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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2209788

ABSTRACT

In recent years, owing to the miniaturization of the fluidic environment, microfluidic technology offers unique opportunities for the implementation of nano drug delivery systems (NDDSs) production processes. Compared with traditional methods, microfluidics improves the controllability and uniformity of NDDSs. The fast mixing and laminar flow properties achieved in the microchannels can tune the physicochemical properties of NDDSs, including particle size, distribution and morphology, resulting in narrow particle size distribution and high drug-loading capacity. The success of lipid nanoparticles encapsulated mRNA vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 by microfluidics also confirmed its feasibility for scaling up the preparation of NDDSs via parallelization or numbering-up. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of microfluidics-based NDDSs, including the fundamentals of microfluidics, microfluidic synthesis of NDDSs, and their industrialization. The challenges of microfluidics-based NDDSs in the current status and the prospects for future development are also discussed. We believe that this review will provide good guidance for microfluidics-based NDDSs.

2.
Theranostics ; 12(14): 6422-6436, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203053

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine outperforms other kinds of cancer immunotherapy due to its high response rates, easy preparation, and wide applicability, which is considered as one of the most promising forms of next-generation cancer therapies. However, the inherent instability and insufficient protein expression duration of mRNA limit the efficacy and widespread application of the vaccine. Methods: Here, we first tested the possibility of a novel circular RNA (circRNA) platform for protein expression and compare its duration with linear RNA. Then, we developed a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) system for circRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. Next, the innate and adaptive immune response of circRNA-LNP complex was evaluated in vivo. The anti-tumor efficacy of circRNA-LNP was further confirmed in three tumor models. Finally, the possibility of combination therapy with circRNA-LNP and adoptive cell transfer therapy was further investigated in a late-stage tumor model. Results: We successfully increased the stability of the RNA vaccine by circularizing the linear RNA molecules to form highly stable circRNA molecules which exhibited durable protein expression ability. By encapsulating the antigen-coding circRNA in LNP enabling in vivo expression, we established a novel circRNA vaccine platform, which was capable of triggering robust innate and adaptive immune activation and showed superior anti-tumor efficacy in multiple mouse tumor models. Conclusions: Overall, our circRNA vaccine platform provides a novel prospect for the development of cancer RNA vaccines in a wide range of hard-to-treat malignancies.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Animals , Liposomes , Mice , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Biotechnologia ; 103(4):409-423, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202537

ABSTRACT

Liposomes (LSs) are promising nanoparticles with unique properties such as controlled nanosize, large surface area, increased reactivity, and ability to undergo modification. Worldwide, licensed liposomal forms of antibiotics, hormones, antioxidants, cytostatics, ophthalmic drugs, etc., are available on the pharmaceutical market. This review focuses on the adjuvant properties of LSs in the production of vaccines (VACs). LS-VACs have the following advantages: antigens with low immunogenicity can become highly immunogenic;LSs can include both hydrophilic and hydrophobic antigens;LSs allow to achieve a prolonged specific action of antibodies;and LSs reduce the toxicity and pyrogenicity of encapsulated antigens and adjuvants. The immune response is influenced by the composition of the liposomal membrane, physicochemical characteristics of lipids, antigen localization in LSs, interaction of LSs with complement, and a number of proteins, which leads to opsonization. The major requirements for adjuvants are their ability to enhance the immune response, biodegradability, and elimination from the organism, and LSs fully meet these requirements. The effectiveness and safety of LSs as carriers in the antigen delivery system have been proven by the long-term clinical use of licensed vaccines against hepatitis A, influenza, herpes zoster, malaria, and COVID-19. © 2022, Termedia Publishing House Ltd.. All rights reserved.

4.
Rsc Advances ; 13(1):47-79, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2186158

ABSTRACT

The present world continues to face unprecedented challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Collaboration between researchers of multiple disciplines is the need of the hour. There is a need to develop antiviral agents capable of inhibiting viruses and tailoring existing antiviral drugs for efficient delivery to prevent a surge in deaths caused by viruses globally. Biocompatible systems have been designed using nanotechnological principles which showed appreciable results against a wide range of viruses. Many nanoparticles can act as antiviral therapeutic agents if synthesized by the correct approach. Moreover, nanoparticles can act as carriers of antiviral drugs while overcoming their inherent drawbacks such as low solubility, poor bioavailability, uncontrolled release, and side effects. This review highlights the potential of nanomaterials in antiviral applications by discussing various studies and their results regarding antiviral potential of nanoparticles while also suggesting future directions to researchers.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2176448

ABSTRACT

There are currently approximately 4,000 mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein gene and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to spread rapidly worldwide. Universal vaccines with high efficacy and safety urgently need to be developed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 variants pandemic. Here, we described a novel self-assembling universal mRNA vaccine containing a heterologous receptor-binding domain (HRBD)-based dodecamer (HRBDdodecamer) against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (B.1.1.28.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529). HRBD containing four heterologous RBD (Delta, Beta, Gamma, and Wild-type) can form a stable dodecameric conformation under T4 trimerization tag (Flodon, FD). The HRBDdodecamer -encoding mRNA was then encapsulated into the newly-constructed LNPs consisting of a novel ionizable lipid (4N4T). The obtained universal mRNA vaccine (4N4T-HRBDdodecamer) presented higher efficiency in mRNA transfection and expression than the approved ALC-0315 LNPs, initiating potent immune protection against the immune escape of SARS-CoV-2 caused by evolutionary mutation. These findings demonstrated the first evidence that structure-based antigen design and mRNA delivery carrier optimization may facilitate the development of effective universal mRNA vaccines to tackle SARS-CoV-2 variants pandemic.

6.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165961

ABSTRACT

Delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) is expected to be applied to various diseases following the successful clinical use of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the cholesterol molar percentage of mRNA-LNPs on protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells and in the liver after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of mRNA-LNPs in mice. For mRNA-LNPs with cholesterol molar percentages reduced to 10 mol% and 20 mol%, we formulated neutral charge particles with a diameter of approximately 100 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) <0.25. After the intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of mRNA-LNPs with different cholesterol molar percentages in mice, protein expression in the liver decreased as the cholesterol molar percentage in mRNA-LNPs decreased from 40 mol% to 20 mol% and 10 mol%, suggesting that reducing the cholesterol molar percentage in mRNA-LNPs decreases protein expression in the liver. Furthermore, in HepG2 cells, protein expression decreased as cholesterol in mRNA-LNPs was reduced by 40 mol%, 20 mol%, and 10 mol%. These results suggest that the downregulated expression of mRNA-LNPs with low cholesterol content in the liver involves degradation in systemic circulating blood and decreased protein expression after hepatocyte distribution.

7.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces ; 222:113111, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165186

ABSTRACT

Throughout decades, the intrinsic power of the immune system to fight pathogens has inspired researchers to develop techniques that enable the prevention or treatment of infections via boosting the immune response against the target pathogens, which has led to the evolution of vaccines. The recruitment of Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) as either vaccine delivery platforms or immunogenic modalities has witnessed a breakthrough recently, which has been crowned with the development of effective LNPs-based vaccines against COVID-19. In the current article, we discuss some principles of such a technology, with a special focus on the technical aspects from a translational perspective. Representative examples of LNPs-based vaccines against cancer, COVID-19, as well as other infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and allergies are highlighted, considering the challenges and promises. Lastly, the key features that can improve the clinical translation of this area of endeavor are inspired.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 224: 115174, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159329

ABSTRACT

Lipid encapsulated messenger RNA (LNP mRNA) has garnered a significant amount of interest from the pharmaceutical industry and general public alike. This attention has been catalyzed by the clinical success of LNP mRNA for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination as well as future promises that might be fulfilled by the biotechnology pipeline, such as the in vivo delivery of a CRISPR/Cas9 complex that can edit patient cells to reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein. LNP mRNAs are comprised of various chemically diverse molecules brought together in a sophisticated intermolecular complex. This can make it challenging to achieve thorough analytical characterization. Nevertheless, liquid chromatography is becoming an increasingly relied upon technique for LNP mRNA analyses. Although there have been significant advances in all types of LNP mRNA analyses, this review focuses on recent developments and the possibilities of applying anion exchange (AEX) and ion pairing reversed phase (IP-RP) liquid chromatography for intact mRNAs as well as techniques for oligo mapping analysis, 5' endcap testing and lipid compositional assays.

9.
Frontiers in Materials ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163030

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterials have played a significant role in effectively combating the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that began in December 2019 through the development of vaccines as well as antiviral therapies. These versatile, tunable materials can interact and deliver a broad range of biologically relevant molecules for preventing COVID-19 infection, generating immunity against COVID-19, and treating infected patients. Application of these nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can further be investigated in conjunction with disease models of COVID-19 and this holds immense potential for accelerating vaccine or therapeutic process development further encouraging the elimination of animal model use during preclinical stages. This review examines the existing literature on COVID-19 related nanomaterial applications, including perspective on nanotechnology-based vaccines and therapeutics, and discusses how these tools can be adapted to address new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. We also analyze the limitations of current nanomaterial approaches to managing COVID-19 and its variants alongside the challenges posed when implementing this technology. We end by providing avenues for future developments specific to disease modelling in this ever-evolving field.

10.
Chemico-Biological Interactions ; 365, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2147672

ABSTRACT

Asthma, COPD, COVID-19, EGPA, Lung cancer, and Pneumonia are major chronic respiratory diseases (or CRDs) affecting millions worldwide and account for substantial morbidity and mortality. These CRDs are irreversible diseases that affect different parts of the respiratory system, imposing a considerable burden on different socioeconomic classes. All these CRDs have been linked to increased eosinophils in the lungs. Eosinophils are essential immune mediators that contribute to tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of various diseases. Interestingly, elevated eosinophil level is associated with cellular processes that regulate airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and inflammation in the lung. Therefore, eosinophil is considered the therapeutic target in eosinophil-mediated lung diseases. Although, conventional medicines like antibiotics, antiinflammatory drugs, and bronchodilators are available to prevent CRDs. But the development of resistance to these therapeutic agents after long-term usage remains a challenge. However, progressive development in nanotechnology has unveiled the targeted nanocarrier approach that can significantly improve the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug. The potential of the nanocarrier system can be specifically targeted on eosinophils and their associated components to obtain promising results in the pharmacotherapy of CRDs. This review intends to provide knowledge about eosinophils and their role in CRDs. Moreover, it also discusses nanocarrier drug delivery systems for the targeted treatment of CRDs.

11.
China Biotechnology ; 42(9):58-66, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145393

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19, the world urgently needs a large number of effective vaccines to deal with this disaster. mRNA vaccines are safe and have short development cycle, which can fill the gap between epidemic diseases and vaccine shortages. So mRNA has become one of the most potential vaccines at present and has attracted attention in the field of infectious diseases and tumors. Technological innovation has greatly improved the shortcomings of mRNA, such as instability and low translation efficiency. However, delivering mRNA to target cells safely and efficiently is still a major challenge that hinders the progress in mRNA research. Hopefully, delivery systems have put forward many effective solutions. This review focuses on the non-viral vector delivery system for mRNA vaccine delivery in vivo, and the application of mRNA in infectious disease and tumor vaccine, in order to provide reference for research and development of mRNA vaccines. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

12.
Small Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2122149

ABSTRACT

Ionizable lipids with branched tails have been used in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)-based messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics like COVID-19 vaccines. However, due to the limited commercial availability of branched ingredients, a systematic analysis of how the branched tails affect LNP quality has been lacking to date. Herein, alpha-branched tail lipids are focused, as they can be synthesized from simple commercially available chemicals, and the length of each chain can be independently controlled. Furthermore, symmetry and total carbon number can be used to describe alpha-branched tails, facilitating the design of a systematic lipid library to elucidate "structure-property-function" relationships. Consequently, a lipid library is developed containing 32 different types of alpha-branched tails. This library is used to demonstrate that branched chains increase LNP microviscosity and headgroup ionization ability in an acidic environment, which in turn enhances the stability and in vivo efficacy of mRNA-LNPs. Of the branched lipids, CL4F 8-6 LNPs carrying Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA could achieve 54% genome editing and 77% protein reduction with a single dose of 2.5 mg kg(-1). This mechanism-based data on branched lipids is expected to provide insights into rational lipid design and effective gene therapy in the future.

13.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 1053197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119701

ABSTRACT

Intracellular delivery of message RNA (mRNA) technique has ushered in a hopeful era with the successive authorization of two mRNA vaccines for the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. A wide range of clinical studies are proceeding and will be initiated in the foreseeable future to treat and prevent cancers. However, efficient and non-toxic delivery of therapeutic mRNAs maintains the key limited step for their widespread applications in human beings. mRNA delivery systems are in urgent demand to resolve this difficulty. Recently lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) vehicles have prospered as powerful mRNA delivery tools, enabling their potential applications in malignant tumors via cancer immunotherapy and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing technique. This review discusses formulation components of mRNA-LNPs, summarizes the latest findings of mRNA cancer therapy, highlights challenges, and offers directions for more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

14.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116088

ABSTRACT

RNAi (RNA interference)-based technology is emerging as a versatile tool which has been widely utilized in the treatment of various diseases. siRNA can alter gene expression by binding to the target mRNA and thereby inhibiting its translation. This remarkable potential of siRNA makes it a useful candidate, and it has been successively used in the treatment of diseases, including cancer. However, certain properties of siRNA such as its large size and susceptibility to degradation by RNases are major drawbacks of using this technology at the broader scale. To overcome these challenges, there is a requirement for versatile tools for safe and efficient delivery of siRNA to its target site. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have been extensively explored to this end, and this paper reviews different types of LNPs, namely liposomes, solid lipid NPs, nanostructured lipid carriers, and nanoemulsions, to highlight this delivery mode. The materials and methods of preparation of the LNPs have been described here, and pertinent physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface charge, surface modifications, and PEGylation in enhancing the delivery performance (stability and specificity) have been summarized. We have discussed in detail various challenges facing LNPs and various strategies to overcome biological barriers to undertake the safe delivery of siRNA to a target site. We additionally highlighted representative therapeutic applications of LNP formulations with siRNA that may offer unique therapeutic benefits in such wide areas as acute myeloid leukaemia, breast cancer, liver disease, hepatitis B and COVID-19 as recent examples.

15.
Theranostics ; 12(17): 7509-7531, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114572

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have been one of the most successful nano-delivery vehicles that enable efficient delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, antibiotics, and nucleic acid therapeutics. During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, LNP-based COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna have been successfully developed, resulting in global sales of $37 billion and $17.7 billion, respectively, in 2021. Based on this success, the development of multiple LNP-based RNA therapeutics is gaining momentum due to its potential in vaccines and therapeutics for various genetic diseases and cancers. Furthermore, imaging techniques can be utilized to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) effects, which helps target discovery and accelerates the development of LNP-based mRNA therapies. A thorough introduction and explanation of the components of LNPs and its functions along with various production methods of formulating LNPs are provided in this review. Furthermore, recent advances in LNP-based RNA therapeutics in clinics and clinical trials are explored. Additionally, the evaluation of PK/PD of LNPs for RNA delivery and the current and potential roles in developing LNP-based mRNA pharmaceutics through imaging techniques will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA , Humans , Lipids , COVID-19/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109768

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA technologies represent a versatile platform that can be used to develop advanced drug products. The remarkable speed with which vaccine development programs designed and manufactured safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has rekindled interest in mRNA technology, particularly for future pandemic preparedness. Although recent R&D has focused largely on advancing mRNA vaccines and large-scale manufacturing capabilities, the technology has been used to develop various immunotherapies, gene editing strategies, and protein replacement therapies. Within the mRNA technologies toolbox lie several platforms, design principles, and components that can be adapted to modulate immunogenicity, stability, in situ expression, and delivery. For example, incorporating modified nucleotides into conventional mRNA transcripts can reduce innate immune responses and improve in situ translation. Alternatively, self-amplifying RNA may enhance vaccine-mediated immunity by increasing antigen expression. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of synthetic mRNA therapies and vaccines, and discuss the ongoing global efforts aimed at reducing vaccine inequity by establishing mRNA manufacturing capacity within Africa and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Technology
17.
J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096155

ABSTRACT

The remarkable impact of mRNA vaccines on mitigating disease and improving public health has been amply demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many new mRNA-based vaccine and therapeutic candidates are in development, yet the current reality of their stability limitations requires their frozen storage. Numerous challenges remain to improve formulated mRNA stability and enable refrigerator storage, and this review provides an update on developments to tackle this multi-faceted stability challenge. We describe the chemistry underlying mRNA degradation during storage and highlight how lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations are a double-edged sword: while LNPs protect mRNA against enzymatic degradation, interactions with and between LNP excipients introduce additional risks for mRNA degradation. We also discuss strategies to improve mRNA stability both as a drug substance (DS) and a drug product (DP) including the (1) design of the mRNA molecule (nucleotide selection, primary and secondary structures), (2) physical state of the mRNA-LNP complexes, (3) formulation composition and purity of the components, and (4) DS and DP manufacturing processes. Finally, we summarize analytical control strategies to monitor and assure the stability of mRNA-based candidates, and advocate for an integrated analytical and formulation development approach to further improve their storage, transport, and in-use stability profiles.

18.
Mol Pharm ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076970

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines have recently received significant attention due to their role in combating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As a platform, mRNA vaccines have been shown to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with acceptable safety profiles for prophylactic use. Despite their potential, industrial challenges have limited realization of the vaccine platform on a global scale. Critical among these challenges are supply chain considerations, including mRNA production, cost of goods, and vaccine frozen-chain distribution. Here, we assess the delivery of lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA/LNP) vaccines using a split-dose immunization regimen as an approach to develop mRNA dose-sparing vaccine regimens with potential to mitigate mRNA supply chain challenges. Our data demonstrate that immunization by a mRNA/LNP vaccine encoding respiratory syncytial virus pre-F (RSV pre-F) over a 9 day period elicits comparable or superior magnitude of antibodies when compared to traditional bolus immunization of the vaccine. The split-dose immunization regimens evaluated in our studies were designed to mimic reported drug or antigen release profiles from microneedle patches, highlighting the potential benefit of pairing mRNA vaccines with patch-based delivery technologies to enable sustained release and solid-state stabilization. Overall, our findings provide a proof of concept to support further investigations into the development of sustained delivery approaches for mRNA/LNP vaccines.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2202556, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059257

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause lethal pulmonary damage in humans. It contains spike proteins on its envelope that bind to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) expressed on airway cells, enabling entry of the virus, and causing infection. The soluble form of hACE2 binds SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, prevents viral entry into target cells, and ameliorates lung injury; however, its short half-life limits therapeutic utilities. Here, synthetic mRNA is engineered to encode a soluble form of hACE2 (hsACE2) to prevent viral infection. A novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) is used for packaging and delivering mRNA to cells to produce hsACE2 proteins. Intravenously administered LNP delivers mRNA to hepatocytes, leading to the production of circulatory hsACE2 initiated within 2 h and sustained over several days. Inhaled LNP results in lung transfection and secretion of mucosal hsACE2 to lung epithelia, the primary site of entry and pathogenesis for SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, mRNA-generated hsACE2 binds to the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein. Finally, hsACE2 effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and its pseudoviruses from infecting host cells. The proof of principle study shows that mRNA-based nanotherapeutics can be potentially deployed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and open new treatment opportunities for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

20.
RNA Technologies ; 13:257-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059699

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. Nevertheless, they are frequently considered as mere “excipients”, and their mode of action is often poorly understood. Although the attractiveness of mRNA as an immunogen has been recognized already more than thirty years ago, it wasn’t until the current COVID-19 crisis that its full potential was shown. From a fringe approach, it has now become a leading technology in vaccine development which will no doubt result in a tremendous boost in both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination settings. The issue of finding the right adjuvant is especially relevant for mRNA-based vaccines, as mRNA itself is a strong activator of innate immune responses which represents a double-edged sword. Moreover, given the high sensitivity of RNA to ambient RNases, and to improve delivery efficiency, in recent years, a lot of effort has been invested in developing ways to package the mRNA in so-called nanoparticle formulations. Currently approved mRNA-based vaccines are all formulated in lipid nanoparticles, but many other approaches are being explored, each of which will result in a different type of immune stimulation. In this chapter, we want to provide an overview of the potential adjuvant effect of different types of nanoparticles and implications for vaccine development. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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