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1.
Signa Vitae ; 18(4):68-74, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964952

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments have been implicated as a source of index cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection. We describe the epidemiological characteristics and initial clinical presentation of patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in an emergency department at a hospital in Riyadh, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The records of all patients presenting to the emergency department who tested positive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing from April 2014 to November 2019 were reviewed, and the outcomes were assessed. The clinical presentations and outcomes were compared according to sex. A total of 68 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were identified, of whom 40 (58.8%) were female, and 28 (41.2%) were male. The mean age was 50.7 (standard deviation: 16.4) years, and female patients were younger (44.7±13.1 years) than male patients (59.4 ± 16.9 years). Nineteen of the 68 patients (27.9%) were asymptomatic of whom the majority (16/19, 84%) were female (p = 0.012). The most common symptoms were fever (n = 29, 42.6%), cough (n = 25, 36.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 23, 33.8%), and pneumonia (n = 15, 22.1%). Pneumonia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and vomiting/diarrhea were more common among male patients. Male patients were more likely than female patients to require hospital admission (78.6% vs. 30.0%), intensive care unit admission (64.3% vs. 15.0%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (32.1% vs. 10.0%). The most common presentation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in this cohort was asymptomatic infection. A high proportion of asymptomatic infections has not been reported previously. The study did not identify typical clinical features of MERS patients. Male patients tended to develop more severe disease than female patients. A larger study is needed to confirm these findings. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by MRE Press.

2.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(4): 402-408, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964882

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, coronaviruses have caused three epidemics: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, with the f irst two having a very high lethality of about 10 and 26 %, respectively. The last outbreak of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV2 in 2019 in China has swept the entire planet and is still spreading. The source of these viruses in humans are animals: bats, Himalayan civets, and camels. The genomes of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 are highly similar. It has been established that coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2) occurs through the viral protein S interaction with the lung epithelium - angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) - due to which the virus enters the cells. The most attractive model for studying the development of these diseases is a laboratory mouse, which, however, is resistant to coronavirus infection. The resistance is explained by the difference in the amino acid composition of mouse Ace2 and human ACE2 proteins. Therefore, to create mice susceptible to SARS- CoV and SARS-CoV2 coronaviruses, the human ACE2 gene is transferred into their genome. The exogenous DNA of the constructs is inserted into the recipient genome randomly and with a varying number of copies. Based on this technology, lines of transgenic mice susceptible to intranasal coronavirus infection have been created. In addition, the use of the technology of targeted genome modif ication using CRISPR/Cas9 made it possible to create lines of transgenic animals with the insertion of the human ACE2 gene under the control of the endogenous murine Ace2 gene promoter. This "humanization" of the Ace2 gene makes it possible to obtain animals susceptible to infection with coronaviruses. Thus, transgenic animals that simulate coronavirus infections and are potential platforms for testing vaccines have now been created.

3.
Risk Anal ; 42(1): 5-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961874

ABSTRACT

Whether emergent groups positively or negatively influence a disaster response remains inconclusive in the literature. We analyzed the effect of an emergent group on two interorganizational networks for information communication and resource coordination during a public health emergency response. Using the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus in Korea as a study case, we identified an ad hoc entity that appeared in both networks. This emergent group, which consists of government officials and public health specialists, directed and coordinated organizations at the center of the response networks. We found that the emergent group positively contributed to efficient information communication but had no effect on the resource network's efficiency. Our interpretation is that the ad hoc entity was filling relational gaps in the information network, but was redundant in the resource network.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Public Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952992

ABSTRACT

The natural plant dietary polyphenols 1,2,3,4,6-O-Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) and proanthocyanidin (PAC) have potent antioxidant activity and a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiviral activity. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of PGG and PAC on SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, and elucidated its mode of action. PGG and PAC have dose-dependent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero cells. PGG has a lower IC50 (15.02 ± 0.75 µM) than PAC (25.90 ± 0.81 µM), suggesting that PGG has better inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 than PAC. The PGG and PAC inhibit similar Mpro activities in a protease activity assay, with IC50 values of 25-26 µM. The effects of PGG and PAC on the activity of the other essential SARS-CoV-2 viral protein, RdRp, were analyzed using a cell-based activity assay system. The activity of RdRp is inhibited by PGG and PAC, and PGG has a lower IC50 (5.098 ± 1.089 µM) than PAC (21.022 ± 1.202 µM), which is consistent with their inhibitory capacity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. PGG and PAC also inhibit infection by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. These data indicate that PGG and PAC may be candidate broad-spectrum anticoronaviral therapeutic agents, simultaneously targeting the Mpro and RdRp proteins of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
6.
Cognit Comput ; : 1-21, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943282

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an extremely contagious and quickly spreading coronavirus infestation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which outbreak in 2002 and 2011, and the current COVID-19 pandemic are all from the same family of coronavirus. This work aims to classify COVID-19, SARS, and MERS chest X-ray (CXR) images using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To the best of our knowledge, this classification scheme has never been investigated in the literature. A unique database was created, so-called QU-COVID-family, consisting of 423 COVID-19, 144 MERS, and 134 SARS CXR images. Besides, a robust COVID-19 recognition system was proposed to identify lung regions using a CNN segmentation model (U-Net), and then classify the segmented lung images as COVID-19, MERS, or SARS using a pre-trained CNN classifier. Furthermore, the Score-CAM visualization method was utilized to visualize classification output and understand the reasoning behind the decision of deep CNNs. Several deep learning classifiers were trained and tested; four outperforming algorithms were reported: SqueezeNet, ResNet18, InceptionV3, and DenseNet201. Original and preprocessed images were used individually and all together as the input(s) to the networks. Two recognition schemes were considered: plain CXR classification and segmented CXR classification. For plain CXRs, it was observed that InceptionV3 outperforms other networks with a 3-channel scheme and achieves sensitivities of 99.5%, 93.1%, and 97% for classifying COVID-19, MERS, and SARS images, respectively. In contrast, for segmented CXRs, InceptionV3 outperformed using the original CXR dataset and achieved sensitivities of 96.94%, 79.68%, and 90.26% for classifying COVID-19, MERS, and SARS images, respectively. The classification performance degrades with segmented CXRs compared to plain CXRs. However, the results are more reliable as the network learns from the main region of interest, avoiding irrelevant non-lung areas (heart, bones, or text), which was confirmed by the Score-CAM visualization. All networks showed high COVID-19 detection sensitivity (> 96%) with the segmented lung images. This indicates the unique radiographic signature of COVID-19 cases in the eyes of AI, which is often a challenging task for medical doctors.

7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936360

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are known to act in both predictable and unpredictable ways, which leads to the notions of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Emerging diseases with their disastrous consequences might be surprising and unpredictable, but they could be foreseen. For instance, some emerging diseases and recently the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were the reason for papers published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other researchers addressing the likely pathogens causing future outbreaks, according to the reports of the WHO in 2016 and 2018. Although it might seem like a wisdom in retrospect, several studies had already indicated possible future outbreaks caused by coronaviruses. Announcements, which may be viewed as "warnings," appeared since the emergence of the first coronavirus-related outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in the winter of 2002-2003 and a later outbreak caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012-2013. Therefore, we were curious to review the medical literature prior to the COVID-19 pandemic with an aim to enumerate and evaluate studies addressing and warning against future outbreaks, and surprisingly pandemics, of members of coronaviruses. Interestingly, we found numerous studies that correctly predicted the current pandemic of COVID-19. While this part is highly interesting, how authorities reacted and prepared for warnings, if any, and how will they get prepared for the next warnings are our main messages. Taking these points into serious consideration will certainly aid in analyzing reports regarding possible future outbreaks as well as in developing various strategies for prevention and coping with such epidemics.

8.
Cell Rep ; 40(5): 111160, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936138

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, multiple pathogenic coronavirus species exist, urging on development of multispecies coronavirus vaccines. Here we develop prototype lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-mRNA vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 Delta, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, and we test how multiplexing LNP-mRNAs can induce effective immune responses in animal models. Triplex and duplex LNP-mRNA vaccinations induce antigen-specific antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Single-cell RNA sequencing profiles the global systemic immune repertoires and respective transcriptome signatures of vaccinated animals, revealing a systemic increase in activated B cells and differential gene expression across major adaptive immune cells. Sequential vaccination shows potent antibody responses against all three species, significantly stronger than simultaneous vaccination in mixture. These data demonstrate the feasibility, antibody responses, and single-cell immune profiles of multispecies coronavirus vaccination. The direct comparison between simultaneous and sequential vaccination offers insights into optimization of vaccination schedules to provide broad and potent antibody immunity against three major pathogenic coronavirus species.

9.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SWARM INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH ; 13(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939122

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, COVID-19 is considered to be the biggest disaster that the world is facing. It has created a lot of destruction in the whole world. Due to this COVID-19, analysis has been done to predict the death rate and infected rate from the total population. To perform the analysis on COVID-19, regression analysis has been implemented by applying the differential equation and ordinary differential equation (ODE) on the parameters. The parameters taken for analysis are the number of susceptible individuals, the number of infected individuals, and the number of recovered individuals. This work will predict the total cases, death cases, and infected cases in the near future based on different reproductive rate values. This work has shown the comparison based on four different productive rates (i.e., 2.45, 2.55, 2.65, and 2.75). The analysis is done on two different datasets;the first dataset is related to China, and the second dataset is associated with the world's data. The work has predicted that by 2020-08-12 there will be 59,450,123 new cases, 432,499,003 total cases, and 10,928,383 deaths.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939057

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine roll-out has been successful around the world. However, there are increasing concerns about adverse events. We report two pediatric cases of Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndrome (MIS-C) with neurological involvement that occurred after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and unknown recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Brain magnetic resonance revealed mild-encephalopathy with reversible-splenial-lesion in both cases and complete resolution within 4 weeks. In conclusion, this report aims to describe rare emerging clinical entities that can help pediatricians to make an early diagnosis and to provide appropriate treatment. Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndromes following COVID-19 vaccination remain rare events. When a history of a recent contact with SARS-CoV-2 is present, a careful evaluation by the clinicians in charge of immunization activities is suggested prior to proceeding with the vaccination.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 618, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unlike SARS-CoV and MERS-C0V, SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to become a recurrent seasonal infection; hence, it is essential to compare the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 to the existent endemic coronaviruses. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with seasonal coronavirus (sCoV) infection and COVID-19 to compare their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: A total of 190 patients hospitalized with any documented respiratory tract infection and a positive respiratory viral panel for sCoV from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2020, were included. Those patients were compared with 190 hospitalized adult patients with molecularly confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 admitted from March 1, 2020, to May 25, 2020. RESULTS: Among 190 patients with sCoV infection, the Human Coronavirus-OC93 was the most common coronavirus with 47.4% of the cases. When comparing demographics and baseline characteristics, both groups were of similar age (sCoV: 74 years vs. COVID-19: 69 years) and presented similar proportions of two or more comorbidities (sCoV: 85.8% vs. COVID-19: 81.6%). More patients with COVID-19 presented with severe disease (78.4% vs. 67.9%), sepsis (36.3% vs. 20.5%), and developed ARDS (15.8% vs. 2.6%) compared to patients with sCoV infection. Patients with COVID-19 had an almost fourfold increased risk of in-hospital death than patients with sCoV infection (OR 3.86, CI 1.99-7.49; p < .001). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 had similar demographics and baseline characteristics to hospitalized patients with sCoV infection; however, patients with COVID-19 presented with higher disease severity, had a higher case-fatality rate, and increased risk of death than patients with sCoV. Clinical findings alone may not help confirm or exclude the diagnosis of COVID-19 during high acute respiratory illness seasons. The respiratory multiplex panel by PCR that includes SARS-CoV-2 in conjunction with local epidemiological data may be a valuable tool to assist clinicians with management decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
13.
Medicine (Madr) ; 13(58): 3432-3437, 2022 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931032

ABSTRACT

The syndromic surveillance of a group of diseases that have similar signs and symptoms, a common pathophysiology, and diverse etiology is aimed at rapidly detecting the presence of outbreaks which could potentially harm public health. This includes not only known outbreaks of infectious origin but also those of unknown origin. In patients suspected of having SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, it is recommended to consider other etiologies of tropical fever in the differential diagnosis when these patients live in or come from endemic areas, as is the case of dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, acute Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis, among other endemic diseases. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2/AH1 AH5N1 MERS-CoV coinfection with these pathogens should also be considered.

14.
World Family Medicine ; 20(2):33-47, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928827

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital preparedness planning for natural and man-made disasters has become the pressing necessity of hospitals being the principal habitat of disaster victims. One of the most critical areas of consideration is hospital preparedness for epidemic and pandemic events. Objectives: To assess concerns, perceived impacts and preparedness of health care workers for epidemic and pandemic events in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, Jazan. 2021. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1st, to August 31st, 2021 in three Ministry of Health hospitals in Jazan city. All health care workers (HCWs) working at the three hospitals were eligible to participate if they were direct clinical care providers. A valid questionnaire consisting of five parts was used;including demographic data, work-related concerns of health care workers, non-work related concerns of health care workers, perceived impact of health care workers on personal life and work and preparedness of health care workers for epidemic and pandemic events. Results: The study included 307 healthcare workers. The age of 39.7% of them ranged between 31 and 40 years. Almost two-thirds (62.2%) were males. The total score of work-related concern of COVID-19 among the participants ranged between 7 and 28, out of a possible maximum of 35, with a median (IQR) of 18 (15-22). HCWs in the age group 31-40 years, master holders, and doctors expressed the highest concerns score. The total score of non-work-related concern of COVID-19 ranged between 7 and 35, out of a possible maximum of 35, with a median ("interquartile range "IQR") of 28 (22-28). HCWs who hold a master degree and doctors expressed the highest concerns. The total score of perceived impact on personal life and work health professionals ranged between 6 and 44, out of a possible maximum of 50, with a median (IQR) of 25 (21-30). HCWs in the age group 31-40, and Master holders had the highest score. The total score of preparedness for Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic ranged between 15 and 75, out of a possible maximum of 75, with a median (IQR) of 56 (48-61). The highest score was observed among HCWs aged over 50 years. Conclusion: Some work-related and non-work-related concerns of HCWs in Jazan regarding COVID-19 pandemic have been identified. Also, perceived impact of the pandemic on HCWs' work and professional life has been documented. Their preparedness as well as that of the health care system to the COVID-19 pandemic was satisfactory in most aspects.

15.
chemRxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-340095

ABSTRACT

Many disease-causing viruses target sialic acids (Sias), a class of nine-carbon sugars known to coat the surface of many cells including those in the lungs. Human beta coronaviradae, known for causing respiratory tract diseases, often bind Sias, some preferentially bind to those with 9-O-Ac-modification. Currently, co-binding of SARS-CoV-2, a beta coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, to human Sias has been reported and its preference towards α2-3-linked Neu5Ac shown. Nevertheless, O-acetylated Sias-protein binding studies are difficult, due to the ester lability. We studied the binding free energy differences between Neu5,9Ac2α2-3GalβpNP and its more stable 9-NAc mimics binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using molecular dynamics and alchemical free energy simulations. We identified multiple Sias-binding pockets, including two novel sites, with similar binding affinities to those of MERS-CoV, a known co-binder of sialic acid. In our binding poses, 9-NAc and 9-OAc Sias bind similarly, suggesting an experimentally reasonable mimic to probe viral mechanisms.

16.
Advances in Applied Microbiology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926132

ABSTRACT

The term Gain-of-Function (GoF) describes the gain of new functions by organisms through genetic changes, which can naturally occur or by experimental genetic modifications. Gain-of-Function research on viruses is enhancing transmissibility, virus replication, virulence, host range, immune evasion or drug and vaccine resistance to get insights into the viral mechanisms, to create and analyze animal models, to accelerate drug and vaccine development and to improve pandemic preparedness. A subset is the GoF research of concern (GOFROC) on enhanced potentially pandemic pathogens (ePPPs) that could be harmful for humans. A related issue is the military use of research as dual-use research of concern (DURC). Influenza and coronaviruses are main research targets, because they cause pandemics by airborne infections. Two studies on avian influenza viruses initiated a global debate and a temporary GoF pause in the United States which ended with a new regulatory framework in 2017. In the European Union and China, GoF and DURC are mainly covered by the legislation for laboratory safety and genetically modified organisms. After the coronavirus outbreaks, the GoF research made significant advances, including analyses of modified MERS-like and SARS-like viruses and the creation of synthetic SARS-CoV-2 viruses as a platform to generate mutations. The GoF research on viruses will still play an important role in future, but the need to clarify the differences and overlaps between GoF research, GOFROC and DURC and the need for specialized oversight authorities are still debated.

17.
Structural Chemistry ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926060

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, has currently infected more than 247 million people around the world. Nowadays, several receptors of COVID-19 have been reported, and few of them are explored for drug discovery. New mutant strains of COVID-19 are emerging since the first outbreak of disease and causing significant morbidity and mortality across the world. Although, few drugs were approved for emergency uses, however, promising drug with well-proven clinical efficacy is yet to be discovered. Hence, researchers are continuously attempting to search for potential drug candidates targeting the well-established enzymatic targets of the virus. The present study aims to discover the antiviral compounds as potential inhibitors against the five targets in various stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, i.e., virus attachments (ACE2 and TMPRSS2), viral replication, and transcription (M-pro, PLpro and RdRp), using the most reliable molecular docking and molecular dynamics method. The ADMET study was then carried out to determine the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of several compounds with the best docking results. To provide a more effective mechanism for demonstrating protein-ligand interactions, molecular docking data were subjected to a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation at 300 K for 100 ns. In terms of structural stability, structure compactness, solvent accessible surface area, residue flexibility, and hydrogen bond interactions, the dynamic features of complexes have been compared.

18.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(7): 3563-3572, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921549

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has posed a global health challenge caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Early management and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 are crucial for the timely treatment, traceability, and reduction of viral spread. We have developed a rapid method using a Graphene-based Field-Effect Transistor (Gr-FET) for the ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antigen (S1-Ag). The in-house developed antispike S1 antibody (S1-Ab) was covalently immobilized on the surface of a carboxy functionalized graphene channel using carbodiimide chemistry. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), and device stability studies were conducted to characterize the bioconjugation and fabrication process of Gr-FET. In addition, the electrical response of the device was evaluated by monitoring the change in resistance caused by Ag-Ab interaction in real time. For S1-Ag, our Gr-FET devices were tested in the range of 1 fM to 1 µM with a limit of detection of 10 fM in the standard buffer. The fabricated devices are highly sensitive, specific, and capable of detecting low levels of S1-Ag.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Pandemics and Global Health ; : 327-339, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918719

ABSTRACT

The term “Pandemic” is generally taken to refer to a widespread epidemic of transmissible disease throughout the whole of a country or one or more continents at the same time. Key features of pandemics are wide geographic extension, disease movement, high attack rates and explosiveness, minimal population immunity, novelty, infectiousness, contagiousness, and severity. The appearance and spread of pandemics occurred regularly throughout history. Major pandemics and epidemics that struck the human race rigorously were plague, cholera, flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).The world is currently affecting the new deadly disease, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by SARS-Cov-2 Virus. This pathogenic virus spread all over the world. As it is a virus, it can extend easily and cause severe illness to humans. Several improved tactics have been taken in scientific and medicinal concern;we must consider the medicinal values of plantbased medicines to prevent many pandemic diseases. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

20.
Pandemics and Global Health ; : 287-311, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918574

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has changed the dimensions of human life. This new novel coronavirus has taken the world through a plethora of challenges affecting the health, economy, social and global security. As of 25 May 2021, with the death of 34, 72, 068 people and 167, 011, 807 affected, it’s high time to focus on measures to save future generations. The covid vaccination drive has started and the WHO approved vaccines are Oxford-AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech, Sinopharm-BBIBP, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson. Dated 23 May 2021, a total of 1, 489, 727, 128 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus has put forward the concept of an integrated One Health approach to public health, animal health and the environment, during the opening of the 27thTripartite Annual Executive Committee Meeting World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to prevent future pandemics (17 February 2021). Four international organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) will operate under One Health approach to identify the links between the health of people, animals, and the environment. This will contribute to safeguard the human race. He also warned about the possibility of the next pandemic threat - Disease X and other zoonotic diseases which could arise anytime. According to the WHO chief, the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated “intimate” linkages between the health of humans, animals and ecosystems, as zoonotic diseases spread between animals and people. For combatting the next pandemic, the World Health Organisation (WHO) prepared a global strategy for a pandemic response, the research and development (R&D) Blueprint. This R&D Blueprint has a list of identified priority diseases and a roadmap response plan for each of them. The diseases which pose a significant public health risk because of their potential to cause pandemics, as well as the lack of sufficient countermeasures against these (diseases), includes Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), MERS, SARS, Ebola, Nipah and several other dangerous infectious diseases. In this chapter, we will discuss some priority diseases which could arise as a future pandemic. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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