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1.
Vestnik Vosstanovitel'noj Mediciny ; 21(3):45-57, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2040701

ABSTRACT

Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aquatic training in diluted sodium chloride bromine brine in restoring the functional state of the organism of patients with portcovid syndrome in comparison with aquatic training in fresh water. Material and methods. Specialists of the National Medical Research Centre of Rehabilitation and Balneology of the Ministry of Health of Russia conducted an open, prospective, randomized study to evaluate the effect of a course of aquatic training in a bromine sodium chloride brine pool. The study included 28 subjects, who were divided into 2 equal groups. Patients in both groups were comparable for gender (χ2 =0.45;p=0.31) and age (U=99.5;p=0.7) and all had post COVID-19 (U 09.9) as their primary diagnosis. The intervention group received a course of aquatic training (7 treatments) in a pool with bromine sodium chloride brine (well No. 69, 32 Novy Arbat Street, Moscow) with mineralization of 120 g/dm3 and its preliminary dilution to 40 g/m3. Control group - a course of aquatic-exercises (7 treatments) in a fresh water pool. Patients, after signing informed consent, underwent load tests: 6-minute walking test, laser Doppler flowmetry (“LASMA ST”, Russia), cardiointervalography (“Health Reserves-R”, Russia). Results and discussion. These data confirm the “null” hypothesis of a more favorable effect of the chemical composition of the diluted brine that acts during aquatic training on the patient's body compared to fresh water, especially in the presence of microcirculation disorders after suffering COVID-19. The group of patients who received aquatic training in the pool with bromine sodium chloride brine revealed a significant decrease in excessive sympathetic nervous system activity (T-11.0;p=0.02) at the end of the study. According to LAZMA-ST data, there was a twofold increase in the oxidative metabolism of the cell (IOM T-16.0;p <0.01), an increase in exercise tolerance (6-minute walk test T-10.0;p = 0.01). IOM increased statistically significantly threefold (U-32.0;p<0.001), mean microcirculation doubled (U-120.0;p<0.05) and BMI decreased by 20.0% (U-58.0;p<0.05) in the intervention group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between patient groups on safety parameters (χ2= 1.36;p>0.05). These data confirm the “null” hypothesis of a more favorable effect of the chemical composition of the diluted brine that acts during aquatic training on the patient's body compared to fresh water, especially in the presence of microcirculation disorders after suffering COVID-19. Conclusion. Aquatic training in sodium chloride bromide brine effectively reduces the sympathetic nervous system activity, increases oxidative metabolism and improves microcirculation compared to aquatic training in fresh water. © 2022 Rostovskii Gosudarstvennyi Meditsinskii Universitet. All rights reserved.

2.
Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity ; 12(4):790-796, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2040486

ABSTRACT

According to current data, SARS-CoV-2 virus has the ability to cause multi-organ pathology, leading to acute damage of various organs and systems and long-term consequences characterized by polymorphic symptoms. Recently, a high incidence of invasive mycoses, particularly mucormycosis - COVID-M, has been noted among the COVID-19 complications. The predisposing factor for the development of this pathology is diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency states, and prolonged use of high doses of glucocorticosteroids. Mucormycosis is characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high lethality, and timely diagnostics of this pathology often represents a difficult problem. The aim of this study was to analyze a clinical case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in convalescent COVID-19 patient. In the study, there was used mucopurulent nasal discharge from the patient previously hospitalized with a severe novel coronavirus infection. Here, we describe the methodology allowing to isolate and identify a pure mold fungus culture from the biomaterial using methods of routine bacteriology and MALDIToF mass spectrometry. Direct microscopy examination of nasal cavity discharge revealed branched non-septic hyphae with a characteristic branching angle, allowing to preliminarily diagnose invasive mucormycosis. Growth of mycelial fungus colony was observed by using Sabouraud’s medium with potassium tellurite. Microscopy of the pure culture revealed branching mycelium without septa, broad, with irregular thickness, unsegregated hyphae, and sporangia with a typical column specific to mucormycetes. Analysis of the obtained mass spectra allowed to establish the microbial species identity as Lichtheimia corymbifera. The latter along with other members of the order Mucorales, are known to cause mucormycosis. As a result of antifungal treatment (Amphotericin B) and timely surgical intervention, the patient was discharged from the hospital with prominent clinical improvement and no complaints during further outpatient follow-up period. The analysis of this clinical case showed the lack of alertness in some clinical diagnostic laboratories to detect pathogens of invasive mycoses. To avoid errors, while making a diagnosis, attention should be paid not only to detection of fungal spores in clinical material, but also take into account the structure of mycelium underlying major difference between yeast-like fungi, higher and lower molds. The isolation and identification of a pure pathogen culture allows to confidently verify the diagnosis, timely correct the treatment tactics and monitor circulation of mycotic agents to prevent occurrence of mycoses in most vulnerable patients cohorts. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Согласно современным данным вирус SARS-CoV-2 обладает способностью вызывать полиорганную патологию, приводя к острым повреждениям различных органов и систем и долгосрочным последствиям, характеризующимся полиморфной симптоматикой. Ð’ последнее время среди осложнений COVID-19 отмечается высокая распространенность инвазивных микозов, в частности мукормикоза — COVID-M. Предрасполагающим фактором развития данной патологии являются сахарный диабет, иммунодефицитные состояния, длительное применение высоких доз глюкокортикостероидов. Мукормикоз отличается тяжестью клинических проявлений и высокой летальностью, своевременная диагностика данной патологии нередко является сложной проблемой. Целью настоящего исследования стал анализ клинического случая риноорбитального мукормикоза у больной, перенесшей COVID-19. Ð’ качестве материала для исследования послужило слизисто-гнойное отделяемое полости носа больной, находившейся ранее на стационарном лечении с диагнозом «Новая коронавирусная инфекция тяжелого течения». Ð’ статье приведена методика, позволяющая выделить и идентифицировать чистую культуру плесневого гриба из биоматериала с использованием методов классической бактериологии и MALDI-ToF массспектрометрии. При исследовании отделяемого носовой полости методом прямой микроскопии были обнаружены разветвленные несептированные гифы с характерным углом ветвления, что позволило поставить предварительный диагноз «Инвазивный мукормикоз». При использовании среды Сабуро с теллуритом калия был отмечен рост колонии мицелиального гриба. При микроскопии чистой культуры были обнаружены типичные для мукормицетов ветвистый мицелий без перегородок, широкие, неравномерные по толщине, несептированные гифы и спорангии с типичной колонкой. Анализ полученных масс-спектров позволил установить видовую принадлежность исследуемого микроорганизма: Lichtheimia corymbifera. Как известно, лихтеймии, наряду с другими представителями порядка Mucorales, являются возбудителями мукормикозов. Врезультате проводимого лечения противогрибковым препаратом (Амфотерицин Ð’) и своевременного оперативного вмешательства больная была выписана из стационара со значительным улучшением, при дальнейшем амбулаторном наблюдении жалоб не Ð¿Ñ€ÐµÐ´Ñ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÐ»Ð°. Анализ данного клинического случая показал отсутствие ориентированности некоторых клинико-диагностических лабораторий на обнаружение возбудителей инвазивных микозов. Чтобы избежать ошибок при постановке диагноза, необходимо обращать внимание не только на обнаружение спор грибов в клиническом материале, но и принимать во внимание строение мицелия, что является основным различием между дрожжеподобными грибами, высшими и низшими плесенями. Выделение и идентификация чистой культуры возбудителя позволяет уверенно верифицировать диагноз, своевременно корректировать тактику лечения и осуществлять наблюдение за циркуляцией возбудителей мукормикозов для предотвращения возникновения микозов у особо уязвимых контингентов больных. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity is the property of National Electronic-Information Consortium and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 17(5):S141-S150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2040165

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory infection, was declared as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Studies from across the world centered on patient follow-up are adding to the knowledge on late complications observed in COVID-19 convalescents. Literature search was performed using databases with search terms 'COVID-19,' 'SARS-CoV-2,' 'Long COVID,' 'COVID-19 complications,' 'post COVID sequelae,' 'COVID-19 recovery,' and 'persistent symptoms.' Articles in English excluding pediatric (<18 years) and pregnant population were included for literature review. Studies from across the world reported various pulmonary, cardiac, hematologic, renal, neuropsychiatric, endocrine, and gastrointestinal complications and other nonspecific persistent symptoms. Several of these complications are similar to the postinfectious symptoms reported in previous viral respiratory disease outbreaks. In this narrative review, we review current literature on complications that follow recovery from acute episode of COVID-19. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

4.
BMJ ; 378:o2287, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2038289
5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7868-7874, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033462

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus 2 is the cause of COVID-19, a hazardous respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2). More than 80% of hospitalized patients and 30% of COVID-19 survivors may have long-term effects. The most prevalent and incapacitating symptoms of the post-COVID-19 syndrome are thought to be fatigue and cognitive impairment. Objective: The major objective of the current study is to trace fatigue affected post-COVID survivors’ cognitive function. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 84 cases were enlisted, and they were subdivided into two groups. The study group consisted of 42 post-COVID survivors, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy individuals who were age-and sex-matched. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination revised scale, the fatigue rating scale, and the computer-based Cognitive Assessment therapy (Rehacom system) were adopted in the current study to evaluate each case. Results: A clear negative correlation was found between the FSS scores and the ACE-R (r =-0.98, p = 0.001), as well as between the FSS scores and the degree of logical thinking difficulty (r =-0.74, p = 0.001) and the FSS scores and the level of figural memory difficulty (r =-0.93, p = 0.001). Clear positive correlation were detected between the FSS scores and the first quartile response time (r = 0.94, p = 0.001), the third quartile reaction time (r = 0.96, p = 0.001), the acquisition time (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), and the solution time (r = 0.98, p = 0.001). Conclusion: In post-COVID survivors, fatigue has a major impact on cognitive abilities.

6.
Cells ; 11(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032864

ABSTRACT

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a specific biomarker of neuro-axonal damage. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes involved in blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. We explored neuro-axonal damage, alteration of BBB integrity and SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence in COVID-19 patients with severe neurological symptoms (neuro-COVID) as well as neuro-axonal damage in COVID-19 patients without severe neurological symptoms according to disease severity and after recovery, comparing the obtained findings with healthy donors (HD). Overall, COVID-19 patients (n = 55) showed higher plasma NfL levels compared to HD (n = 31) (p < 0.0001), especially those who developed ARDS (n = 28) (p = 0.0005). After recovery, plasma NfL levels were still higher in ARDS patients compared to HD (p = 0.0037). In neuro-COVID patients (n = 12), higher CSF and plasma NfL, and CSF MMP-2 levels in ARDS than non-ARDS group were observed (p = 0.0357, p = 0.0346 and p = 0.0303, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in four CSF and two plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection was not associated to increased CSF NfL and MMP levels. During COVID-19, ARDS could be associated to CNS damage and alteration of BBB integrity in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in CSF or blood. CNS damage was still detectable after discharge in blood of COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS during hospitalization.

7.
Radiologic Clinics of North America ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031647
8.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; 65, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031581
9.
Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health ; : 100513, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031154

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Long-term cognitive performance data in former critically ill COVID-19 patients are sparse. Current evidence suggests that cognitive decline is related to neuroinflammation, which might be attenuated by COVID-19 related anti-inflammatory therapies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to study long term cognitive outcomes following severe COVID-19 and the relation to anti-inflammatory therapies. Methods Prospective observational cohort of patients that survived an intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to severe COVID-19. Six months after hospital discharge, we extensively assessed both objective cognitive functioning and subjective cognitive complaints. Furthermore, patients were stratified in cohorts according to their anti-inflammatory treatment (i.e. no immunomodulatory therapy, dexamethasone, or both dexamethasone and interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab). Results 96 patients were included (March 2020–June 2021, median [IQR] age 61 [55–69] years). 91% received invasive mechanical ventilation, and mean ± SD severity-of-disease APACHE–II–score at admission was 15.8 ± 4.1. After 6.5 ± 1.3 months, 27% of patients scored cognitively impaired. Patients that did or did not develop cognitive impairments were similar in ICU-admission parameters, clinical course and delirium incidence. Patients with subjective cognitive complaints (20%) were more likely women (61% vs 26%), and had a shorter ICU stay (median [IQR] 8-[5–15] vs 18-[9–31], p = 0.002). Objective cognitive dysfunction did not correlate with subjective cognitive dysfunction. 27% of the participants received dexamethasone during intensive care admission, 44% received additional tocilizumab and 29% received neither. Overall occurrence and severity of cognitive dysfunction were not affected by anti-inflammatory therapy, although patients treated with both dexamethasone and tocilizumab had worse executive functioning scores (Trail-Making-Test-interference) than patients without anti-inflammatory treatment (T-score 40.3 ± 13.5 vs 49.1 ± 9.3, p = 0.007). Discussion A relevant proportion of critically ill COVID-19 patients shows deficits in long-term cognitive functioning. Apart from more pronounced executive dysfunction, overall, anti-inflammatory therapy appeared not to affect long-term cognitive performance. Our findings provide insight in long-term cognitive outcomes in patients who survived COVID-19, that may facilitate health-care providers counseling patients and their caregivers.

10.
Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030954
11.
Pediatria Catalana ; 82(2):59-64, 2022.
Article in Catalan | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030845

ABSTRACT

Ground. The sudden outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic resulted in a need to start coordinated research projects on the disease. The creation of the COPEDI-CAT group (July 2020;more than 170 professionals) to study pediatric covid-19 in Catalonia represents a good example of this effort. Objective. To disseminate the results of the COPEDI-CAT group to show the feasibility of a quality muftidisciplinary research strategy with wide participation of primary care (PC). Method. Review of the scientific production of the COPEDI-CAT group generated by a muftidisciplinary team. The group reviewed ongoing studies and collected data, proposed new projects, implemented interventions recommended by expert professionals (local, national, and international), and created a space for debate and monitoring of the pandemic. Results. The main questions about the symptoms, transmissibility, severity, and main complications of covid-19 in pediatrics (multisystem inflammatory syndrome and long covid-19) have been addressed. This research has generated papers at national and international conferences, high-impact scientific publications, recommended clinical guidelines for the management of long covid-19, clinical prediction models, research grants (Prandi and Marató TV3 scholarship) and the participation in the «Escoles Sen-tinella» project. Conclusions. The covid-19 pandemic has represented a unique opportunity to carry out quality multidisciplinary research in pediatrics at PC. COPEDI-CAT can be a model for future research on diseases that affect children and adolescents in our country.

12.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029873

ABSTRACT

Viruses have been classified as non-living because they require a cellular host to support their replicative processes. Empirical investigations have significantly advanced our understanding of the many strategies employed by viruses to usurp and divert host regulatory and metabolic processes to drive the synthesis and release of infectious particles. The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has permitted us to evaluate and discuss a potentially novel classification of viruses as living entities. The ability of SARS CoV-2 to engender comprehensive regulatory control of integrative cellular processes is strongly suggestive of an inherently dynamic informational registry that is programmatically encoded by linear ssRNA sequences responding to distinct evolutionary constraints. Responses to positive evolutionary constraints have resulted in a single-stranded RNA viral genome that occupies a three-dimensional space defined by conserved base-paring resulting from a complex pattern of both secondary and tertiary structures. Additionally, regulatory control of virus-mediated infectious processes relies on extensive protein-protein interactions that drive conformational matching and shape recognition events to provide a functional link between complementary viral and host nucleic acid and protein domains. We also recognize that the seamless integration of complex replicative processes is highly dependent on the precise temporal matching of complementary nucleotide sequences and their corresponding structural and non-structural viral proteins. Interestingly, the deployment of concerted transcriptional and translational activities within targeted cellular domains may be modeled by artificial intelligence (AI) strategies that are inherently fluid, self-correcting, and adaptive at accommodating temporal changes in host defense mechanisms. In depth understanding of multiple self-correcting AI-associated viral processes will most certainly lead to novel therapeutic development platforms, notably the design of efficacious neuropharmacological agents to treat chronic CNS syndromes associated with long-COVID. In summary, it appears that viruses, notably SARS-CoV-2, are very much alive due to acquired genetic advantages that are intimately entrained to existential host processes via evolutionarily constrained AI-associated learning paradigms.

13.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory training is the only evidence-based treatment for post viral olfactory dysfunction. Smell disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection have been attributed to neuroinflammatory events within the olfactory bulb and the central nervous system. Therefore, targeting neuroinflammation is one potential strategy for promoting recovery from post-COVID-19 chronic olfactory dysfunction. Palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin (PEA-LUT) are candidate anti-inflammatory/ neuroprotective agents. OBJECTIVE: To investigate recovery of olfactory function in patients treated with PEA-LUT oral supplements plus olfactory training versus olfactory training plus placebo. METHODS: Multicenter double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eligible subjects had prior COVID-19 and persistent olfactory impairment >6 months after follow-up SARS-CoV-2 negative testing, without prior history of olfactory dysfunction sinonasal disorders. Participants were randomized to daily oral supplementation with ultramicronized PEA-LUT 770 mg plus olfactory training (intervention group) or olfactory training with placebo (control). Sniffin' Sticks assessments were used to test the patients at baseline and 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients, including intervention (130) and control (55) were enrolled. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification scores compared to controls (p=0.0001). Overall, 92% of patients in the intervention group improved versus 42% of controls. Magnitude of recovery was significantly greater in the intervention group versus control (12.8 + 8.2 versus mean 3.2 + 3), with >10-fold higher prevalence of anosmia in control versus intervention groups at the 90-day endpoint. CONCLUSION: Among individuals with olfactory dysfunction post COVID-19, combining PEA-LUT with olfactory training resulted in greater recovery of smell than olfactory training alone. (ITALIAN; Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04853836).

14.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(7):745-749 and 797, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030398

ABSTRACT

Global literature have reported that individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 may suffer from persistent symptoms, namely long COVID-19, also known as the post-COVID-19 condition. WHO defines that long COVID-19 occurs in individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms and that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Symptoms of long COVID-19 include fatigue, headache dyspnea and so on, affecting multiple systems such as neurological, psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Based on the existing evidence, it is suggested to strengthen scientific research on long COVID-19, persist in a "dynamic COVID-zero strategy" currently to reduce infections,accelerate vaccination coverage, and carry out early monitoring and intervention of long COVID-19, to cope with the long-term disease and economic burden caused by long COVID-19. © 2022, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

15.
13th ACM International Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Health Informatics, BCB 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029549

ABSTRACT

As of May 15th, 2022, the novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2 has infected 517 million people and resulted in more than 6.2 million deaths around the world. About 40% to 87% of patients suffer from persistent symptoms weeks or months after their original infection. Despite remarkable progress in preventing and treating acute COVID-19 conditions, the clinical diagnosis of long-Term COVID remains difficult. In this work, we use free-Text clinical notes and natural language processing (NLP) techniques to explore long-Term COVID effects. We first obtain free-Text clinical notes from 719 outpatient encounters representing patients treated by physicians at Emory Clinic to detect patterns in patients with long-Term COVID symptoms. We apply state-of-The-Art NLP frameworks to automatically identify patients with long-Term COVID effects, achieving 0.881 recall (sensitivity) score for note-level prediction. We further interpret the prediction outcomes and discuss potential phenotypes. Our work aims to provide a data-driven solution to identify patients who have developed persistent symptoms after acute COVID infection. With this work, clinicians may be able to identify patients who have long-Term COVID symptoms to optimize treatment. © 2022 Owner/Author.

16.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343333

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has been associated with a broad range of long-term sequelae, commonly referred to as “long-COVID” or “post-COVID” syndrome. Despite an increasing body of literature, long COVID remains poorly characterized. Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from electronic medical records of patients admitted to the post-COVID outpatient service at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy, between June 2020 and June 2021, 4-12 weeks after hospital discharge. Findings: A total 428 patients, 41% women, median age 64 years underwent a follow-up visit a median 53 days after hospital discharge. Overall, 76% patients reported at least one persistent symptom, including dyspnoea (37%), chronic fatigue (36%), insomnia (16%), visual disorders (13%) and brain fog (13%). Increasing oxygen support (OR 1·4, 95%CI 1·1-1·8), use of immunosuppressants (OR 6·4, 95%CI 1·5-28) and female sex (OR 1·8, 95%CI 1·1-2·9) were associated with a higher risk of long COVID symptoms. Moreover, comparing symptoms reported by patients infected in the period March-December 2020 (prevalent circulation of wild-type SARS-CoV-2) with those by patients infected in the period January-April 2021 (prevalent circulation of B.1.1.7 Alpha variant), a significant modification in the pattern of symptoms belonging to the neurological and cognitive/emotional categories was observed. Interpretation: Our findings confirmed shortness of breath and chronic fatigue as the most frequent long COVID manifestations, while female sex and severe COVID-19 course were the main risk factors for developing lingering symptoms. Analysis of temporal trend of persistent symptoms suggested that SARS-CoV-2 variants may induce different long COVID phenotypes, possibly due to changes in cell tropism and differences in viral-host interaction. Funding Information: This article has been supported by funds of Ministry of Education, University and Research (Italy) Excellence Departments 2018-2022 (Project for the Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine).

17.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343173

ABSTRACT

In a national cohort of 12,788 adolescents, those reporting parents experiencing ongoing problems from COVID-19 had 1.79-fold (95%CI: 1.58-2.02) higher odds of experiencing LONG COVID 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR-test than those reporting parents without ongoing symptoms, independent of age, sex, deprivation and SARS-CoV-2 infection status.

18.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028968

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has a wide range of both acute and long-term symptoms. Memory alterations have been frequently reported in studies that explore cognition. The main objective of the systematic review is to update and further analyze the existing evidence of objective memory impairments in long-COVID-19 considering sample and study design characteristics, as well as to explore associations between memory performance and their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features. A total of 13 studies were identified by searching in PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases up to May 6, 2022. Most studies evaluated verbal component of memory in the short-term and long-term recall up to 30 min and mainly performed a single assessment completed at 4-6 months after the infection. The samples mainly consisted of middle-aged adults that required hospitalization. Samples were not stratified by sex, age, and severity. Poor verbal learning was reported in most cases (6-58%), followed by deficits in long-term (4-58%) and short-term (4-37%) verbal memory. Visuospatial component of memory was studied less than verbal component, showing impairment of long-term retention of visual items (10-49%). COVID-19 severity in the acute stage was not systematically associated with poor memory performance. Verbal memory deficits were associated with anxiety and depression. The existing literature on objective memory assessment in long-COVID suggests further research is warranted to confirm memory dysfunction in association with epidemiological, pathological, and clinical factors, using both verbal and visuospatial tests, and exploring in deep long-term memory deficits.

19.
Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2028950

ABSTRACT

Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), more commonly referred to as Long COVID, is one of the most daunting health-care grand challenges facing the United States today. Affecting millions of Americans, Long COVID extracts a huge cost both socially and economically. In this article, we provide a preliminary estimate of the annual income loss and medical costs due to Long COVID in the United States. With many Long COVID patients either meeting the diagnostic criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or exhibiting symptoms consistent with ME/CFS, we utilize ME/CFS to help guide our estimates. Based on the nearly 86 million documented US COVID survivors as of June 25, 2022, and considering a range of 5% to 20% of those survivors currently afflicted with Long COVID, we estimate annual medical costs to range from $43 billion to $172 billion, and lost income to range from $101 billion to $430 billion. This corresponds to an annual economic impact (exclusive of costs of disability services, social services, and lost income on the part of caretakers) ranging from roughly $140 billion to $600 billion. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
Radiography (Lond) ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented health crisis resulting in over 6 million deaths worldwide, a figure, which continues to grow. In addition to the excess mortality, there are individuals who recovered from the acute stages, but suffered long-term changes in their health post COVID-19, commonly referred to as long COVID. It is estimated there are currently 1.8 million long COVID sufferers by May 2022 in the UK alone. The aim of this narrative literature review is to explore the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of long COVID and the potential impact on imaging services. KEY FINDINGS: Long COVID is estimated to occur in 9.5% of those with two doses of vaccination and 14.6% if those with a single dose or no vaccination. Long COVID is defined by ongoing symptoms lasting for 12 or more weeks post acute infection. Symptoms are associated with reductions in the quality of daily life and may involve multisystem manifestations or present as a single symptom. CONCLUSION: The full impact of long COVID on imaging services is yet to be realised, but there is likely to be significant increased demand for imaging, particularly in CT for the assessment of lung disease. Educators will need to include aspects related to long COVID pathophysiology and imaging presentations in curricula, underpinned by the rapidly evolving evidence base. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Symptoms relating to long COVID are likely to become a common reason for imaging, with a particular burden on Computed Tomography services. Planning, education and updating protocols in line with a rapidly emerging evidence base is going to be essential.

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