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1.
CIFOR Working Paper 2021. (276):vi + 24 pp. many ref. ; JOUR
Article in En vi | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100562

ABSTRACT

This report analyses the impact of COVID-19 on wildlife conservation, opportunities and challenges for improving the effectiveness of current and future conservation programmes in Vietnam, and proposes solutions for post-pandemic conservation. It was based on a secondary literature review on the status of wildlife conservation and management, using case studies and gathering expert opinions from the national policy dialogue on management and conservation. It was shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has had multiple impacts on wildlife conservation globally and in Vietnam. Many positive effects have been noted, as the political commitment of policy makers in strengthening wildlife conservation policies in Vietnam is becoming increasingly stronger. The agreements also bilaterally provided financial resources to address the illegal wildlife trade. However, illegal wildlife trade is still going on widely across the country. Monitoring of the cross-border wildlife trade is becoming increasingly difficult and funding for conservation has also been reduced, which hinders the effective implementation of wildlife conservation policies. Policy makers need to consider all stakeholder concerns when making decisions about wildlife management and conservation, including developing cross-sectoral, transboundary and follow-up policies;landscape approach, addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation;building the capacity of stakeholders and securing sustainable financing for conservation.

2.
Development Southern Africa ; 39(5):722-737, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050752

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the five waves of the National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) on food security between May 2020 and May 2021. Despite significant investments in social protection, food insecurity and household and child hunger remained stubbornly high. We conclude that given the protracted nature of the pandemic, slow economic recovery, household and child hunger have stabilised at higher levels than before the pandemic. The phasing out of emergency relief coupled with the constrained economic situation, are some of the reasons why levels of food insecurity and hunger are likely to remain high in the near future. Strict lockdown regulations also reduced employment and income from informal economic activities. Social support for vulnerable individuals and households remain an urgent priority. Continuing support targeted at households with children is particularly important given the dire consequences of enduring hunger for stunting, and on children's long-term development.

3.
Rapporti ISTISAN - Istituto Superiore di Sanita 2021. (21/9):ii + 98 pp. ; 2021.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046661

ABSTRACT

A poor management system for medical devices may pose a major threat to the health of patients or end users. A medical equipment must always be recognizable and traceable in the supply chain as well as on the market, for any purpose at all. When it comes to things that are fake or could be hazardous, this need is crucial. The European Regulatory Framework for Medical Devices has been modified by the new Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and Council. The key novelty is the implementation of a UDI system for the devices' individual identification within the European Union. The Regulation highlights the significance of each economic operator's participation across the management and supply chain of medical devices. Manufacturers, authorized representatives, importers, and distributors must now take on particular tasks and assure compliance with the new rules. This technical report, which is primarily aimed at business professionals, analyses the new requirements for medical device traceability introduced by Regulation (EU) 2017/745, offers resources for proper medical device management, and considers how the ongoing COVID-19 emergency will affect the application of the new regulations.

4.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:4, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044639

ABSTRACT

Chinese New Year is observed from January 31 and February 15, 2022, with the holiday falling on February 1. Numerous nations have enacted regulations that prohibit mass gatherings like Chinese New Year celebrations in response to the rising incidence of COVID-19 cases caused by the Omicron variant. All direct flights from the UK to mainland China have been banned, according to the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), and there is no set schedule for a review.

5.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

6.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

7.
CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033653

ABSTRACT

This report highlights the achievements in 2021 of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). PIM had a productive final year centered on synthesizing and packaging findings to consolidate the program's legacy while continuing to respond to demand related to the impacts of COVID-19 and preparing the transition to the new CGIAR portfolio. Among other achievements, PIM findings and engagement contributed to Myanmar's response to COVID-19, South Africa's policies on resilience to climate change, Tunisia's policies for pastoral development, a reform of Nigeria's national agricultural research system, Ghana's fish seed and farm certification system, gender strategies for three agricultural value chains in Honduras, and genome editing guidelines for the agricultural sector in four African countries. PIM research informed policy documents of FAO, IFAD, One CGIAR, the UK Government, the World Bank and the World Food Programme. PIM tools enabled more equitable co-management of 76 protected areas in Peru and informed World Bank social protection projects.

8.
Independent Journal of Management and Production ; 13(3):s310-s328, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025736

ABSTRACT

The article reveals the importance of state financial regulation as one of the most important tools for economic growth and ensuring the competitiveness of industries and the economy of Ukraine. The studies of domestic and foreign scientists on the subject of research are analyzed in detail. The state of enterprises of the agricultural sector of Ukraine for the period 2013- 2020 has been determined. The study was carried out on the factors of providing agricultural producers with financial resources in terms of the size of the forms of management. The share of unprofitable enterprises in the industry for the same period is also analyzed. The achievements of the agricultural sector are described according to the statistical analysis of the state of socio-economic development of the regions in the period 2020-2021. The methodology for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the state regional policy in accordance with legislative regulations is described. This made it possible to establish that at the present stage, the financial regulation of the agricultural sector of Ukraine is carried out without proper scientific justification and, as a rule, responds slowly to the requirements of economic practice, especially in the context of deepening the penetration of global processes into the national economy. Approaches to the assessment of the competitive environment of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and the direction of its state regulation are proposed. Theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of assessing the competitiveness of the sector are disclosed. The necessity and possibility of forming a competitive environment by fiscal policy measures, primarily budgetary regulation, is proved. The problems of forming a competitive environment in the context of the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the place of Ukraine in the world competitiveness ranking are identified, and methodological approaches to the development strategy are proposed. It is proved that the competitive strategy is based on the existing resources of the industry (material, financial and intellectual), the level of development of various forms of management, the structure of production, marketing, processing, the formation of value chains and a bilateral state-market regulator. The directions for improving the quality of the competitive environment, arising from the paradigm of innovative development of the agricultural sector, are summarized and provide for the stimulation of small business in niche and organic production and large-scale industrial production in terms of the main indicators of food security, as well as the development of land, financial, credit and resource markets and the formation of equal access to them all agricultural producers.

9.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(7):361-362, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010639

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the important aspects of the Return to Work Safely Protocol in Ireland, including risk assessment, communication, cooperation, cleaning, disinfection, remote working, dealing with suspected cases and other safety measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace.

10.
WIDER Working Papers 2022. (67):34 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965139

ABSTRACT

Tanzania has experienced relatively strong and stable economic growth accompanied by social stability over the past two decades. The country is also pursuing an ambitious development plan with significant employment objectives. For development to be fully inclusive, specific attention must be paid to the gendered dimensions of employment policy, in terms of both design and outcomes. This constitutes a key challenge in Tanzania, where women and female-headed households are constrained by lower levels of education and social capital, deeper levels of poverty, and limited access to assets-while also being impacted disproportionately by the economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper interrogates Tanzania's employment policies from a gender perspective by adopting a functional approach. We examine policies with (1) a labour market entry-facilitating function, (2) an enterprise- and productivity-enhancing function, and (3) a job quality-enhancing function, through their effects on working-age women's employment in the 2000s. We also discuss the extent to which women's employment is considered in the broader development approach and social policy model in the country. The analysis draws on a desktop-based scoping review of diverse sources of evidence. The paper shows that several progressive policies have been introduced in the areas of financial services, labour market regulations, and entrepreneurship support, and women's labour market position has slightly improved in the new millennium. However, women remain at the margins of the broader development strategy, and much needs to be done to enhance women's access to assets, skills training, and better-quality employment. Further gender-responsive social policy investments would facilitate this process.

11.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(4):393-402, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1961357

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to profile the current state of sustainable tourism indicators (STIs) in order to assess risks and draw attention to potential solutions. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative methodology and documentary analysis were used, and primary data were gathered about STIs from four publicly available regulatory documents. Findings The study findings indicate that one of the primary impediments to sustainable tourism development is a lack of supervision and control over the enforcement of existing laws and regulations. Existing systems with relevant laws and regulations contribute to the fact that the environment is unsustainably developed because of the absence of specific explanations relating to STIs. The study identifies some of the actions that could be taken to mitigate the negative impacts of conventional forms of tourism development. Research limitations/implications This article argues that policymakers should act quickly to audit and manage the environment and that they should involve non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the tourism industry in this process. In addition, regulations should be revisited to include the necessity of being certified by international bodies for tourism enterprises and adopting European Union (EU) environmental standards. Practical implications: The tourism industry must adopt a more responsible and participatory approach to economic growth in order to ensure sustainable tourism, learning from the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Further, the industry must collaborate with policymakers to develop mechanisms to protect and control the resources they consume for the sake of future generations. Originality/value: Sustainable tourism development in which all aspects contribute to economic development, especially Small Island Developing States (SIDS), is of the utmost importance. No prior work seems to have been published that evaluates publicly available regulatory documents with reference to the current state of STIs in SIDS, especially in North Cyprus.

12.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:44, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929150

ABSTRACT

This article provides the latest updates on the testing and quarantine rules for travellers in Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is advised that travellers are aware of all travel restrictions, self-isolation rules and precautions they should take, in order to reduce their risk of exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) before, during and after travel, as detailed on the fitfortravel COVID-19 health considerations for travel page.

13.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

14.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):1-5, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1919033

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of COVID-19 on beef cattle production in China, in February 2020, 263 beef cattle farms 21 provinces of China were surveyed, covering the main areas of beef cattle production. The results showed that COVID-19 had a serious impact on Chinese beef cattle industry. In forage stock, 48% of the beef cattle farms had surpluses for I month;45% had less than 2 months of forage, and 95% had run out of by-products, such as distiller's grains. In fattening production. 95% of fattening cattle farms cannot buy stocker cattle as planned. The delay to sell fattening cattle increased the consumption of feed and forage. The markets for live cattle were closed, causing the decrease of cattle prices. In reproduction, brood cows missed one or two estrus cycles. In disease prevention and control, 70% of cattle farms almost ran out of medicines, and immunities cannot be carried out as planned. To solve these prominent problems, it was suggested that beef cattle farms should seriously implement the prevention and control requirements to ensure safety;prepare alternative plans for epidemic prevention and control in advance;improve the tine feeding and management system and standardized workflow, adjust the business strategy, etc. Additionally, it was also suggested that all layers of governments should open green channels for the farms to ensure the transportation of production means and products, supply special subsidy policies, and provide loans to help farm enhance confidence and resume production.

15.
Proceedings of the European Conference on Agricultural Engineering, AgEng2021, Evora, Portugal ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918779

ABSTRACT

Sustainable agriculture is urgently needed to promote conservation and sustainable resources use in an equitable manner through integrated management of land, water, energy and biodiversity. In this way, education in agriculture emerges as a crucial tool for preparing agricultural technicians, researchers and farmers for productive contributions. Higher education institutions arise with an important mission of education in the context of social transformation and to integrate sustainable development into the educational system as a scientific subject. The aim of this study was to identify the training and learning needs to be included in a MSc program in sustainable agriculture. It was based on a questionnaire prepared and distributed to academics' experts in Agrarian Sciences in Greece, Italy and Portugal. Technologies, legislation, management and business, local community leadership and marketing were the training needs considered very important expertise's in sustainable agriculture. Traditional face-to-face learning, experienced farmers as mentors and knowledge sharing mechanisms were rated as very applicable and important. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, online learning methods, which were not considered suitable for a MSc program in sustainable agriculture, became important by providing online education. Information and communication technology and technological tools showed to be important skills for sustainable agricultural practices to effectively implement online learning and to improve the efficient access, exposure and use of up-to-date information of the agricultural sector and awareness of sustainable agricultural practices.

16.
Agroscope Transfer 2021. (406):11 pp. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912706

ABSTRACT

On behalf of the Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), Agroscope monitors the production and distribution of food for livestock and pets. The main purpose of its activity is to prevent harmful substances and undesirable products from being fed to animals and reaching consumers' plates through foodstuffs of animal origin. Controls also help to protect owners of animals against fraud and to preserve animal health and the environment. Official Food Control enforcement activities for animals have also been disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic and inspections had to be completely suspended. However, it was possible to resume them after a short period, although in a limited way, by applying the necessary hygiene and precautionary measures. In order to protect the inspectors and employees of the companies inspected, controls have been suspended for fifteen days in March, and then were resumed until the end of the year, but by being announced and by favouring the taking of samples. In this way it was possible to minimize contact with people and counter the spread of the virus by respecting the prescribed protection measures. The integration carried out at the end of 2019 of all the data relating to inspections, companies and products in a new laboratory information management system (LIMS) proved to be successful, although many optimizations and improvements had to be made. Due to increased data security and integration into a interdisciplinary system, production companies of animal feed thus benefited from more shipments, inspection report improved and there were more user-friendly presentation of test results in the product control report. Inspection reports were all able to be sent quickly and those of the checks of products were able to be sent following the analyses and necessary repetitions, thus guaranteeing a return of information in a timely manner. As in previous years, we also observed an increase of more than the average of new registrations/approvals companies in the animal feed sector. While 2019 can be considered a calm year in terms of feed safety, Salmonella was detected in eight animal feeds in 2020, representing 4 separate cases. In one sample, an overrun of the maximum value of coccidiostats according to appendix 10 of OLALA was detected. In 4 other samples, the authorizations issued for the addition of coccidiostats according to animal species had expired. GMOs were detected in two food samples for production animals, one of which was authorized but was not been declared. The second case concerns the contamination of undesirable seeds without germination power in linseed. In addition, GMOs exceeding the tolerance threshold have been detected in three bird feed mixtures and in another ambrosia seed mixture. These products were withdrawn from the market immediately. A total of 1,217 feed samples for livestock and for pets were analysed. 814 were compliant or had minor reporting errors. With a compliance rate of 66.9%, there was a slight improvement compared to the previous year (approx. 65%). With regard to nonconformities, it can be seen that minor non-conformities have decreased compared to last year (5.8%, previous year 12.4%). On the other hand, major non-conformities increased, from 2.6% in 2019 to 4.7% in 2020. Average non-compliances remained at the same level as the previous year, at around 23%.

17.
Indian Journal of Applied Hospitality & Tourism Research ; 14:33-44, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905435

ABSTRACT

The extremely infectious Covid-19 pandemic, which began in China in November 2019, quickly spread around the globe, causing a pandemic (Andrews, Areekal, 2020). Several nations and regions have quarantines, entrance bans, or other restrictions in place for residents or recent visitors of the most afflicted areas. Other governments and destinations have established worldwide travel restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories. The limitations, along with a reduced propensity to travel (C. Huang, Y. Wang, 2021), have harmed the tourism industry in those areas. Long-term effects may include less business travel and international conferencing, and more virtual, online conferencing. Travel restrictions to control COVID-19 have been questioned. The tourist and hotel business has been struck hard by the coronavirus outbreak. Sports and leisure activity providers as well as connected suppliers and service organisations had to fully cease operations. Getting back to normal won't be as quick for the enterprises who had to shut down so quickly. As a result, the industry has a particularly difficult challenge, (Khan, K., Arino, J, 2021) which is also its big opportunity: with a streamlined but well-considered offering, it can meet the required hygiene guidelines while also positioning itself as more climate-aware, therefore taking tourism to a new, sustainable level. The article explores the pandemic's effect on local tourist stakeholders and collects regulations enacted during and after the outbreak.

18.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):510-530, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines whether the law of one price (LOP) or price convergence holds during the COVID-19 pandemic for essential food items in India. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use the daily retail price data of 22 essential food items from 103 Indian markets for two years (2019 as pre-COVID and 2020 as COVID period). Pesaran's (2007) second-generation panel unit-root test has been used to examine the price convergence of essential food commodities across various markets of different zones in the pre-COVID and COVID periods. Findings: The authors find a tendency toward the convergence of prices across the spatially segregated markets for essential products. But, during the COVID period, there is a weak or no convergence of prices for essential food items. Hence, the LOP does not hold during the pandemic, indicating massive price deviations for food items across Indian markets. This has severe implications for food security as enormous price increases in some markets have been evidenced during the pandemic. Research limitations/implications: The study calls for immediate policy adoption to restore the disrupted supply chain of essential food items. Along with that, the public authority should strictly prohibit black marketing and unlawful hoarding of essential food items. In addition, farmers should be provided direct cash benefits for restoring their farming activities. Originality/value: This paper is first study to examine that hypothesis of LOP in the context of COVID crisis.

19.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):345-370, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901380

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Waqf (endowment) lands constitute as among the highest types of waqf (endowment) properties in Malaysia;yet it is still unable to reach its maximum potential due to various challenges such as capital, location, legal and administrative issues. Therefore, this study intends to explore these issues by focusing on the two states in Malaysia (Selangor and Perak) that have fertile lands but different management authorities. Design/methodology/approach: There were series of interviews that had been conducted with ten (10) key informants who are experts and practitioners in the areas of Shariah (Islamic law), farming, agribusiness, land management and waqf. Findings: Findings exhibit that constraints and challenges that had been highlighted in the previous literature still exist (although some improvements had been made), but there is emerging theme that the study intends to highlight which is on the needs to secure market for the agribusiness produce and the potential role of anchor company in the agribusiness. It is pertinent that for agribusiness to thrive, selecting the right anchor company that has the capacity to address the challenges is necessary. This study posits two anchor company models (Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company and Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company-Community Farmers) that can be applied for agribusiness on the waqf lands. Research limitations/implications: This study is based on the Malaysia's context influenced by specific country's features. Nevertheless, such findings can still be used as reference or benchmark by other endowment trustees in other countries especially for the Muslim countries as well as the non-Muslim countries that have significant Muslim populations. Social implications The suggested models have potentials to improve the living condition of the B40 (below 40% household income) in Malaysia because the models encourage their participation in the agribusiness activities. Originality/value This study focusses on the agribusiness, which is rarely being given attention in previous literature in the context of endowment lands. Therefore, this article bridges the literature gap and at the same time attempts to provide suggestion to address the pertinent issue - the underutilised endowment lands.

20.
Aquaculture: an introductory text ; 4(347), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1900772

ABSTRACT

This 4th edition covers issues associated with sustainable aquaculture development, culture systems, hatchery methods, nutrition and feeding of aquaculture species, reproductive strategies, harvesting, and many other topics. While its main focus is on the culture of fish, molluscs and crustaceans for food, the book also covers other forms of aquaculture, such as the production of seaweeds, recreational fish and ornamental species, as well as live foods, such as algae and rotifers that are used to feed larval shrimp and marine fish. Thoroughly updated and revised, this essential textbook now includes increased coverage of open-ocean cage culture and sea lice issues with salmon culture, coverage of the significant progress made in nutrition, including the move away from fishmeal as protein and fish oil as lipids in feed, information on biofloc technology uses, predictive impacts of climate change, probiotics, and the impact of COVID-19 on the aquaculture community, and updated aquaculture production statistics and lists of approved anaesthetics. Aquaculture remains one of the most rapidly growing agricultural disciplines, and this book remains an essential resource for all students of aquaculture and related disciplines.

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