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13th International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ICMAE 2022 ; : 56-60, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029245

ABSTRACT

The starting point of the research was the demand of customers for 3D printing of face shield frames. In this context, but also due to the possibilities of relatively cheap 3D printing of various products, a large amount of waste has started to be generated, which needs to be disposed of. The goal of the research was to contribute to the development of new 3D printed products while balancing their level of quality, and cost and minimizing their environmental footprint. For this purpose, based on customer requirements, the research team printed samples of PLA (polylactic acid) material and recycled PLA using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFM) technology, thus significantly helping especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research used a design method known as Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and its framework of successive steps of defining, measuring, analyzing, designing, and validating DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Validate). The research concerns the development of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) functions that respect the requirement of a minimum environmental footprint of 3D printing. The result is an original QFD methodology, taking into account the choice of material in terms of minimizing the impact on the environment. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Polymer Reviews ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984894

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is among the critical issues for ceasing the COVID-19 pandemic. This review discusses the current usage of biomaterials in vaccine development and provides brief descriptions of the vaccine types and their working mechanisms. New types of vaccine platforms (next-generation vaccines and DNA- or mRNA-based vaccines) are discussed in detail. The mRNA vaccine encoding the spike protein viral antigen can be produced in a cell-free system, suggesting that mRNA vaccines are safer than “classic vaccines” using live or inactivated virus. The mRNA vaccine efficacy is typically high at approximately 95%. However, most mRNA vaccines need to be maintained at −20 or −70 degrees for storage for long periods (half a year) and their transportation because of mRNA vaccine instability in general, although mRNA vaccines with unmodified and self-amplifying RNA (ARCT-154, Arcturus), which have a lyophilized form, have recently been reported to be kept at room temperature. mRNA vaccines are typically entrapped in lipid nanoparticles composed of ionizable lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. These components and their composition affect mRNA vaccine stability and efficacy and the size of the mRNA vaccine. The development of an improved mRNA vaccine entrapped in sophisticated biomaterials, such as novel lipid nanoparticles, using new types of biopolymers or lipids is necessary for high efficacy, safe transportation and long-term storage of the next generation of mRNA vaccines under mild conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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