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1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-17, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106256

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) pandemic and associated mortality in children led to an effort to address risk factors and develop protective measures. Observational studies in adults showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with Covid-19 severity. The aim of this review was to summarize data regarding the role of serum vitamin 25(OH)D concentration in the severity of Covid-19 and the associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Many studies noted lower concentrations of vitamin 25(OH)D in children with Covid-19 compared to healthy controls, however, studies that assessed vitamin 25(OH)D suboptimal concentrations as a risk factor for Covid-19 severity were scarce. There was no high-quality evidence that vitamin 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with Covid-19 severity. Similarly, for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a few studies with a small number of patients found that vitamin D deficiency was associated with more severe MIS-C. Vitamin D has many immunomodulatory actions and is consumed in the immunomodulatory cells, especially in infections such as the Covid-19 which is associated with increased inflammation and cytokine storm. Therefore, decreased concentrations of plasma vitamin 25(OH)D have been proposed to be the result of vitamin use by immunomodulatory cells in severe Covid-19, rather than a predisposing factor. In conclusion, the available data cannot prove that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for severe Covid-19 disease. More studies, of prospective design, are needed to investigate the role of this marker independently of other risk factors.

2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(3): 547-571, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105692

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. More than 5 million children have been infected in the United States. Risk factors for more severe disease progression include obesity, pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurologic comorbidities. Children with COVID-19 are admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of severe acute COVID-19 illness or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The delta surge of 2021 was responsible for an increased disease burden in children and points to the key role of vaccinating children against this sometimes-deadly disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090203

ABSTRACT

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) is characterized by persistent fever and evidence of single or multiorgan dysfunction, and laboratory evidence of inflammation, elevated neutrophils, reduced lymphocytes, and low albumin. The pathophysiological mechanisms of MIS-C are still unknown. Proinflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species and decreased antioxidant enzymes, seems to play a central role. Virus entry activates NOXs and inhibits Nrf-2 antioxidant response inducing free radicals. The biological functions of nonphagocytic NOXs are still under study and appear to include: defense of epithelia, intracellular signaling mechanisms for growth regulation and cell differentiation, and post-translational modifications of proteins. This educational review has the aim of analyzing the newest evidence on the role of oxidative stress (OS) in MIS-C. Only by relating inflammatory mediators to OS evaluation in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection will it be possible to achieve a better understanding of these mechanisms and to reduce long-term morbidity. The link between inflammation and OS is key to developing effective prevention strategies with antioxidants to protect children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Syndrome , Oxidative Stress
4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084367

ABSTRACT

Scarce evidence exists about the best treatment for multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We analyzed the effects of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and their combination on the probability of discharge over time, the probability of switching to second-line treatment over time, and the persistence of fever 2 days after treatment. We did a retrospective study to investigate the effect of different treatments on children with MIS-C from 1 March 2020 to 1 June 2021. We estimated the time-to-event probability using a Cox model weighted by propensity score to balance the baseline characteristics. Thirty of 132 (22.7%) patients were initially treated with steroids alone, 29/132 (21.9%) with IVIG alone, and 73/132 (55%) with IVIG plus steroids. The probability of early discharge was higher with IVIG than with IVIG plus steroids (hazard ratio [HR] 1.65, 95% CI 1.11-2.45, p = 0.013), but with a higher probability of needing second-line therapy compared to IVIG plus steroids (HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.12-8.25, p = 0.028). Patients on IVIG had a higher likelihood of persistent fever than patients on steroids (odds ratio [OR] 4.23, 95% CI 1.43-13.5, p = 0.011) or on IVIG plus steroids (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.05-9.82, p < 0.001). No differences were found for this endpoint between steroids or steroids plus IVIG.    Conclusions: The benefits of each approach may vary depending on the outcome assessed. IVIG seemed to increase the probability of earlier discharge over time but also of needing second-line treatment over time. Steroids seemed to reduce persistent fever, and combination therapy reduced the need for escalating treatment. What is Known: • Steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin, compared with intravenous immunoglobulin alone for multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) might reduce the need for hemodynamic support and the duration of fever, but the certainty of the evidence is low. What is New: • Intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and their combination for MIS-C may have different outcomes. • In this study, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the probability of discharge over time, steroids reduced persistent fever, while combination therapy reduced the need for second-line treatments.

5.
Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082965

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory process leading to multiorgan failure and shock, occurring during the acute or post-infectious stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and has two subtypes: para-infectious and post-infectious varieties. The new onset of refractory status epilepticus has rarely been described as the presenting feature of MIS-C. This retrospective study, conducted at Dr. B.C. Roy Post Graduate Institute of Pediatric Sciences, included children hospitalized between August 1, 2020 and July 31, 2021, with new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and subsequently diagnosed to have MIS-C. Their clinico-demographic variables, treatment courses during hospital stays, laboratory reports, radiological and electrophysiological findings, and outcomes at discharge and follow-up over 1 year were recorded. At their 12 month visits, their motor disabilities (primary) and continuation of anti-epileptic drugs, and persistence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain abnormalities (secondary) were the outcome measures. The characteristics of the patients in the para-infectious and post-infectious groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. There were eight and 10 patients in groups A and B, respectively. Patients in group B had significantly higher age, more prolonged refractory status epilepticus (RSE), use of anesthetics and ventilation, and longer pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay, while other clinical and laboratory parameters and short and long-term outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. Eight patients developed hemiparesis, while two had quadriparesis in the acute stage, but 15 (83%) patients had complete recovery from their motor deficits by 1 year. At 1-year follow-up, 33 and 39% of patients, respectively, had abnormal MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG). Acute disseminated encephalitis and acute leukoencephalopathy were the most commonly observed MRI abnormalities in the acute phase, with prolonged persistence of cerebritis in patients in the post-infectious group, warranting long-term immunomodulation. Combined immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids was effective in the acute phase. However, long-term anti-epileptic therapy was needed in both groups.

6.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30276, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080879

ABSTRACT

Introduction The rapid development of vaccines followed the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is still significant vaccine hesitancy, especially among parents. Large-scale pediatric population-based studies or reviews about vaccine side effects are limited. Data sources and methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends recipients or their providers notify possible adverse events to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We evaluated Delaware state data from the VAERS system for the pediatric age group. Results A total of 111 reports were reviewed, with summaries of the reported key side effects discussed, including seizures, myocarditis, stroke, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), chest pain, hematuria, menstrual disorder, appendicitis, behavioral and otological side effects, etc. Conclusions We noted the approximate prevalence of reported adverse events to be <0.2%. Further studies with larger sample sizes or those focused on each key side effect are needed to evaluate these side effects in detail. An open discussion about the possible side effects and reinforcing the individual, family, and community benefits are key to promoting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985433, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080149

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare, severe complication of COVID-19. A better knowledge of immunological, cellular, and genetic characteristics of MIS-C could help better understand the pathogenesis of the disease and contribute to identifying specific diagnostic biomarkers and develop targeted therapies. We studied 37 MIS-C children at hospital admission and 24 healthy controls analyzing serum cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-12p70 and TNF), lymphocyte populations by flow cytometry and 386 genes related to autoimmune diseases, autoinflammation and primary immunodeficiencies by NGS. MIS-C patients showed a significant increase of serum IFNγ (despite a significant reduction of activated Th1) and ILs, even if with a great heterogeneity among patients, revealing different pathways involved in MIS-C pathogenesis and suggesting that serum cytokines at admission may help to select the inflammatory pathways to target in each patient. Flow cytometry demonstrated a relevant reduction of T populations while the percentage of B cell was increased in agreement with an autoimmune pathogenesis of MIS-C. Genetic analysis identified variants in 34 genes and 83.3% of patients had at least one gene variant. Among these, 9 were mutated in more patients. Most genes are related to autoimmune diseases like ATM, NCF1, MCM4, FCN3, and DOCK8 or to autoinflammatory diseases associated to the release of IFNγ like PRF1, NOD2, and MEF. Thus, an incomplete clearance of the Sars-CoV2 during the acute phase may induce tissue damage and self-antigen exposure and genetic variants can predispose to hyper-reactive immune dysregulation events of MIS-C-syndrome. Type II IFN activation and cytokine responses (mainly IL-6 and IL-10) may cause a cytokine storm in some patients with a more severe acute phase of the disease, lymphopenia and multisystemic organ involvement. The timely identification of such patients with an immunocytometric panel might be critical for targeted therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Child , Humans , Interleukin-10 , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , RNA, Viral , Cytokines/metabolism , Biomarkers , Autoantigens , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e025915, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079126

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e179, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Here, we are sharing our second report about children affected by Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). The aim of the present study was to update our knowledge about children with MIS-C. Furthermore, we tried to compare clinical manifestations, laboratory features and final outcome of patients based on disease severity, in order to better understanding of the nature of this novel syndrome. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Children's Medical Center Hospital, the hub of excellence in paediatrics in Iran, located in Tehran, Iran. We reviewed medical records of children admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of MIS-C from July 2020 to October 2021. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-two patients enrolled the study. Ninety-seven (79.5%) patients had mild to moderate MIS-C (MIS-C without overlap with KD (n = 80); MIS-C overlapping with KD (n = 17)) and 25 (20.5%) patients showed severe MIS-C. The mean age of all patients was 6.4 ± 4.0 years. Nausea and vomiting (53.3%), skin rash (49.6%), abdominal pain (46.7%) and conjunctivitis (41.8%) were also frequently seen Headache, chest pain, tachypnea and respiratory distress were significantly more common in patients with severe MIS-C (P < 0.0001, P = 0.021, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Positive anti-N severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgM and IgG were detected in 14 (33.3%) and 23 (46.9%) tested patients, respectively. Albumin, and vitamin D levels in children with severe MISC were significantly lower than children with mild to moderate MIS-C (P < 0.0001, P = 0.05). Unfortunately, 2 (1.6%) of 122 patients died and both had severe MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Patients with MIS-C in our region suffer from wide range of signs and symptoms. Among laboratory parameters, hypoalbuminemia and low vitamin D levels may predict a more severe course of the disease. Coronary artery dilation is frequently seen among all patients, regardless of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/complications , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Referral and Consultation , Vitamin D
11.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075337

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) often involves a post-viral myocarditis and associated left ventricular dysfunction. We aimed to assess myocardial function by strain echocardiography after hospital discharge and to identify risk factors for subacute myocardial dysfunction. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of MIS-C patients admitted between 03/2020 and 03/2021. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), 4-chamber longitudinal strain (4C-LS), mid-ventricular circumferential strain (CS), and left atrial strain (LAS) were measured on echocardiograms performed 3-10 weeks after discharge and compared with controls. Among 60 MIS-C patients, hypotension (65%), ICU admission (57%), and vasopressor support (45%) were common, with no mortality. LVEF was abnormal (< 55%) in 29% during hospitalization but only 4% at follow-up. Follow-up strain abnormalities were prevalent (GLS abnormal in 13%, 4C-LS in 18%, CS in 16%, LAS in 5%). Hypotension, ICU admission, ICU and hospital length of stay, and any LVEF < 55% during hospitalization were factors associated with lower strain at follow-up. Higher peak C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with hypotension, ICU admission, total ICU days, and with lower follow-up GLS (r = - 0.55; p = 0.01) and CS (r = 0.41; p = 0.02). Peak CRP < 18 mg/dL had negative predictive values of 100% and 88% for normal follow-up GLS and CS, respectively. A subset of MIS-C patients demonstrate subclinical systolic and diastolic function abnormalities at subacute follow-up. Peak CRP during hospitalization may be a useful marker for outpatient cardiac risk stratification. MIS-C patients with hypotension, ICU admission, any LVEF < 55% during hospitalization, or a peak CRP > 18 mg/dL may warrant closer monitoring than those without these risk factors.

12.
Malaysian Journal of Pathology ; 44(2):177-185, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070810

ABSTRACT

The availability of COVID-19 vaccines and mass vaccination programmes in adults have significantly reduced the case attack rates and disease burden. COVID-19 vaccination successfully decreases the population at risk of infection, allowing for the safer re-opening of economies and reducing the pandemic's crippling impact on healthcare systems. However, the rapidly mutating severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 poses challenges in diminishing vaccine-induced immunity and vaccinating a significant proportion of adults to achieve herd immunity. These challenges necessitated adolescent vaccination. With the recent emergence of the highly transmissible Omicron variant and the increasing COVID-19 hospitalisation rates of children below 12 years old, many countries opted to also vaccinate younger children. Phase II/III clinical trials and real-world experience demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccinations are effective and safe for younger children and adolescents. Before Malaysia introduced its national COVID-19 vaccination programme for children 5-11 years old (which ran between March and June 2022), an expert advisory statement was issued by the College of Paediatrics, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia, to highlight the benefits and importance of vaccinating children. The advisory statement included clarifications about vaccine-related side effects such as post-vaccination myocarditis and allergic reactions to encourage informed decision making by healthcare providers and parents. This paper, which was prepared based on the critical appraisal of the current evidence, evaluation of the international experiences and the positive impact of COVID-19 vaccination in children, collectively sums up the rationale to support and ensure the success of the nationwide vaccination programme for children. Hence, the College recommends COVID-19 vaccination for children in Malaysia.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071473

ABSTRACT

Most pediatric COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic; however, a small number of children are diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but severe condition that is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persistent symptoms of COVID-19 illness in children diagnosed with/without MIS-C is largely unknown. A retrospective EHR review of patients with COVID-19 illness from one pediatric healthcare system to assess the presence of acute (<30 days) and chronic (≥30, 60-120, and >120 days) long-term COVID symptoms was conducted. Patients/caregivers completed a follow-up survey from March 2021 to January 2022 to assess the presence of long COVID. Results showed that non-MIS-C children (n = 286; 54.49% Hispanic; 19.23% non-Hispanic Black; 5.77% other ethnicity; 79.49% government insurance) were younger (mean age 6.43 years [SD 5.95]) versus MIS-C (n = 26) children (mean age 9.08 years, [SD 4.86]) (p = 0.032). A share of 11.5% of children with MIS-C and 37.8% without MIS-C reported acute long COVID while 26.9% and 15.3% reported chronic long COVID, respectively. Females were almost twice as likely to report long symptoms versus males and those with private insurance were 66% less likely to report long symptoms versus those with government insurance. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of ethnically diverse children from low resource backgrounds with severe COVID illness are reporting long-term impacts. Findings can inform pediatric professionals about this vulnerable population in post-COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies
14.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(8):224-228, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067949

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is the evolving pandemic that is still ongoing. There is not much decrease in the extent and impact of COVID-19 even after more than a year has been passed. The younger adults and children are believed to be in danger from possible third wave of COVID-19 in many countries. Summary: Young adults and children have shown great medical resilience in initial phase of the wave. Not much lethal outcome has been reported from podiatric age group. But as novel coronavirus is mutating and changing its working, one must be cautious about the approach. Clinical manifestation is of milder nature among podiatric age group but MIS-C is stinging the containment efforts which are believed to be caused due to COVID-19. Mental health, one of the least discussed medical topics has been highlighted by the impact of the pandemic and should be tackling with professional help. Vaccination divide can be felt and rapid vaccination needs to be done among paediatric age group. Conclusion: There is the need of more study among young adults about clinical manifestation of COVID-19, especially among comorbid patients so that we are well prepared for any eventualities. Vaccination is the way out of the pandemic and must be equitably distributed among all the inhabitants of the world.

15.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(11): 1212-1224, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069348

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has inflicted immense damage to countries, economies and societies worldwide. Authorized COVID-19 vaccines based on different platforms have been widely inoculated in adults, showing up to 100% immunogenicity with significant efficacy in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections and the occurrence of severe COVID-19. It has also greatly slowed the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants, as shown in clinical trials and real-world evidence. However, the total dosage of COVID-19 vaccines for children is much smaller than that for adults due to limitations from parental concern of vaccine safety, presenting a potential obstacle in ending the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 not only increases the risk of severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children, but also negatively affects children's psychology and academics, indirectly hindering the maintenance and progress of normal social order. Therefore, this article examines the clinical manifestations of children infected with SARS-CoV-2, the status of vaccination against COVID-19 in children, vaccination-related adverse events, and the unique immune mechanisms of children. In particular, the necessity and challenges of vaccinating children against SARS-CoV-2 were highlighted from the perspectives of society and family. In summary, parental hesitancy is unnecessary as adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination have been proven to be infrequent, comprise of mild symptoms, and have a good prognosis.

16.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065690

ABSTRACT

MIS-C is a multisystem inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by multi-organ failure and cardiac involvement. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term cardiovascular outcome in a cohort of MIS-C pediatric patients, who were admitted to two Italian Pediatric Referral Centers. Sixty-seven patients (mean age 8.7 ± 4.7 years, male 60%) were included; 65 (97%) of them showed cardiac involvement. All of the patients completed one month of the follow-up, and 47% completed 1 year of it. ECG abnormalities were present in 65% of them, arrhythmias were present in 9% of them during an acute phase and it disappeared at the point of discharge or later. Pericarditis were detected in 66% of them and disappeared after 6 months. Coronaritis was observed in 35% of the children during an acute phase, and there were no more instances at the 1-year point. An LV dysfunction was present in 65% of the patients at the beginning of the study, with them having a full recovery at the point of discharge and thereafter. Elevated values of the NTproBNP and hsTp were initially detected, which progressively decreased and normalized at the points of discharge and FU. The CMR at the point of FU, there was a presence of long-term myocardial scars in 50% of the patients that were tested. No deaths that were caused by MIS-C during the FU were recorded. Cardiac involvement in MIS-C patients is almost the rule, but the patients' clinical course was satisfactory, and no additional events or sequelae were observed apart from there being long-term myocardial scars in 50% of the patients that underwent CMR.

17.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S171-S172, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062129

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Cardiac involvement is seen in the majority of cases with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Various rhythm and conduction disturbances, as well as repolarization abnormalities, have been described by more than 50% of the patients, while there are few cases with complete heart block or with asystole. Method(s): Case report Results: 8-year old girl presented with a 5-day history of fever, cough, headache, and abdominal pain. Because of the critical con-dition, with respiratory insufficiency and heart failure symptoms, the child was intubated and started on inotropic support. ECG showed complete AV-block with a ventricular rate of 75/min and with ST-T changes;echocardiography revealed dilated left ventricle with reduced contractility, CT-scan of the lungs showed bilateral pneumonia, the inflammatory markers were elevated, in combination with high troponin levels, and positive SARS-CoV2-IgG antibodies. The diagnosis MIS-C was made and treatment with immunoglobulins, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and anticoagulants was initiated. During the next 2 days, the cardiac function deteriorated further, and while still on mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, extreme bradycardia with a ventricular rate of 35/min was regis-tered, and the patient was indicated for temporary emergency pac-ing. Upon induction of anesthesia, the child became asystolic, requiring extensive resuscitation. After circulation recovery, the ECG showed nodal tachycardia with a heart rate of 140-170/min. A temporary transvenous pacemaker (PM) was inserted, and the patient was started on intravenous amiodarone which resulted in a slower ventricular rate of 70/min. 3 days later sinus rhythm was restored, with first-degree AV-block, which allowed removal of the PM 5 days after its insertion. Left ventricular dimensions were normalized and contractility remained low-normal (EF 56%). During the 6-month follow-up, the ECG and the Holter-monitoring showed sinus rhythm with first-degree AV-block. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 15 of the hospital stay demonstrated scattered areas of myocarditis and ischemia predominantly in the left ventricle, as well as thickening of the basal septum. Six months later the MRI changes were reduced but still persistent. Conclusion(s): MIS-C can present with serious and life-threatening rhythm and conduction disturbances in children;this is why extensive cardiac monitoring is obligatory by all patients.

18.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S103, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062128

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a postim-munological reaction after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various car-diac manifestations of PIMS-TS have been reported, namely pericardial effusion, ventricular arrhythmia, myocarditis, valvular regurgitation, and pericarditis. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and laboratory features to distinguish any possible predic-tion for cardiac involvement in children with PIMS. Method(s): The PIMS patients under 18 years old treated in our center between July 2020 and December 2021 were included. Data of the patients were retrospectively obtained from their medical records. Result(s): A total of 46 patients with PIMS were examined during the study period. The mean age of study group was 9.4 +/- 4.6 years, 18/46 were female and 3 groups were formed according to their age ranges. Among them, seventeen patients (37%) had cardiac involvement with mean age was 8.7 years. Impaired cardiac func-tions were seen more in male patients (n: 10/17). Coronary artery dilatation seen in seven patients especially with mean age of 5.2 years (Age group 1,2,3;%36.4,%14.3,%0;p = 0.033;respectively) and especially related to high troponin T levels (p = 0.006). In our study group, cardiac involvement was shown more related to ProBNP and Troponin T (p = 0.008;p = 0.003). The cut-off val-ues of proBNP and troponin T for predicting in cardiac dysfunc-tion were 2759 pg/mL (95% confidence interval (CI), 0,83-1;sensitivity, 0.86;specificity, 0.93;AUC:0.92, p lt;0,001). Conclusion(s): Although there is a wide variability of symptoms, MIS-C is a rare, severe, less understood complication of COVID-19 that may cause multisystemic involvement in the patients. Clinicians should be aware of this condition in children with persistent fever and a family history of COVID-19. Cardiac involvement in chil-dren with PIMS may strongly be predicted by levels of Troponin T and ProBNP. Further more younger age and high Troponin T levels are the independent predictors for the coronary artery dila-tation among children with PIMS.

19.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S253-S254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062127

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: A 15 year old young man with symptoms and signs consistent with MIS-C was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for inotropic support as he was exhibiting signs of cardiogenic shock. He was previously fit and healthy and he had been exposed to Covid 19 confirmed cases 6-8 weeks prior to becoming unwell. Method(s): The patient received IVIG and steroids as an immuno-modulating regime. On the admission echocardiogram there was a structurally normal heart with large LV thrombuses. The D-Dimers were extremely elevated on admission and the patient received therapeutic heparin infusion. Other prothrombotic causes were excluded. Result(s): The surveillance echocardiogram 24h post admission showed resolution of the thrombuses. The patient never exhibited any signs or symptoms of cardiac ischaemia on the electrocardio-gram or regional wall motion abnormality on the echocardiogram or neurologic impairment and the brain MRI-MRA one week post admission was normal. The patient was discharged home 5 days post admission and on follow ups up to a year after the acute phase remains very well physically and clinically. Conclusion(s): Thromboembolic events are frequently described in COVID-19 patients and in some patients with MIS-C and are the consequence of a hyperinflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction. There might be a potential role of an antiphospholi-pid syndrome secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection as has been proposed. An increase in D-dimer level has been shown to be associated with thromboembolic events, including arterial thrombosis especially in the older population and should be investigated promptly. With the appropriate immunomodulation and antithrombotic treat-ment adverse events are prevented. More studies to assess endothelial function and its role in the MIS-C prothrombotic state are necessary.

20.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S241, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062124

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: MIS-C is a hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by Sars-CoV-2 virus. Cardiovascular system impairment is observed up to 100 % of all MIS-C patients with a wide spectrum and severity of symptoms. It is important to identify the course of the disease and its outcome, which could significantly improve public health. Method(s): A single-centre study, prospective cohort study, con-ducted in the Children's Clinical University hospital in Latvia from January to December 2021. Patients between the ages of one to seventeen years who met the MIS-C criteria were included in the study. We evaluated blood pressure, left ventricular heart func-tion, size of coronary arteries and hospital course. Result(s): Thirty-one patients were included who met the MIS-C criteria. The median age was 8.0 years, 52% were boys. Of all patients 77% initially presented with hypotension of whom 42% required inotropic support. Treatment in PICU was required in 58% of all patients. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was observed in 35% of all patients. Mildly decreased ventricular ejection fraction (lt;55%) was observed in 19% of cases but mod-erate dysfunction (ejection fraction lt;45%) was observed in 16% of patients. Twelve percent of patients received milrinone to improve left heart function. Left heart function significantly improved in all patients during the hospitalisation. In 6 % of all patients coronary artery dilations was observed. All patients had dilations resolution at the time of discharge. Median length of hospitalisation was twelve days and median length of PICU stay was three days. Conclusion(s): All patients cardiovascular symptoms had resolved at the time of discharge. Whether patients will have chronic cardiac impairment is unknown therefore it is crucial to perform long-term follow-up.

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