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1.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972517

ABSTRACT

The elucidation of viral-receptor interactions and an understanding of virus-spreading mechanisms are of great importance, particularly in the era of a pandemic. Indeed, advances in computational chemistry, synthetic biology, and protein engineering have allowed precise prediction and characterization of such interactions. Nevertheless, the hazards of the infectiousness of viruses, their rapid mutagenesis, and the need to study viral-receptor interactions in a complex in vivo setup call for further developments. Here, we show the development of biocompatible genetically engineered extracellular vesicles (EVs) that display the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 on their surface as coronavirus mimetics (EVsRBD). Loading EVsRBD with iron oxide nanoparticles makes them MRI-visible and, thus, allows mapping of the binding of RBD to ACE2 receptors noninvasively in live subjects. Moreover, we show that EVsRBD can be modified to display mutants of the RBD of SARS-CoV-2, allowing rapid screening of currently raised or predicted variants of the virus. The proposed platform thus shows relevance and cruciality in the examination of quickly evolving pathogenic viruses in an adjustable, fast, and safe manner. Relying on MRI for visualization, the presented approach could be considered in the future to map ligand-receptor binding events in deep tissues, which are not accessible to luminescence-based imaging.

2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 352, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses usually cause mild respiratory disease in humans but as seen recently, some human coronaviruses can cause more severe diseases, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the global spread of which has resulted in the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: In this study we analyzed the potential of using iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coated with biocompatible molecules like dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APS) or carboxydextran (FeraSpin™ R), as well as iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles (IOHNPs) coated with sucrose (Venofer®), or iron salts (ferric ammonium citrate -FAC), to treat and/or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. At non-cytotoxic doses, IONPs and IOHNPs impaired virus replication and transcription, and the production of infectious viruses in vitro, either when the cells were treated prior to or after infection, although with different efficiencies. Moreover, our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the expression of genes involved in cellular iron metabolism. Furthermore, the treatment of cells with IONPs and IOHNPs affects oxidative stress and iron metabolism to different extents, likely influencing virus replication and production. Interestingly, some of the nanoparticles used in this work have already been approved for their use in humans as anti-anemic treatments, such as the IOHNP Venofer®, and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging in small animals like mice, such as the FeraSpin™ R IONP. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, our results suggest that IONPs and IOHNPs may be repurposed to be used as prophylactic or therapeutic treatments in order to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Ferric Compounds , Ferric Oxide, Saccharated , Humans , Iron , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(10): 3659-3662, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967028

ABSTRACT

Myositis and myonecrosis are rare sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, it has not been seen in muscles of the head and neck. We present a 22-year-old male with 4 months of retroauricular headaches following COVID-19 infection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rim-enhancing fluid collections in the bilateral masticator spaces which were sampled by fine-needle aspiration. We also discuss this case in the context of the current understanding of COVID-19-related myositis.

4.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(10): 3713-3717, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967027

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rather uncommon disorder. CVST is potentially lethal, therefore early detection and treatment is critical. CVST has been linked to pregnancy and puerperium, while COVID-19 infection has been linked to a hypercoagulable state. CVST can be difficult to detect and treat due to the wide range of neurological manifestations, especially in patients with hypercoagulability. The goal of this study is to conduct a literature review and present a unique case of a pregnant woman with CVST who had left hemiplegia and headache. After 6 months of treatment in the hospital, the patient's hemiplegia was fully resolved. Here, we discuss the treatment of CVST in pregnant women who have a suspected past COVID-19 infection.

5.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104242, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966305

ABSTRACT

Introduction: and Importance: Maxillary actinomycosis is a persistent, very rare disease produced by Actinomyces species which may include only soft tissue or bone or the two together. Actinomycotic osteomyelitis of maxilla is very infrequent when compared to mandible. Case presentation: Here we are conferring a case of an elderly male patient who had history of COVID-19 infection 4 months ago, with constant complaint of non-remitting vague pain in the region of maxilla with tooth loosening and extractions. He was given a provisional diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis of maxilla which was later on proved by histopathology as actinomycotic osteomyelitis. Clinical discussion: A saprophytic fungus causes mucor mycosis, and it is quite unusual. Strawberry gingivitis is one of the signs and symptoms. Mucormycosis and post-covid oral maxillofacial problems can be improved with early diagnosis. Oral Mucormycosis should be suspected in individuals with weakened immune systems, uncontrolled diabetes or post-covid instances. Surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment are necessary to treat actinomycosis. Infection may return after a period of inactivity, so long-term follow-up is necessary. Conclusion: We conclude a positive causal association between COVID-19 and actinomycosis. Maxillary osteomyelitis, a very rare infection, and in our case, the causative organism was Actinomyces Patients who have been infected should be tested for Actinomycin, which may masquerade as a head and neck illness.

6.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965553

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) is a new entity that emerges 2-4 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. MIS-C can affect all systems, the most severe of which is cardiac involvement. The duration of the cardiac symptoms is still uncertain and may be persistent or prolonged. The American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidelines recommends cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2-6 months after the diagnosis of MIS-C in patients presenting with significant transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in the acute phase of illness (LV ejection fraction 50%) or persistent LV dysfunction. There are a few studies investigating cardiac MRI findings in MIS-C patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate cardiac MRI findings, at the earliest 3 months after diagnosis, and compare these findings with the echocardiograms in children with MIS-C. A retrospective study including 34 MIS-C patients was conducted at a tertiary-level University Hospital between June 2020 and July 2021. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used in the diagnosis of MIS-C. Cardiac MRI was performed at least 3 months after MIS-C diagnosis. The study included 17 (50%) boys and 17 (50%) girls with a mean age of 9.31 ± 4.72 years. Initial echocardiographic evaluation revealed cardiac abnormality in 13 (38.2) patients; 4 (11.8%) pericardial effusion, 4 (11.8%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 55%, and 5 (14.7%) coronary artery dilatation. Echocardiography showed normal LV systolic function in all patients during follow-up; coronary dilatation persisted in 2 of 5 (40%) patients at the 6th-month visit. Cardiac MRI was performed in 31 (91.2%) patients, and myocardial hyperemia was not detected in any patients (T1 relaxation time was < 1044 ms in all children). However, 9 (29%) patients' MRI showed isolated elevated T2 levels, and 19 (61.3%) revealed at least one of the following findings: pericardial effusion, right ventricular dysfunction, or LVEF abnormality. In patients with MIS-C, a high rate of cardiac involvement, particularly pericardial effusion was determined by cardiac MRI performed at the earliest 2-6 months after diagnosis. Even if echocardiography does not reveal any abnormality in the initial phase, cardiac MRI should be suggested in MIS-C patients in the late period. This is the first study reporting cardiac MRI findings in the late period of MIS-C patients.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 917867, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963499

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies have reported that pulmo-neurotropic viruses can cause systemic invasion leading to acute respiratory failure and neuroinfection. The tetracycline class of secondary metabolites of microorganisms is effective against several migrating neurotropic viral disorders, as Japanese-Encephalitis (JE), Severe-Acute-Respiratory-Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV2), Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV), and Simian-Immunodeficiency-Virus (SIV). Another microbial secondary metabolite, cephalosporin, can be used for anti-viral combination therapy. However, a substantial public health debacle is viral resistance to such antibiotics, and, thus, one needs to explore the antiviral efficiency of other secondary metabolites, as phytochemicals. Hence, here, we investigate phytochemicals like podophyllotoxin, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, and quercetin for therapeutic efficiency in neurotropic viral infections. Methods: To investigate the possibility of the afferent neural pathway of migrating virus in man, MRI scanning was performed on human subjects, whereby the connections between cranial nerves and the brain-stem/limbic-region were assessed by fiber-tractography. Moreover, human clinical-trial assessment (n = 140, p = 0.028) was done for formulating a quantitative model of antiviral pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, docking studies were performed to identify the binding affinity of phytochemicals toward antiviral targets as (i) host receptor [Angiotensin-converting Enzyme-2], (ii) main protease of SARS-COV2 virus (iii) NS3-Helicase/Nucleoside triphosphatase of Japanese-encephalitis-virus, and the affinities were compared to standard tetracycline and cephalosporin antibiotics. Then, network pharmacology analysis was utilized to identify the possible mechanism of action of those phytochemicals. Results: Human MRI-tractography analysis showed fiber connectivity, as: (a) Path-1: From the olfactory nerve to the limbic region (2) Path-2: From the peripheral glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerves to the midbrain-respiratory-center. Docking studies revealed comparable binding affinity of phytochemicals, tetracycline, and cephalosporin antibiotics toward both (a) virus receptors, (b) host cell receptors where virus-receptor binds. The phytochemicals effectively countered the cytokine storm-induced neuroinflammation, a critical pathogenic pathway. We also found that a systems-biology-based double-hit mathematical bi-exponential model accounts for patient survival-curve under antiviral treatment, thus furnishing a quantitative-clinical framework of secondary metabolite action on virus and host cells. Conclusion: Due to the current viral resistance to antibiotics, we identified novel phytochemicals that can have clinical therapeutic application to neurotropic virus infection. Based on human MRI scanning and clinical-trial analysis, we demarcated the anatomical pathway and systems-biology-based quantitative formulation of the mechanism of antiviral action.

8.
Sibirskij Zurnal Kliniceskoj i Eksperimental'noj Mediciny ; 37(1):135-141, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965040

ABSTRACT

Clinical examples for variants of cardiovascular complications of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are presented when they are visualized by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and chest organs with paramagnetic contrast enhancement and synchronization with ECG and respiration signal. The syndromes of post-COVID focal infarct injury and diffuse inflammatory lesion are identified. The picture of MRI visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque is presented. The results of quantitative processing of cardiac MRI in these two different syndromes of post-COVID cardiological complications are presented. The presented clinical examples indicate the need for cardiac MRI to monitor patients and assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of COVID-19. © 2022 Folia Medica. All rights reserved.

9.
International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration ; 9(90):623-643, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964885

ABSTRACT

A rapid diagnostic system is a primary role in the healthcare system exclusively during a pandemic situation to control contagious diseases like coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Many countries remain lacking to spot COVID cases by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. On this stretch, deep learning algorithms have been strengthened the medical image processing system to analyze the infection, categorization, and further diagnosis. It is motivated to discover the alternate way to identify the disease using existing medical implications. Hence, this review narrated the character and attainment of deep learning algorithms at each juncture from origin to COVID-19. This literature highlights the importance of deep learning and further focused the medical image processing research on handling the data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, and electromagnetic radiation (X-ray) images. Additionally, this systematic review tabulates the popular deep learning networks with operational parameters, peer-reviewed research with their outcomes, popular nets, and prevalent datasets, and highlighted the facts to stimulate future research. The consequence of this literature ascertains convolutional neural network-based deep learning approaches work better in the medical image processing system, and especially it is very supportive of sorting out the COVID-19 complications.

10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 102, 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although many reports have detailed a range of neurological symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, studies of neuro-ophthalmological manifestations are still scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 9-year-old girl with abducens nerve palsy after COVID-19 with no evidence of other neurological disease on neuroimaging. At 2-month follow-up clinical conditions were improved. CONCLUSIONS: The palsy may have occurred due to a possible post-infectious immune-mediated mechanism underlying the neuropathy, as opposed to direct viral infiltration. Despite being rare, this complication must be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Abducens Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Abducens Nerve Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Radiography (Lond) ; 28(3): 780-787, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Magnetic Resonance Imaging remains an anxious experience for many, often exhibiting as fear of enclosed spaces. A useful metric to assess its prevalence and impact in practice is premature termination due to claustrophobia. Incidence varies and depends on many factors such as the physical nature of the imaging equipment and examination being undertaken, as well as the patient themselves. METHODS: Scan appointment data from between April 2019-March 2021 was extracted and reviewed. Analysis included the type of scanner used, patient age, sex, examination area, funding source, attendance and completion status. Binomial logistic regression was performed to look for any relevant predictors of failure to scan due to claustrophobia. RESULTS: Overall incidence of incomplete examinations due to claustrophobia was 0.76%. Whilst the majority of scans were performed on conventional systems, those undergoing Open scans were over three times more likely to fail a scan due to claustrophobia, whilst those undergoing UpRight scanning were half as likely. Likelihood of claustrophobia increases with females, those between 45-64years of age, funded by the NHS and entering the scanner head first or having a head scan. CONCLUSION: Incidence of incomplete scanning is below 1% but with the potential for further reduction with implementation and use of improved scanner design and technology. Understanding the impact of other variables is also useful to raise awareness of those at greater risk of claustrophobia. However, there are wider influences beyond data alone to consider and account for. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Whilst occurrence of claustrophobia is low, there remains a cost impact, as well as an importance in understanding the patient experience. Drawing on operational data can help provide a limited, generalised view to support service improvement.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/etiology
12.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 172: 17-23, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956176

ABSTRACT

Cognitive deficits in infants born preterm and infants at term with risk factors for brain damage are a common outcome. Attention deficits in preterm infants are related to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and therefore, there is a need for earlier evaluations and treatment procedures that are implemented before the presence of signs of ADHD. METHODS: We studied preterm (74%) and term infants with the Infant Scale of Selective Attention (ISSA, Escala de Evaluación de la Atención Selectiva (EEAS), in Spanish). This scale evaluates both visual- and auditory-orienting attention. Two groups participated, one with attention deficits (n = 26) and another with regular performance (n = 36). An early attention-stimulation program (EASP) was implemented in the infant group with attention deficits from three to eight months of age. All infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and visual and auditory evoked responses were assessed. RESULTS: All infants had prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage and abnormal MRI findings, and the majority had abnormalities compatible with white matter injury. However, there were four infants with porencephalic cysts; 3 of them were in the treated group. At the beginning of the treatment, ISSA values showed differences between groups. These differences persisted for five months in the visual test and up to the sixth month in the auditory evaluation. Afterward, there were no significant differences, indicating that infants with attention deficits had satisfactorily responded to the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The ISSA is helpful for the early evaluation of visual and auditory attention. Infants with attention deficits react well enough after six months of EASP.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain Injuries , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/pathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Risk Factors
13.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1272022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955653

ABSTRACT

Background: Neurological and psychiatric manifestations related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are widely recognised. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations are normal in 40-80% of symptomatic patients, eventually delaying appropriate treatment when MRI is unrevealing any structural changes. The aim of this study is to investigate white matter abnormalities during an early stage of post-COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) encephalitis while conventional MRI was normal. Methods: A patient with post-COVID-19 autoimmune encephalitis was investigated by serial MRIs and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Ten healthy control individuals (HC) were utilised as a control group for the DTI analysis. Major projection, commissural and association white matter pathways were reconstructed, and multiple diffusion parameters were analysed and then compared to the HC average using a z-test for serial examinations. Results: Eleven days after the onset of neurological symptoms, DTI revealed early white matter changes, compared with HC, when standard MRI was normal. On day 68, DTI showed multiple white matter lesions compared with HC, visible at this time also by the MRI images, indicating inflammatory changes in different association and projection white matter pathways. Conclusion: We confirm a limitation in the sensitivity of conventional MRI at the acute setting of post-COVID-19 autoimmune encephalitis. A complementary DTI investigation could be a valuable diagnostic tool in early therapeutic decisions concerning COVID-19-related neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , COVID-19/complications , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952966

ABSTRACT

Although the lungs are the primary organ involved, increasing evidence supports the neuroinvasive potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigates the potential relationship between coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deterioration of brain structure and the degree of damage to lung function. Nine COVID-19 patients were recruited in critical condition from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged between 4 February and 27 February 2020. The demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All patients underwent chest CT imaging, 129Xe gas lung MRI, and 1H brain MRI. Four of the patients were followed up for 8 months. After nearly 12 months of recovery, we found no significant difference in lung ventilation defect percentage (VDP) between the COVID-19 group and the healthy group (3.8 ± 2.1% versus 3.7 ± 2.2%) using 129Xe MRI, and several lung-function-related parameters-such as gas-blood exchange time (T)-showed improvement (42.2 ms versus 32.5 ms). Combined with 1H brain MRI, we found that the change in gray matter volume (GMV) was strongly related to the degree of pulmonary function recovery-the greater the increase in GMV, the higher degree of pulmonary function damage.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 844626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952274

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis is a rare but serious complication associated with mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. In this article, four COVID-19 mRNA vaccination induced myocarditis cases managed at our tertiary Medical Center have been discussed. Three patients had typical myocarditis. One patient suffered from atrioventricular block and heart failure, which required more intensive treatment, but eventually improved. Additionally, a review of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features related to the diagnosis of myocarditis showed that COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis tend to have more late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) accumulation in the inferior lateral wall direction. According to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the diagnosis of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis is based on clinical symptoms, altered myocardial enzymes, cardiac MRI finding, or histopathology. Cardiac MRI is relatively less invasive than myocardial biopsy and plays an important role in the diagnosis of myocarditis. This review may aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis.

16.
J Neurosurg Case Lessons ; 2(1): CASE21246, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing the standard of care to patients with glioblastoma (GBM) during the novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge, particularly if a patient tests positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Further difficulties occur in eloquent cortex tumors because awake speech mapping can theoretically aerosolize viral particles and expose staff. Moreover, microscopic neurosurgery has become difficult because the use of airborne-level personal protective equipment (PPE) crowds the space between the surgeon and the eyepiece. However, delivering substandard care will inevitably lead to disease progression and poor outcomes. OBSERVATIONS: A 60-year-old man with a left insular and frontal operculum GBM was found to be COVID-19 positive. Treatment was postponed pending a negative SARS-CoV-2 result, but in the interim, he developed intratumoral hemorrhage with progressive expressive aphasia. Because the tumor was causing dominant hemisphere language symptomatology, an awake craniotomy was the recommended surgical approach. With the use of airborne-level PPE and a surgical drape to protect the surgeon from the direction of potential aerosolization, near-total gross resection was achieved. LESSONS: Delaying the treatment of patients with GBM who test positive for COVID-19 will lead to further neurological deterioration. Optimal and timely treatment such as awake speech mapping for COVID-19-positive patients with GBM can be provided safely.

17.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:17829-17835, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950334

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhino cerebral Mucormycosis is life-threatening contamination as a result of saprophytic fungi visible nearly solely in immuno-compromised sufferers. The goal of this observes changed to explain the imaging findings in sufferers with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The following motive was to present not unusual place radiographic styles that can be beneficial in concluding the prognosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging and scientific records of 1 adult male, 46 years old, with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Case presentation: We herein present an interesting case of a 46-year-old male patient of the department of ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat). A patient came on an outpatient basis with a clinical history of severe headache in the last 20 days, blurring of vision in bilateral eyes, diplopia and fainting in the previous 8-10 days, fever (on & off) in the past 8 days. Swelling on forehead, eyes and overall face diagnosis was done with the help of MRI scan imaging and treated with excision of black fungus. Mucormycosis is a rare disease, but it is more frequent in persons with health issues or who use medications such decrease the body's ability to fight infections and illness. As a result, other specific groups of people are more likely to get Mucormycosis. Conclusion: Mucosal thickening with moderate enhancement is noted in bilateral maxillary sinuses appearing hyperintense on T2 WI images and isointense to hyperintense appearances showing on T1WI images, and there is blockage of the right osteomatal unit, suggestive of changes of sinusitis. Few T2 WI images showing isointense to hypointense foci are seen within. Linear minimal mucosal thickening is also seen in the left sphenoid, bilateral ethmoid and frontal sinus. Ill-defined STIR hyperintense signals are seen in the premaxillary, periorbital and temporal region on the left side with involvement of the left temporalis muscle. Mucor mycosis is a dangerous fungal illness and rapidly proceeding form of fungal contamination that can be lethal. This infectious disease has been documented to have an indolent clinical course, despite its rarity. © The Electrochemical Society

18.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 375-388, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944436

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is an established but rare adverse event following administration of messenger RNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and is most common in male adolescents and young adults. Symptoms typically develop within a few days of vaccine administration. Most patients have mild abnormalities on cardiac imaging with rapid clinical improvement with standard treatment. However, longer term follow-up is needed to determine whether imaging abnormalities persist, to evaluate for adverse outcomes, and to understand the risk associated with subsequent vaccination. The purpose of the review is to evaluate the current literature related to myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination, including the incidence, risk factors, clinical course, imaging findings, and proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
20.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938708

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis comprises many clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to sudden cardiac death. The history, physical examination, cardiac biomarkers, inflammatory markers, and electrocardiogram are usually helpful in the initial assessment of suspected acute myocarditis. Echocardiography is the primary tool to detect ventricular wall motion abnormalities, pericardial effusion, valvular regurgitation, and impaired function. The advancement of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been helpful in clinical practice for diagnosing myocarditis. A recent Scientific Statement by the American Heart Association suggested CMR as a confirmatory test to diagnose acute myocarditis in children. However, standard CMR parametric mapping parameters for diagnosing myocarditis are unavailable in pediatric patients for consistency and reliability in the interpretation. The present review highlights the unmet clinical needs for standard CMR parametric criteria for diagnosing acute and chronic myocarditis in children and differentiating dilated chronic myocarditis phenotype from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Of particular relevance to today's practice, we also assess the potential and limitations of CMR to diagnose acute myocarditis in children exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infections. The latter section will discuss the multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and mRNA coronavirus disease 19 vaccine-associated myocarditis.

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