Horizonte (7.8%), La Paz (9.5%), and Brasilia (5.9%) registered statistically significant decreases in NO2 concentrations during the study period. In addition, we analyzed mobility data from Google and Apple reports as well as meteorological information from atmospheric reanalysis data along with satellite fields between 2011 and 2020 and performed a refined multivariate analysis (non-negative matrix approximation) to show that this decrease was associated with a reduction in population mobility rather than meteorological factors. Our findings corroborate the argument that confinement scenarios may indicate how air pollutant concentrations can be effectively reduced and managed.

20.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 161210, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165833

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an approach with the potential to complement clinical surveillance systems. Using WBE, it is possible to carry out an early warning of a possible outbreak, monitor spatial and temporal trends of infectious diseases, produce real-time results and generate representative epidemiological information in a territory, especially in areas of social vulnerability. Despite the historical uses of this approach, particularly in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, and for other pathogens, it was during the COVID-19 pandemic that occurred an exponential increase in environmental surveillance programs for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, with many experiences and developments in the field of public health using data for decision making and prioritizing actions to control the pandemic. In Latin America, WBE was applied in heterogeneous contexts and with emphasis on populations that present many socio-environmental inequalities, a condition shared by all Latin American countries. This manuscript addresses the concepts and applications of WBE in public health actions, as well as different experiences in Latin American countries, and discusses a model to implement this surveillance system at the local or national level. We emphasize the need to implement this sentinel surveillance system in countries that want to detect the early entry and spread of new pathogens and monitor outbreaks or epidemics of infectious agents in their territories as a complement of public health surveillance systems.

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