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1.
Infect Dis Model ; 7(3): 473-485, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966617

ABSTRACT

In this study, we determine and compare the incubation duration, serial interval, pre-symptomatic transmission, and case fatality rate of MERS-CoV and COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia based on contact tracing data we acquired in Saudi Arabia. The date of infection and infector-infectee pairings are deduced from travel history to Saudi Arabia or exposure to confirmed cases. The incubation times and serial intervals are estimated using parametric models accounting for exposure interval censoring. Our estimations show that MERS-CoV has a mean incubation time of 7.21 (95% CI: 6.59-7.85) days, whereas COVID-19 (for the circulating strain in the study period) has a mean incubation period of 5.43(95% CI: 4.81-6.11) days. MERS-CoV has an estimated serial interval of 14.13(95% CI: 13.9-14.7) days, while COVID-19 has an estimated serial interval of 5.1(95% CI: 5.0-5.5) days. The COVID-19 serial interval is found to be shorter than the incubation time, indicating that pre-symptomatic transmission may occur in a significant fraction of transmission events. We conclude that during the COVID-19 wave studied, at least 75% of transmission happened prior to the onset of symptoms. The CFR for MERS-CoV is estimated to be 38.1% (95% CI: 36.8-39.5), while the CFR for COVID-19 1.67% (95% CI: 1.63-1.71). This work is expected to help design future surveillance and intervention program targeted at specific respiratory virus outbreaks, and have implications for contingency planning for future coronavirus outbreaks.

2.
Signa Vitae ; 18(4):68-74, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964952

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments have been implicated as a source of index cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection. We describe the epidemiological characteristics and initial clinical presentation of patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in an emergency department at a hospital in Riyadh, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The records of all patients presenting to the emergency department who tested positive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing from April 2014 to November 2019 were reviewed, and the outcomes were assessed. The clinical presentations and outcomes were compared according to sex. A total of 68 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were identified, of whom 40 (58.8%) were female, and 28 (41.2%) were male. The mean age was 50.7 (standard deviation: 16.4) years, and female patients were younger (44.7±13.1 years) than male patients (59.4 ± 16.9 years). Nineteen of the 68 patients (27.9%) were asymptomatic of whom the majority (16/19, 84%) were female (p = 0.012). The most common symptoms were fever (n = 29, 42.6%), cough (n = 25, 36.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 23, 33.8%), and pneumonia (n = 15, 22.1%). Pneumonia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and vomiting/diarrhea were more common among male patients. Male patients were more likely than female patients to require hospital admission (78.6% vs. 30.0%), intensive care unit admission (64.3% vs. 15.0%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (32.1% vs. 10.0%). The most common presentation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in this cohort was asymptomatic infection. A high proportion of asymptomatic infections has not been reported previously. The study did not identify typical clinical features of MERS patients. Male patients tended to develop more severe disease than female patients. A larger study is needed to confirm these findings. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by MRE Press.

3.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(4): 402-408, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964882

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, coronaviruses have caused three epidemics: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, with the f irst two having a very high lethality of about 10 and 26 %, respectively. The last outbreak of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV2 in 2019 in China has swept the entire planet and is still spreading. The source of these viruses in humans are animals: bats, Himalayan civets, and camels. The genomes of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 are highly similar. It has been established that coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2) occurs through the viral protein S interaction with the lung epithelium - angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) - due to which the virus enters the cells. The most attractive model for studying the development of these diseases is a laboratory mouse, which, however, is resistant to coronavirus infection. The resistance is explained by the difference in the amino acid composition of mouse Ace2 and human ACE2 proteins. Therefore, to create mice susceptible to SARS- CoV and SARS-CoV2 coronaviruses, the human ACE2 gene is transferred into their genome. The exogenous DNA of the constructs is inserted into the recipient genome randomly and with a varying number of copies. Based on this technology, lines of transgenic mice susceptible to intranasal coronavirus infection have been created. In addition, the use of the technology of targeted genome modif ication using CRISPR/Cas9 made it possible to create lines of transgenic animals with the insertion of the human ACE2 gene under the control of the endogenous murine Ace2 gene promoter. This "humanization" of the Ace2 gene makes it possible to obtain animals susceptible to infection with coronaviruses. Thus, transgenic animals that simulate coronavirus infections and are potential platforms for testing vaccines have now been created.

4.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952992

ABSTRACT

The natural plant dietary polyphenols 1,2,3,4,6-O-Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) and proanthocyanidin (PAC) have potent antioxidant activity and a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiviral activity. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of PGG and PAC on SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, and elucidated its mode of action. PGG and PAC have dose-dependent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero cells. PGG has a lower IC50 (15.02 ± 0.75 µM) than PAC (25.90 ± 0.81 µM), suggesting that PGG has better inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 than PAC. The PGG and PAC inhibit similar Mpro activities in a protease activity assay, with IC50 values of 25-26 µM. The effects of PGG and PAC on the activity of the other essential SARS-CoV-2 viral protein, RdRp, were analyzed using a cell-based activity assay system. The activity of RdRp is inhibited by PGG and PAC, and PGG has a lower IC50 (5.098 ± 1.089 µM) than PAC (21.022 ± 1.202 µM), which is consistent with their inhibitory capacity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. PGG and PAC also inhibit infection by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. These data indicate that PGG and PAC may be candidate broad-spectrum anticoronaviral therapeutic agents, simultaneously targeting the Mpro and RdRp proteins of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Cell Rep ; 40(5): 111160, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936138

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, multiple pathogenic coronavirus species exist, urging on development of multispecies coronavirus vaccines. Here we develop prototype lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-mRNA vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 Delta, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, and we test how multiplexing LNP-mRNAs can induce effective immune responses in animal models. Triplex and duplex LNP-mRNA vaccinations induce antigen-specific antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Single-cell RNA sequencing profiles the global systemic immune repertoires and respective transcriptome signatures of vaccinated animals, revealing a systemic increase in activated B cells and differential gene expression across major adaptive immune cells. Sequential vaccination shows potent antibody responses against all three species, significantly stronger than simultaneous vaccination in mixture. These data demonstrate the feasibility, antibody responses, and single-cell immune profiles of multispecies coronavirus vaccination. The direct comparison between simultaneous and sequential vaccination offers insights into optimization of vaccination schedules to provide broad and potent antibody immunity against three major pathogenic coronavirus species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SWARM INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH ; 13(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939122

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, COVID-19 is considered to be the biggest disaster that the world is facing. It has created a lot of destruction in the whole world. Due to this COVID-19, analysis has been done to predict the death rate and infected rate from the total population. To perform the analysis on COVID-19, regression analysis has been implemented by applying the differential equation and ordinary differential equation (ODE) on the parameters. The parameters taken for analysis are the number of susceptible individuals, the number of infected individuals, and the number of recovered individuals. This work will predict the total cases, death cases, and infected cases in the near future based on different reproductive rate values. This work has shown the comparison based on four different productive rates (i.e., 2.45, 2.55, 2.65, and 2.75). The analysis is done on two different datasets;the first dataset is related to China, and the second dataset is associated with the world's data. The work has predicted that by 2020-08-12 there will be 59,450,123 new cases, 432,499,003 total cases, and 10,928,383 deaths.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
8.
Medicine (Madr) ; 13(58): 3432-3437, 2022 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931032

ABSTRACT

The syndromic surveillance of a group of diseases that have similar signs and symptoms, a common pathophysiology, and diverse etiology is aimed at rapidly detecting the presence of outbreaks which could potentially harm public health. This includes not only known outbreaks of infectious origin but also those of unknown origin. In patients suspected of having SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, it is recommended to consider other etiologies of tropical fever in the differential diagnosis when these patients live in or come from endemic areas, as is the case of dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, acute Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis, among other endemic diseases. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2/AH1 AH5N1 MERS-CoV coinfection with these pathogens should also be considered.

9.
World Family Medicine ; 20(2):33-47, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928827

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital preparedness planning for natural and man-made disasters has become the pressing necessity of hospitals being the principal habitat of disaster victims. One of the most critical areas of consideration is hospital preparedness for epidemic and pandemic events. Objectives: To assess concerns, perceived impacts and preparedness of health care workers for epidemic and pandemic events in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, Jazan. 2021. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1st, to August 31st, 2021 in three Ministry of Health hospitals in Jazan city. All health care workers (HCWs) working at the three hospitals were eligible to participate if they were direct clinical care providers. A valid questionnaire consisting of five parts was used;including demographic data, work-related concerns of health care workers, non-work related concerns of health care workers, perceived impact of health care workers on personal life and work and preparedness of health care workers for epidemic and pandemic events. Results: The study included 307 healthcare workers. The age of 39.7% of them ranged between 31 and 40 years. Almost two-thirds (62.2%) were males. The total score of work-related concern of COVID-19 among the participants ranged between 7 and 28, out of a possible maximum of 35, with a median (IQR) of 18 (15-22). HCWs in the age group 31-40 years, master holders, and doctors expressed the highest concerns score. The total score of non-work-related concern of COVID-19 ranged between 7 and 35, out of a possible maximum of 35, with a median ("interquartile range "IQR") of 28 (22-28). HCWs who hold a master degree and doctors expressed the highest concerns. The total score of perceived impact on personal life and work health professionals ranged between 6 and 44, out of a possible maximum of 50, with a median (IQR) of 25 (21-30). HCWs in the age group 31-40, and Master holders had the highest score. The total score of preparedness for Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic ranged between 15 and 75, out of a possible maximum of 75, with a median (IQR) of 56 (48-61). The highest score was observed among HCWs aged over 50 years. Conclusion: Some work-related and non-work-related concerns of HCWs in Jazan regarding COVID-19 pandemic have been identified. Also, perceived impact of the pandemic on HCWs' work and professional life has been documented. Their preparedness as well as that of the health care system to the COVID-19 pandemic was satisfactory in most aspects.

10.
chemRxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-340095

ABSTRACT

Many disease-causing viruses target sialic acids (Sias), a class of nine-carbon sugars known to coat the surface of many cells including those in the lungs. Human beta coronaviradae, known for causing respiratory tract diseases, often bind Sias, some preferentially bind to those with 9-O-Ac-modification. Currently, co-binding of SARS-CoV-2, a beta coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, to human Sias has been reported and its preference towards α2-3-linked Neu5Ac shown. Nevertheless, O-acetylated Sias-protein binding studies are difficult, due to the ester lability. We studied the binding free energy differences between Neu5,9Ac2α2-3GalβpNP and its more stable 9-NAc mimics binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using molecular dynamics and alchemical free energy simulations. We identified multiple Sias-binding pockets, including two novel sites, with similar binding affinities to those of MERS-CoV, a known co-binder of sialic acid. In our binding poses, 9-NAc and 9-OAc Sias bind similarly, suggesting an experimentally reasonable mimic to probe viral mechanisms.

11.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(7): 3563-3572, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921549

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has posed a global health challenge caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Early management and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 are crucial for the timely treatment, traceability, and reduction of viral spread. We have developed a rapid method using a Graphene-based Field-Effect Transistor (Gr-FET) for the ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antigen (S1-Ag). The in-house developed antispike S1 antibody (S1-Ab) was covalently immobilized on the surface of a carboxy functionalized graphene channel using carbodiimide chemistry. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), and device stability studies were conducted to characterize the bioconjugation and fabrication process of Gr-FET. In addition, the electrical response of the device was evaluated by monitoring the change in resistance caused by Ag-Ab interaction in real time. For S1-Ag, our Gr-FET devices were tested in the range of 1 fM to 1 µM with a limit of detection of 10 fM in the standard buffer. The fabricated devices are highly sensitive, specific, and capable of detecting low levels of S1-Ag.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Pandemics and Global Health ; : 327-339, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918719

ABSTRACT

The term “Pandemic” is generally taken to refer to a widespread epidemic of transmissible disease throughout the whole of a country or one or more continents at the same time. Key features of pandemics are wide geographic extension, disease movement, high attack rates and explosiveness, minimal population immunity, novelty, infectiousness, contagiousness, and severity. The appearance and spread of pandemics occurred regularly throughout history. Major pandemics and epidemics that struck the human race rigorously were plague, cholera, flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).The world is currently affecting the new deadly disease, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by SARS-Cov-2 Virus. This pathogenic virus spread all over the world. As it is a virus, it can extend easily and cause severe illness to humans. Several improved tactics have been taken in scientific and medicinal concern;we must consider the medicinal values of plantbased medicines to prevent many pandemic diseases. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

13.
Moroccan Journal of Chemistry ; 10(3):405-416, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918385

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report the quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) investigation to determine the relationship between the anti-MERS-CoV activity and a set of chemical descriptors computed using ChemSketch, MarvinSketch and ChemOffice software. Herein, the principal components analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple non-linear regression (MNLR) methods were used with the intention to obtain a reliable QSAR model with good predictive capacity. The original data set of 43 peptidomimetic compounds was randomly divided into training and test set of 35 and 8 compounds, respectively. The values obtained by MLR and MNLR for the determination coefficient are 0.777 and 0.813, respectively. The predictive ability of the MLR model was assessed by external validation using the eight compounds of the test set with predicted determination coefficients R2test of 0.655.

14.
Rev Neurosci ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910733

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a serine protease that cleaves X-proline or X-alanine in the penultimate position. Natural substrates of the enzyme are glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon inhibiting peptide, glucagon, neuropeptide Y, secretin, substance P, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, endorphins, endomorphins, brain natriuretic peptide, beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone and amyloid peptides as well as some cytokines and chemokines. The enzyme is involved in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis and regulation of the immune system. It is expressed in many organs including the brain. DPP4 activity may be effectively depressed by DPP4 inhibitors. Apart from enzyme activity, DPP4 acts as a cell surface (co)receptor, associates with adeosine deaminase, interacts with extracellular matrix, and controls cell migration and differentiation. This review aims at revealing the impact of DPP4 and DPP4 inhibitors for several brain diseases (virus infections affecting the brain, tumours of the CNS, neurological and psychiatric disorders). Special emphasis is given to a possible involvement of DPP4 expressed in the brain.While prominent contributions of extracerebral DPP4 are evident for a majority of diseases discussed herein; a possible role of "brain" DPP4 is restricted to brain cancers and Alzheimer disease. For a number of diseases (Covid-19 infection, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and epilepsy), use of DPP4 inhibitors has been shown to have a disease-mitigating effect. However, these beneficial effects should mostly be attributed to the depression of "peripheral" DPP4, since currently used DPP4 inhibitors are not able to pass through the intact blood-brain barrier.

15.
Virol J ; 19(1): 112, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans, with a case fatality rate of approximately 35%, thus posing a considerable threat to public health. The lack of approved vaccines or antivirals currently constitutes a barrier in controlling disease outbreaks and spread. METHODS: In this study, using a mammalian expression system, which is advantageous for maintaining correct protein glycosylation patterns, we constructed chimeric MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and determined their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. RESULTS: Western blot and cryo-electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that MERS-CoV VLPs were efficiently produced in cells co-transfected with MERS-CoV spike (S), envelope, membrane and murine hepatitis virus nucleocapsid genes. We examined their ability as a vaccine in a human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 knock-in C57BL/6 congenic mouse model. Mice immunized with MERS VLPs produced S-specific antibodies with virus neutralization activity. Furthermore, MERS-CoV VLP immunization provided complete protection against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted MERS-CoV and improved virus clearance in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data demonstrate that MERS-CoV VLPs have excellent immunogenicity and represent a promising vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Mammals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
16.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905589

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) share some features with ubiquitin (Ub) such as their globular 3D structure and the ability to attach covalently to other proteins. Interferon Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) is an abundant Ubl that similar to Ub, marks many hundreds of cellular proteins, altering their fate. In contrast to Ub, , ISG15 requires interferon (IFN) induction to conjugate efficiently to other proteins. Moreover, despite the multitude of E3 ligases for Ub-modified targets, a single E3 ligase termed HERC5 (in humans) is responsible for the bulk of ISG15 conjugation. Targets include both viral and cellular proteins spanning an array of cellular compartments and metabolic pathways. So far, no common structural or biochemical feature has been attributed to these diverse substrates, raising questions about how and why they are selected. Conjugation of ISG15 mitigates some viral and bacterial infections and is linked to a lower viral load pointing to the role of ISG15 in the cellular immune response. In an apparent attempt to evade the immune response, some viruses try to interfere with the ISG15 pathway. For example, deconjugation of ISG15 appears to be an approach taken by coronaviruses to interfere with ISG15 conjugates. Specifically, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, encode papain-like proteases (PL1pro) that bear striking structural and catalytic similarities to the catalytic core domain of eukaryotic deubiquitinating enzymes of the Ubiquitin-Specific Protease (USP) sub-family. The cleavage specificity of these PLpro enzymes is for flexible polypeptides containing a consensus sequence (R/K)LXGG, enabling them to function on two seemingly unrelated categories of substrates: (i) the viral polyprotein 1 (PP1a, PP1ab) and (ii) Ub- or ISG15-conjugates. As a result, PLpro enzymes process the viral polyprotein 1 into an array of functional proteins for viral replication (termed non-structural proteins; NSPs), and it can remove Ub or ISG15 units from conjugates. However, by de-conjugating ISG15, the virus also creates free ISG15, which in turn may affect the immune response in two opposite pathways: free ISG15 negatively regulates IFN signaling in humans by binding non-catalytically to USP18, yet at the same time free ISG15 can be secreted from the cell and induce the IFN pathway of the neighboring cells. A deeper understanding of this protein-modification pathway and the mechanisms of the enzymes that counteract it will bring about effective clinical strategies related to viral and bacterial infections.

17.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 45(5):842-852, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903835

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the potential common mechanism and active ingredients of Reduning Injection against SARS, MERS and COVID-19 through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.

18.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902818

ABSTRACT

Boston-based Moderna is one of the key players in mRNA vaccines, and has, with mRNA1273 (Spikevax®) developed and approved, one of the two mRNA based COVID 19 vaccines on the market. Recently, a patent application was published which Moderna filed in early 2020, and which protects Spikevax. This article explains legal issues and disputes that are involved with this patent application.

19.
One Health Outlook ; 4(1): 12, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902430

ABSTRACT

Ongoing outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue posing a global health threat. Vaccination of livestock reservoir species is a recommended strategy to prevent spread of MERS-CoV among animals and potential spillover to humans. Using a direct-contact llama challenge model that mimics naturally occurring viral transmission, we tested the efficacy of a multimeric receptor binding domain (RBD) particle-display based vaccine candidate. While MERS-CoV was transmitted to naïve animals exposed to virus-inoculated llamas, immunization induced robust virus-neutralizing antibody responses and prevented transmission in 1/3 vaccinated, in-contact animals. Our exploratory study supports further improvement of the RBD-based vaccine to prevent zoonotic spillover of MERS-CoV.

20.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; 34(4):272-277, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897878

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus, identified as a zoonotic pathogen, can cause pulmonary infections and even a pandemic. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was induced by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), struck the world in December 2019. There is no specific drug for coronavirus. As a classical antimalarial drug, chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral activity by changing the pH of endocytosis, via autophagy reactions and by changing the glycosylation mode of the virus envelope. At the cellular level, chloroquine has inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV- 2. Recent clinical research results are beginning to show that chloroquine can improve the success rate and prognosis. Chloroquine has been used less clinically in recent years due to the many adverse reactions it causes. The safety of chloroquine used in coronavirus infection requires in-depth evaluation. This article summarizes research progress in the anti-coronavirus effect and safety of chloroquine in order to provide reference for its clinical application.

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