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1.
Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081142

ABSTRACT

Rising environmental issues, animal welfare concerns and vulnerable food supply chain especially during pandemics, as COVID-19 demands an effective and long-term solution for food security in future. All of these challenges encourage the researchers to find more reliable and clean ways of food production such as cultured meat. This process involved the production of animal meat in lab using large bioreactors without raising animals. Cultured meat production is widely accepted among animal rights activists and it can solve the issues related to conventional farming such as excessive use of land resource, animal slaughter, foodborne diseases and antibiotic resistance. Despite of all these advantages, it is facing some serious challenges, which includes technical, social and ethical limitations. Extracting specific cell line, development of animal-free growth media, upgradation of bioreactors, development of desired scaffolds and changing the public perception towards lab grown meat are fundamental challenges that need to be discuss. This review intends to summarize both technical and social challenges that are halting the availability of cultured meat in market and suggests some feasible recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

2.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034170

ABSTRACT

The relationship between international trade and animal health is particularly important in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization - WTO. Supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), SPS measures are scientifically justified and play an important role in placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related to health and animal trade. The objective of this study was to discuss the interactions between the international meat trade and the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases of viral origin, in a debate on how the current Covid-19 pandemic could change the consumer behavior related to health and hygiene issues, and how the meat sector was affected by SPS measures, highlighting the relevance of Brazil in this context.

3.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

4.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):15-17, 2022.
Article in Cr | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010958

ABSTRACT

In the years between the two poultry symposia, the European and Croatian poultry industry has been faced With additional challenges caused by COVID-19 pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic. These years were characterised by considerable production and market disorders, which influenced the level of production and pricing deviations in primary production, as well as in processing industry, poultry meat and poultry product market.

5.
Agraarteadus ; 33(1):162-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934720

ABSTRACT

During the years of 2015-2016 in Greece, an increase of imports of poultry meat has been occurred on a level of 10.2%, whereas in the years of 2018-2019 the increase has only reached the level of 1.9%. On the contrary, a reduction on a level of 14.2% on poultry meat imports, in Greece, between the years of 2019-2020 have shown the possible implications of the COVID-19 pandemic to poultry meat consumption and possibly to chicken meat consumption. Moreover, the Food related lifestyle (FRL) can be defined as a system of consumers' cognitive categories and relationships that connect a set of food-related behaviours, with a set of personal values of each consumer. Hence, this paper aims to segment Greek consumers according to their food-related lifestyles values and is tried to identify the aspects that may determine consumers' behaviour towards chicken meat preference, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Four consumer segments appeared: "Sociable and safety seekers", "Light concerned and cooks", "Unconcerned and price seekers", "Innovative and moderate concerned". Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques have been used. Consumers' profiles that demonst-rated different food-related attitudes towards the pandemic were analysed with the use of variables: gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income and chicken meat quality cues. Significant differences were found between the four segments in terms of gender, age and income. Moreover, "Light concerned and cooks" and "Innovative and moderate concerned" consumers revealed to consider the place of purchasing as a dominant extrinsic quality cue of chicken meat. Furthermore, these consumers appeared to trust butcher in terms of the safety of chicken meat that they purchased, whereas only the consumers of the segment of "Light concerned and cooks" showed a willingness to pay a higher amount for chicken meat that is produced by animal welfare standards.

6.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

7.
Economic Research Report - Economic Research Service, USDA 2022. (306):iv + 27 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918611

ABSTRACT

While the U.S. food system has been largely able to maintain operations and provide consumers with the variety of foods they desire since the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic began, U.S. households faced sharply higher food prices for many staple items, especially meat in 2020. In this study, U.S. households' meat purchases at retail stores for at-home consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic are examined and compared with those before the virus outbreak.

8.
Veterinary Practitioner ; 22(2):165-171, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905059

ABSTRACT

An attempt was made to analyze the impact of seasonal changes, disease scare situations and festivals on the prices of broilers across India. Prices of broilers were collected for the period from 2017 to 2021 from the various secondary sources like Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association (KPFBA), TS AP Broiler Co-Ordination Committee (TSAPBCC), Poultry Bazaar etc. The seasonal index analysis for the last 10 years data revealed that the average broiler prices had grown significantly from 2011 to 2014, later prices gradually declined in 2015 due to the outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in the month of February, 2015. Prices bounced back and increased from 2016 to 2019. Again there was decline of prices in the middle of January 2020 due to outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) and Covid-19 pandemic. The prices of broilers have been recovering and gradually increasing since March, 2021 onwards. The consumption of chicken during winter season is high and this led to high prices in the market. Whereas the demand for chicken during hot climate months of March, April and May become slack in all the market centers of India resulting lowest price for chicken. Also, the increased demand on account of festivals viz., Christmas and New Year attributed to the rise in prices in the months of November and December.

9.
56th Croatian & 16th International Symposium on Agriculture, Vodice, Croatia ; 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904944

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on behavior and changes in the food market and to assess the level of resilience of the agri-food sector to the coronavirus pandemic, analyzing its impact on commodity prices and focusing on supply chain and values. The paper presents an overview of literature data related to the topic of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the food market, ie the food chain. Analyzing FAO Food Price Index (ICH) from 2015 to 2020, the average ICH is growing slightly on average in 2020 (5.3%) compared to 2015. Looking at individual commodity groups, more or less oscillations were observed in all of them, and the increase in the price index refers to dairy products, vegetable oils and cereals, while a decrease was observed in meat and sugar. If we analyze more closely the movement of ICH and commodity groups in the period from March 2020 to March 2021, we can see an increase in the ICH average and all individual commodity groups. The increase is most significant in vegetable oils and sugars. The trade of purchased and sold agricultural products in Croatia from 2018 to 2020 slightly increased in 2020 compared to the previous (non-pandemic) year. Unlike other sectors, the food sector, as part of the national critical infrastructure, remained operational throughout the supply chain during the pandemic. As this crisis is unlikely to remain a one-off, further research efforts should focus on considering its long-term impacts, such as negative impacts on job security, supply chains and globalization.

10.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

11.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

12.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(3):220-231, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904285

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has spread to all aspects of life. Modeling the price of beef and chicken meat is very important for the government to avoid extreme fluctuations of both commodities in the prices so that society's purchasing power can be maintained. This study has several objectives, namely building VAR and ARDL models from multiple time series data (beef and chicken meat prices), conducting variable selection with forwarding subset selection on input lag in the ARDL model, and measuring the performance of the VAR and ARDL models on the both of beef and chicken meat prices based on the value of RMSE, MAE, and R_square both in the training and testing set. The novelty in this study is to propose an identification method for the lag inputs of the ARDL model based on the criteria of both the Alkaide Information criteria (AIC) value and the adjusted R square value by visualizing both criteria for all possible amounts of lag inputs. The results of the identification of the VAR model structure using the conventional method in time series modeling are yielded the different lag inputs that are compared to the ARDL model structure with lag inputs identified by using the proposed method. The ARDL model of the beef and chicken meat prices has better performance than the VAR model both on training and testing sets. In addition, the resulting VAR model also clearly shows the occurrence of overfitting problems.

13.
MAP Newsletter ; 02:1-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887500

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 marked one of the biggest recessions in global economic activity and world trade. During this period, the EU economy contracted by 6% and its international trade followed a similar downward trend - EU exports of goods decreased by 9% and imports by 12%, compared to 2019. By contrast, EU international trade in agri-food reported a slight growth. Over the course of 2020, the value of EU agri-food exports increased to 184.3 billion (a growth of 1.4% compared to 2019), while the value of imports rose to 122.2 billion (a growth of 0.5%). As a result, the EU further reinforced its leading position among the world's biggest exporters. On the import side, the EU has become the third largest importer after the US and China. The contraction in global trade was accompanied by increasing prices of food, including commodities as evidenced by the increases reflected in the FAO Global Price Index. The EU exports a wide range of products from all parts of the value chain which demonstrates the competitiveness of the EU agri-food sector in a variety of product classes ranging from commodities to highly processed food industry products. EU imports, on the other hand, are clearly dominated by basic agricultural food and feed products, which represent about 75% of all imports. Looking at product categories, exports of pig meat and wheat strongly contributed to the increase in EU overall agri-food exports. Conversely, spirits and liqueurs as well as wine are among the sectors that experienced a difficult period for a number of reasons (e.g. the COVID pandemic, US retaliatory tariffs). The growth in EU agri-food imports was mainly driven by increases in import values for oilseeds, other than soya beans;fatty acids and waxes, palm oil, fruit including tropical fruit, and soya beans. China, Switzerland and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region were the major growth destinations for EU agri-food exports in 2020. The value of EU exports fell most to the United States, Turkey, Singapore and Japan. In terms of imports, Canada grew significantly as a source for the EU imports. By contrast, EU imports declined most in value from the United Kingdom, Ukraine and the United States. In 2020, the UK has become the EU's most important partner in agri-food trade, with a share of 23% in total EU agri-food exports and 13% in total imports. With EU exports and imports both decreasing, its trade surplus with the US increased by 2% when compared to 2019, as falls on the imports side were stronger. China became the top destination for US agri-food exports. EU agri-food exports to China were primarily driven by continued record high sales of pig meat which increased by 74%. Pig meat and meat offal - the latter mainly comprised of products originating from pigs - accounted for over 40% of EU exports to China in 2020, demonstrating the importance of this market for the pig meat sector. Brazil's exports to China continued to increase in 2020, absorbing 35% of its total agri-food exports. Combined agri-food exports from Brazil to the EU and the US now account for half of Brazilian exports to China. In 2020, Brazil supplied 50% of extra-EU demand for soya beans and 40% for oilcakes. Wheat continued to be the leading EU export product to Africa with a 23% share of the EU's total export basket, whereas cocoa beans dominate in the EU imports from Africa, with the same share of 23%. Most African countries benefit from duty-free, quota-free access to the EU market under the "Everything But Arms" scheme and for many of them Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) or other trade agreements with the EU are applied, encouraging regional cooperation and trade. In 2020, the EU applied 45 free trade agreements (FTAs) with 77 partners. The share of agri-food trade under preferential agreements is also expanding and in 2021, it accounted for 31% and 41% of total EU agri-food exports and imports, respectively. The value of EU agri-food trade under preferential agreements expanded more in relative terms compared to total EU agri-food trade. EU agri-food ex

14.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):21-42, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876330

ABSTRACT

This article offers an analysis of the economic situation of several animal sectors (cow's milk, beef, pork, poultry meat and the equine sector) in France, two years after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. Starting from the latest statistical data available for the period 2020 to 2021 and while taking into account historical trajectories, it seeks to highlight how this crisis has had implications for production, prices, consumption, foreign trade and, in the case of the equine sector, the various activities (horse betting, equestrian centres, etc.). The production of agricultural goods was generally little impacted by the health crisis because farmers continued to produce, sometimes despite certain difficulties, such as the lack of labor, temporary loss of outlets, etc. Faced with a significant change in the structure of demand (increase in products purchased by households to the detriment of those favored in out-of-home catering), the sudden measures imposed by the State and the difficulties sometimes encountered in maintaining the number of employees, processors have been able to adapt quickly to provide consumers with the goods demanded. Trade flows were also disrupted in 2020, before picking up again in 2021, according to trends that were ultimately fairly consistent with those preceding the crisis. Under the influence, on the one hand, of the increase in the price of energy (even before the war in Ukraine which began on February 24, 2022) and, on the other hand, fluctuating imports from China into global animal product markets, producer prices increased in late 2021 and early 2022, but this increase is offset by a sharp increase in production costs. In the equine sector, turnover losses were temporarily significant due to the interaction of this sector with the public. After the shock of 2020, and subject to adaptation by the players in the sector, activities are gradually resuming.

15.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):1-20, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876329

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.

16.
Indian Journal of Poultry Science ; 56(1):75-80, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876085

ABSTRACT

A well-structured specifically developed questionnaire with 31 questions was circulated among residents in Tamil Nadu via social networking sites such as Facebook, Email, WhatsApp, and Twitter starting on 1411' August 2020 to 24m August 2020.181 out of 350 participants contacted, responded to the online survey (52%). Among the respondents (181), 30%, 21%, and 0.3% were male, female, and third gender, respectively. There was no substantial change in the consumption pattern of eggs during the COVID-19 lock-down period. However, there was a 5% reduction in the consumption of poultry meat and egg on Sunday's during the COVID-19 lock-down period. There was a marginal increase in the purchase of poultry eggs among the respondents who usually buy less than 6 eggs per week for their family and a marginal reduction in the (-4%) in the purchase of poultry eggs among the respondents purchasing 12-24 eggs per week for their family. The regular quantity of chicken meat consumed per family per week is up to 2 kgs. There was a 6% reduction in the consumption of chicken meat among the respondents consuming 1 to 2 kg per week for their family during the COVID-19 lock-down period. This survey highlights the need for constant awareness among the general public as 36% of respondents were unaware of the about non-transmission of COVID-19 through chicken meat and egg. fry.

17.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871712

ABSTRACT

It is reported that the USDA outlook for US agriculture in 2021 is generally positive. Most agricultural markets, including the major markets for Iowa, have recovered from the depths of the price declines that struck during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the basic statistics (such as production, exports, imports, and prices) for cattle/beef, pigs/pigmeat, maize and soyabeans are presented.

18.
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society ; 134:116-117, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871050

ABSTRACT

Typical agricultural distribution systems and venues temporarily ceased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Commodities were turned under in fields, dumped, or left behind for wildlife to pilfer while food banks ran out of produce. Residents did not know where to get fresh produce and wholesale producers lacked the ability to instantly shift their business model and distribution methods to meet local needs. Advisory board networks helped connect components of the food system: wholesale producers;retail outlets;and consumers to locations where produce was available. I connected volunteer gleaners with wholesale producers to gather produce for distribution to food banks around Manatee County. The Bradenton Downtown Farmer's Market started a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) venue to accommodate wholesale producers with a retail venue. The county (Geographic Information System) (GIS) team and I created an interactive map of local agriculture commodities such as vegetables, fruit and vegetable crops, aquaculture, beef and dairy products, and nursery plants. The volunteer group organized over 60 gleaning events and harvested over 72,000 pounds of produce for food insecure residents. Based on the farmer's market model, two producers created CSA markets, in addition to their restaurant venue. As a result of the pandemic, four wholesale producers expanded distribution to local retail venues. The GIS map included over 100 Manatee County agriculture producers, searchable by location and commodity for markets, nurseries, aquaculture, beef and dairy, fruits, and vegetables. Key players in the food system who initially connected during the pandemic lockdown were able to provide beneficial opportunities for everyone. The GIS map has increased awareness of local agricultural production in Manatee County. Some wholesale producers adopted alternative marketing venues to rebound from pandemic deficits and prepare for future market changes. Gleaning events continue to provide local fruits and vegetables to food insecure residents, allowing them to enjoy healthy, accessible produce. Socially, many new connections and relationships have been fostered between the farming and residential communities.

19.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture Food Science and Technology ; 10(3):394-403, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841802

ABSTRACT

In recent years, climate change and Covid-19 pandemic have dramatically caused some attitude variation on consumers' food consumption preferences. By measuring the impacts on their behaviors of these changes, using as a policy tool is of a great importance. This research was conducted to analyze the total effect of sensory quality and mediating effect with natural risk factor on veal consumption hedonism of consumers in Erzurum province under climate change and Covid-19 epidemic. The main data of the study was consisted of primary data obtained from 385 household in 2021. The data were used in basic effect model to measure the sensory quality effect on consumption hedonism, and then in mediating effect model to determine indirect effects of risk factor playing linking role. The results of the study indicated that sensory quality being of high total effect on consumers' veal consumption hedonism in basic effect model explained 64% of total variance. On the other hand, it was determined that sensory quality's direct effect on consumption hedonism in mediating effect model with risk factor was lower, but the risk factor's indirect effect was meaningful, and had a higher explanation rate than that in basic effect model. In order to be able to increase consumption hedonism, human diets should include consumption based on alternative meat and protein sources of vegetable origin instead of veal consumption. Hygiene decisions minimizing Covid-19 infection risk, moreover, at production and marketing stages of alternative meats should be taken and implemented.

20.
Agricultural Economics ; 15(4), 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Covid-19 virus pandemic has affected the entire world and all economic sectors. The agricultural sector has been affected by this crisis from various dimensions, too. The broiler industry is the largest industry in Kurdistan province, which has been affected by this pandemic in various ways, such as supply chain of inputs, changes in supply and demand structures. The broiler industry of Kurdistan province has directly and indirectly created employment for about 14,000 people. Kurdistan province has more than 750 active broiler farms, which use about 15 million broiler chicken pieces in each period and 60 million pieces per year. Kurdistan province produces about 4% of the country's chicken meat. This study aims to investigate and estimate the implications of the Corona pandemic on production, performance and economic efficiency of broiler farms in Sanandaj township, Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methode: Production and performance criteria were extracted from summarizing and comparing data in Excel software. To estimate the efficiency criteria by data envelopment analysis model, DEAP software was used;and in order to evaluate the difference between the means, the matched-pairs t-test was conducted in SPSS software. Necessary data were obtained through a simple random sampling method. The collected data were related to two breeding periods in autumn 2019 before the pandemic, and autumn 2020 after the pandemic. All production, performance and efficiency measures calculated and compared in pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods. Results and discussion: The results showed that the total number of day-old chicks in pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods was not significantly different. Total production of small and medium farms decreased slightly in the post-pandemic period;whilst total production in large farms, due to the increase in weight of chickens, not only did not decrease but also increased significantly. The grain-to-chicken conversion ratio increased on all farms, so that more grain was used to produce one kilogram of chicken, in the post-pandemic period. The reason for this could probably be the irregularity in the sales process and the increase in the number of storage days. The age of slaughter increased in all farms in the post-pandemic period, significantly. Due to the increase in slaughter age, the average weight of chickens at slaughter also increased significantly. Furthermore, the percentage of losses in all farms showed a significant increase. Regarding efficiency, no significant difference was found in the average technical efficiency of broiler farms before and after the corona outbreak. Nevertheless, the difference between the average allocation and economic efficiency of the farms in the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods were significant;In all three capacity groups, there was a significant decrease in both allocation efficiency and economic efficiency in the post-pandemic period. Suggestion: The results showed a significant decrease in allocative and economic efficiency of the farms in post-pandemic relative to pre-pandemic periods, therefore, more attention is needed by managers and policy makers in the private and public sectors to develop and implement a special and alternative program for emergencies like COVID-pandemic. In order to limit the reduction of allocation and economic efficiency, which play an important role in maintaining the motivation of production and continuity of product supply, it is suggested that broiler farms develop managerial and economic strategies including scheduling and mechanizing the process of supplying inputs and selling the product.

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