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1.
Economía, Sociedad y Territorio ; 23(71):309-338, 2023.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2217911

ABSTRACT

An Unemployment Vulnerability Index is presented to obtain the profiles of those employed in Mexico with the highest risk of losing their job, taking as reference labor data produced during the covid-19 pandemic. Among the results derived from the Analytical Hierarchical Process, it was found that the most influential variables to measure vulnerability to unemployment were sector and gender;thus women with basic education, working in the informal sector, in the services branch, or micro-enterprises and with low income, had a greater probability of losing their job.Alternate :En esta investigación se presenta un Índice de Vulnerabilidad al Desempleo para obtener los perfiles de los ocupados en México con mayor riesgo a perder su trabajo, se toman como referencia datos laborales producidos durante la pandemia por covid-19. Entre los resultados derivados del Proceso Jerárquico Analítico se encontró que las variables más influyentes para medir la vulnerabilidad al desempleo fueron el sector y el género;los perfiles de mujeres con educación básica, quienes trabajan en el sector informal, en la rama de servicios o en microempresas con un ingreso bajo, tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de perder su trabajo.

2.
Socialni Studia ; 19(2):55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2217431

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected the work, personal, and family lives of all Czechs. In this regard, single parents are one of the most vulnerable groups. They are very frequent recipients of external support, provided by the state or by grandparents. Government restrictions, accompanied by, among other things, reduced availability of institutional childcare services, have significantly increased parents' demand for informal childcare. However, grandparents have not been able to fully satisfy this demand. Within the proposed typology, the so-called risk group of single parents who did not receive the required childcare support concerning school preparation or free time, as well financial or material help, was identified. The size of this group grew during the pandemic. According to regression analysis, parents of preschool and younger school children, working in precarious forms of work, in a low-income situation, and/or in rental housing, were at higher risk of falling into the group of single parents who need informal support.

3.
IUP Journal of International Relations ; 16(4):32-45, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168803

ABSTRACT

The paper studies the relationship between poverty levels, per capita incomes and inequality by using a large sample of low and middle-income nations. The results, which indicate the requirement of a per capita income that is close to the one currently registered in Mexico for poverty removal, are used to predict the year of the "happy event" of poverty eradication in India. The tentative finding is that the portals to a better material life for the people of India may gradually open only in the early 2040. It is also observed that some countries like Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have succeeded in poverty removal at low per capita income levels, which may be attributed to greater success in removing inequality and to praiseworthy performance in the realm of non-monetary indicators of poverty. The paper is, of course, based on some important rational assumptions such as absence of any other major shock such as Covid-19, and the continuous average increase in India's GDP by 8%. Therefore, this is an exercise in rationality with the absence of major external positive or negative shocks.

4.
Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research ; 13(2):1-16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2205623

ABSTRACT

Dans cet article, nous examinons les expériences d'organismes sans but lucratif (OSBL) qui ont offert des services aux sans-abris durant la premiere vague de la COVID-19. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené des entrevues qualitatives aupres des employés et des bénévoles des services de premiere ligne dans les deux plus grandes collectivités de la Nouvelle-Écosse au Canada. Les personnes rencontrées ont souligné la pression considérable exercée sur les ressources humaines, mais aussi leur capacité d'ajuster rapidement leurs prestations de services pour continuer de fournir leur appui. La plupart d'entre elles ont indiqué avoir reçu davantage de soutien en nature de la part du secteur privé et de La communauté ainsi que plus de financement du gouvernement federal, accompagné cependant de fardeaux administratifs et d'échéances serrées. D'autre part, les OSBL du secteur ont fait figure de chefs de file dans l'élaboration de mesures pour répondre aux besoins des sans-abris, y compris l'aménagement d'aires de confort, l'installation de toilettes portatives au centre-ville, et l'aménagement de personnes sans logement dans des hôtels. En outre, les OSBL ont demandé que le gouvernement intervienne pour loger les sans-abris en investissant dans de nouveaux logements et en augmentant les salaires des fournisseurs de services de premiere ligne. En meme temps, les OSBL du secteur ont indiqué que, a la suite de leur réponse a la COVID-19, ils ont pu mener des actions intersectorielles avec les acteurs gouvernementaux et d'autres OSBL et améliorer leurs communications et leurs relations avec ceux-ci.Alternate :This article examines the experiences of the nonprofit, homeless-serving sector during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative interviews were conducted with staff and volunteers from frontline organizations in the two largest communities in Nova Scotia, Canada. Participants reported much strain on their organizations' human resources, but also the ability to adjust service delivery mechanisms quickly in order to continue offering supports. Most reported greater in-kind contributions from businesses and community members as well as more funding from the federal government in particular, albeit with administrative burdens and defined timelines. Nonprofits played a leadership role in developing responses to serve the needs of those experiencing lessness, developing comfort centres, installing portable toilets in downtown locations, and moving those without housing into hotels. They also advocated to government for state-level responses to those without housing, including calls to invest in new units and enhance funding for frontline service providers. At the same time, nonprofits reported working across sectors, noting better communication and relationships with state actors as well as other nonprofit organizations as a result of their COVID-19 response. RÉSUMÉ

5.
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning ; 13(2):71-79, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2205273

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has had a significant influence on public transportation usage and service provision. As many countries begin to return to normality, new public transportation planning standards are being developed. Considering these new standards, there is a critical shortage of understanding the possible impact of the pandemic on public transportation systems and models that can help service planning face these challenges. This paper analyzes data collected in Cluj-Napoca (Romania), from late-February 2020 to late-March 2021. As local authorities began to remove restrictions aimed at limiting the propagation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the study investigates the travel changes in various modes of transportation, travel plans, and user categories. Results confirm that low-income groups depend on public transit the most;consequently, they had considerably lower declines in usage during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also identifies various daily average patterns of demand for public transportation in Cluj-Napoca throughout each stage of the pandemic. All of these data contribute to extending the global understanding about COVID-19's influence on transport usage by comparing these outcomes with the ones from other cities. They offer pertinent information for transportation authorities to develop adaptation policies to a major event like this pandemic. Although there is still apprehension about using public transportation, the collected data show that the regular public transport users from before the pandemic have been gradually returning to their transport of choice once the restrictions have been relaxed (March-May 2020).

6.
The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 29(6):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204904

ABSTRACT

[...]the rehabilitation of food systems in Malaysia represents an opportunity to tackle food insecurity and the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in Malaysia, in addition to addressing climate change in the country. [...]there is an urgent need to curb further environmental change in Malaysia. [...]the agricultural industry must adapt to the effects of climate change on food production systems, such as by increasing crop diversity to ensure greater resilience to extreme weather events. [...]we must recognise the role of healthcare professionals to advocate for action in this unique nexus of food, environment and health (22).

7.
Health Affairs ; 42(1):5, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197205
8.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 380, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193675

ABSTRACT

Stephanie Kraft and colleagues argue that doing more to acknowledge the important role of research participants could help recruitment

9.
Journal of Nutritional Science ; 12, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2185270

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to develop the ASKFV-SE tool to measure self-efficacy (SE) towards requesting fruits and vegetables (FV) in the home and school environment with school-age children (grades 4–5) from urban, ethnically diverse, low-income households. Cognitive interviews reduced the tool from eleven items to seven. The 7-item questionnaire was tested with 444 children. The items loaded on two factors: home SE (four items) and school SE (two items) with one item was excluded (<0⋅40). The reduced 6-item, 2-factor structure was the best fit for the data (χ2 = 45⋅09;df = 9;CFI = 0⋅835;RMSEA = 0⋅147). Confirmatory factory analysis revealed that the 4-item home SE had high reliability (α = 0⋅73) and marginally acceptable reliability for the 2-item school SE (α = 0⋅53). The pre-COVID intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0⋅584 (P < 0⋅001;fair;n = 57) compared to 0⋅736 during-COVID (P < 0⋅001;good;n 50). The ASKFV-SE tool measures children's SE for asking for FVs with strong psychometric properties and low participant burden.

10.
Lancet Oncology ; 24(1):10-11, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2184684

ABSTRACT

According to estimates from the Joint Research Centre, 2·7 million new cancer cases were expected in 2020 (based on incidence trends from before the COVID-19 pandemic) and this number was expected to grow by 23% between 2020 and 2040. Within countries, important inequalities also exist across population groups;cancer mortality rates are 75% higher among men than women across EU countries and less educated individuals have higher mortality rates for nearly all types of cancer than their more highly educated counterparts.3 A large part of the inequalities in cancer can be linked to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption. In 2019, screening coverage still varied cross-nationally: self-reported rates of cancer screening participation among women aged 50–69 years varied 10 times across EU countries, with the highest rates in Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) and the lowest rates in Eastern European countries (Romania and Bulgaria).

11.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S763-S765, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156522

ABSTRACT

Poor maternal nutrition remains a critical public health problem globally, including the United States. The global prevalence of maternal underweight and short stature were 14.2% and 9.7%, respectively, in 2015, and nearly half were still anemic. Although we have made significant progress in reducing maternal underweight, there is considerable inequality by region, combined with little to no progress for the other indicators, such as anemia, and increases in overweight and obesity.1,3Studies have shown that routine prenatal iron-folate supplementation is effective in reducing anemia and improving birth outcomes, but several other micronutrient deficiencies (vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B6, B12, and zinc) are common, especially during pregnancy and lactation, when requirements are increased,1,4 and factors such as climate change, the COVID-19 pandemic, and conflicts are expected to worsen the availability of and access to quality food across the globe by 2030.5 Although the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy is much lower in the United States than in other parts of the world, 1 in 10 pregnant women who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were anemic, and these rates were much higher in selected subgroups and also increased from 2008 to 2018 in some states.6 Poor diet quality and inadequate intakes of key nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids, iodine, and iron are also common in the United States.7,8 Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys show that more than 95% of women of reproductive age, including pregnant women, do not meet the recommended intake of at least 250 milligram (mg) of the long chain n-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, and iodine status is also suboptimal during pregnancy.8,9Finally, a major concern is the increased consumption of ultra-processed foods and reduced physical activity that have contributed to dramatic increases in obesity and overweight across the life course in the past three decades.10 Maternal obesity is a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large size for gestational age, and infant death, and recent data from the National Vital Statistics System show that prepregnancy obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) increased from 26.1% in 2016 to 29% in 2019 in the United States across all age, education, and race/ethnicity groups.10,11 Furthermore, women who are overweight or obese may also experience increased difficulties in breastfeeding their infants.

12.
Agriculture & Food Security ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153680

ABSTRACT

We review findings from the emerging microeconomic literature on observed changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we focus our review on studies in low- and middle-income countries that include household survey data measuring food insecurity collected both before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We first focus on several studies—seven from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and one from India—that estimate immediate changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Next, we review subsequent analysis studying longer term changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This review, therefore, complements existing macroeconomic projections of food insecurity based on expected changes in income and prices.

13.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2152960

ABSTRACT

At least 10.5 million children have been orphaned by covid-19. David Cox reports on the global efforts to recognise and secure a future for them

14.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1101(5):052004, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2151791

ABSTRACT

South Africa is one of the most urbanised and highly industrialised countries in Africa, with over 61% of the population in the urban areas. Moreover, poor access to housing manifests through informal settlements, slums and backyard dwellings mainly in the cities. While several housing policy interventions have been developed, the housing backlog is estimated at more than 2 million. The Covid-19 pandemic has massified problems resultant to shortage of housing, and the quality of housing across income levels, with low-income groups being the most affected. This paper locates governance discourse in housing development, acknowledging that the concept is used both in the academic discourse and general discussions on how institutions manage their business, including broader societal structures. The paper argues that governance is the missing ingredient in the current policy interventions towards delivery of low-income housing in South Africa. Using selected case studies from literature, this paper analyses and discusses low-income housing delivery processes and systems. Key findings are that housing delivery processes largely exclude governance principles primarily stakeholder participation, accountability and transparency. Notable is that government remains the sole actor in the identification and addressing housing needs, and this results in community resistance during implementation of projects.

15.
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ ; 39(12):A976-A977, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2137856

ABSTRACT

1482 Figure 2Performance of tools predicting composite primary outcome for the Omicron period[Figure omitted. See PDF] 1482 Table 1Triage tool diagnostic accuracy statistics (95% CI) for predicting any adverse outcome (entire study period)Tool N* C-statistic Threshold N (%) above threshold Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV CRB-65 432,584 0.70 (0.70, 0.71) >0 102,964 (23.8%) 0.61 (0.61, 0.61) 0.78 (0.77, 0.78) 0.09 (0.09, 0.09) 0.98 (0.98, 0.98) NEWS2 433,101 0.80 (0.79, 0.80) >1 178835 (41.3%) 0.83 (0.83, 0.83) 0.6 (0.6,0.6) 0.07 (0.07–0.07) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) PMEWS 438,810 0.79 (0.79, 0.79) >2 199,386 (45.4%) 0.85 (0.85, 0.85) 0.56 (0.56, 0.56) 0.06 (0.06, 0.07) 0.99 (0.99,0.99) PRIEST 438,880 0.82 (0.82, 0.82) >4 158,893 (36.2%) 0.83 (0.83, 0.83) 0.65 (0.65,0.66) 0.08 (0.08, 0.08) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) WHO 437,850 0.71 (0.71, 0.72) >0 235,775 (53.8%) 0.82 (0.81, 0.82) 0.47 (0.47, 0.47) 0.05 (0.05, 0.05) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) TEWS 432,612 0.72 (0.71, 0.72) >2 134,097 (31%) 0.62 (0.62, 0.62) 0.70 (0.70, 0.70) 0.07 (0.07, 0.07) 0.98 (0.98, 0.98) Quick COVID 446,088 0.70 (0.69, 0.70) >3 35,145 (7.9%) 0.33 (0.33, 0.33) 0.93 (0.93, 0.93) 0.14 (0.14, 0.14) 0.98 (0.98, 0.98) *Patients with <3 parameters were excluded from analysis when estimating performance 1482 Table 2Triage tool diagnostic accuracy statistics (95% CI) for predicting any adverse outcome (Omicron period)Tool N* C-statistic Threshold N (%) above threshold Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV CRB-65 136,961 0.69 (0.68, 0.70) >0 31,373 (22.9%) 0.59 (0.59, 0.59) 0.78 (0.78, 0.78) 0.05 (0.05, 0.05) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) NEWS2 137,125 0.77 (0.76, 0.78) >1 76,183 (55.6%) 0.87 (0.87, 0.87) 0.45 (0.45, 0.45) 0.03 (0.03, 0.03) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) PMEWS 138,954 0.76 (0.75, 0.76) >2 59,876 (43.1%) 0.80 (0.80, 0.80) 0.58 (0.58, 0.58) 0.04 (0.04, 0.04) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) PRIEST 158,893 0.78 (0.77, 0.79) >4 46,529 (33.5%) 0.75 (0.75, 0.75) 0.67 (0.67, 0.67) 0.04 (0.04, 0.04) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) WHO 138,666 0.62 (0.61, 0.63) >0 72,599 (52.4%) 0.70 (0.70, 0.70) 0.48 (0.48, 0.48) 0.03 (0.03, 0.03) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) TEWS 136,967 0.73 (0.72, 0.74) >2 39,509 (28.8%) 0.64 (0.64, 0.64) 0.72 (0.72, 0.72) 0.04 (0.04, 0.04) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) Quick COVID 140520 0.61 (0.60, 0.63) >3 8,210 (6.4%) 0.17 (0.17, 0.17) 0.94 (0.94, 0.94) 0.06 (0.06, 0.06) 0.98 (0.98, 0.98) *Patients with <3 parameters were excluded from analysis when estimating performanceResults and ConclusionOf the 446,084 patients, 15,397 patients (3.45%, 95% CI:34% to 35.1%) experienced the primary outcome. Figure 1 presents the ROC curves for the triage tools for the total study period and figure 2 for the period of the Omicron wave. NEWS2, PMEWS, PRIEST tool and WHO algorithm identified patients at risk of adverse outcomes at recommended cut-offs with moderate sensitivity (>0.8) and specificity ranging from 0.47 (NEWS2) o 0.65 (PRIEST tool). The low prevalence of the primary outcome, especially in the Omicron period, meant use of these tools would have more than doubled admissions with only a small reduction in risk of false negative triage.Triage tools developed specifically in low- and middle-income settings may be needed to provide accurate risk prediction. Existing triage tools may need to be used at varying thresholds to reflect different baseline-line risks of adverse outcomes in different settings.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(11), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2137746

ABSTRACT

IntroductionDeath following surgical procedures is a global health problem, accounting for 4.2 million deaths annually within the first 30 postoperative days. The fourth indicator of The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery is essential as it seeks to standardise postoperative mortality. Consequently, it helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of each country’s healthcare system. Accurate information on this indicator is not available in Colombia, limiting the possibility of interventions applied to our population. We aim to describe the in-hospital perioperative mortality of the surgical procedures performed in Colombia. The data obtained will help formulate public policies, improving the quality of the surgical departments.Methods and analysisAn observational, analytical, multicentre prospective cohort study will be conducted throughout Colombia. Patients over 18 years of age who have undergone a surgical procedure, excluding radiological/endoscopic procedures, will be included. A sample size of 1353 patients has been projected to achieve significance in our primary objective;however, convenience sampling will be used, as we aim to include all possible patients. Data collection will be carried out prospectively for 1 week. Follow-up will continue until hospital discharge, death or a maximum of 30 inpatient days. The primary outcome is perioperative mortality. A descriptive analysis of the data will be performed, along with a case mix analysis of mortality by procedure-related, patient-related and hospital-related conditionsEthics and disseminationThe Fundación Cardioinfantil-Instituto de Cardiología Ethics Committee approved this study (No. 41–2021). The results are planned to be disseminated in three scenarios: the submission of an article for publication in a high-impact scientific journal and presentations at the Colombian Surgical Forum and the Congress of the American College of Surgeons.Trial registration numberNCT05147623.

17.
The Lancet Oncology ; 23(12):1489, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2132779

ABSTRACT

[...]in Ireland, a new bill, called the Central Bank (Amendment) Bill 2022, was brought before the Seanad (upper house of the national Parliament) on Oct 18, 2022, seeking to make sure that survivors of cancer are not refused access to economic products, such as insurance and mortgage protection, due to their cancer history. According to the Irish Cancer Society, people affected by cancer in Ireland are three times more likely to find it difficult to find insurance and are twice as likely to have difficulty in securing a mortgage compared with those without cancer. Bhatt commented, “The efforts in Ireland to improve access for individuals who have experienced cancer to mortgages and insurance takes an interesting and important step toward looking beyond the proximal need for chemotherapy, antibiotics, surgery, and radiotherapy—and seeks to support how people ‘live’ beyond cancer.”

18.
Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research ; 11:143-153, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2125108

ABSTRACT

Poverty is an absolute or relative condition that causes a person or society in an area not to have the ability to meet their basic needs following certain values or norms that apply in society due to natural, cultural, or structural causes (Nugroho, 2004). [...]along with the times, the causal factors, indicators, and problems related to poverty have become increasingly complex. A country said to be poor is usually characterized by low per capita income, high population growth rates, and most of the workforce engaged in agriculture and shackled in a vicious cycle of poverty. (2000) identified the causes of poverty from an economic perspective, such as (1) unequal patterns of resource ownership that lead to unequal income distribution, (2) poverty arises due to differences in the quality of human resources, and (3) based on the vicious circle of poverty theory. If this happens continuously, the GRDP will show a regional economic growth decline. [...]there is an increase in poverty in the community. 2.2.Wages According to Law Number 13 of 2013 concerning Employment, wages are the rights of workers received in the form of money as a reward from the employer, which are determined and paid according to an employment agreement or statutory regulations, including allowances for workers and their families for a job and/or service that has been or will be performed.

19.
Makara Hubs-Asia ; 27(1), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124070

ABSTRACT

Corresponding to the current pandemic issue, Covid-19 has driven unprecedented economic loss and instability to many, particularly among low-income families, especially in Asia. In context, families involved single mothers who are markedly affected by job loss;thus, low-income households had markedly affected the well-being and development of children. In addition to family environment, sociodemographic variables, such as socioeconomic status, educational level of parents, and parental conflict, had also been associated with problematic or competent behaviors during childhood. This scoping review aimed to determine current knowledge regarding the impact of single motherhood on the emotional well-being of a child. This review was reported in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Three databases, namely Scopus, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), were used for data scoping. A total of 341 studies were identified, but only 15 studies conducted in the Asian continent were eligible for selection. Results showed five significant findings concerning parent-child dysfunctional interaction, time spent, family socioeconomic status, parenting skills, and parental styles that impacted the emotional well-being of children, causing child development delay and delinquency.

20.
Sociological Research Online ; 27(3):604-674, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064619

ABSTRACT

Parents and carers taking part in the Covid Realities research programme came together to create a zine about their experiences during the pandemic, as well as focusing on what needs to change in the future and why. The zine was developed and designed collaboratively by participants and artist Jean McEwan, and supported by the research team, at a series of three virtual zine-making workshops during February and March 2021. The aim of the zine is to directly represent the voices of parents and carers, therefore giving power and expression to those with firsthand experience of living on a low income, who are frequently marginalised in broader policy-making conversations. Making zine pages together in small groups with the chance for conversation and discussion during the workshops also provided a source of social support for contributors. This is especially pertinent in the pandemic context, where it has been harder for people to find social spaces to connect.

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