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1.
Pancreatology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1815018

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Hyperlipasemia is highly prevalent among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of lipase activity, measured at the time of admission, on the clinical course and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods The population of this study comprised 12,139 patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 between June 2020 and June 2021 in a pandemic hospital. Of these, 8819 patients were excluded from the study due to missing data, four patients were excluded due to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (according to the revised Atlanta criteria), and 72 patients were excluded due to alcohol use or having a history of chronic pancreatitis. The final study sample consisted of the remaining 3244 COVID-19 patients. Laboratory results, intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up periods, the need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality rates were compared between the normal lipase activity and high lipase activity groups. Results There were 968 (29.8%) patients with high lipase activity at the time of admission. The rate of ICU admission was 36.1% vs. 9.9% (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation requirement rates were 33.7% vs. 8.3% (p < 0.001), and mortality rates were as 24.6% vs. 6.4% (p < 0.001) in the high lipase activity group compared to the normal lipase activity group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that high lipase activity was an independent factor in predicting mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.191, p < 0.001). Conclusion Elevated lipase activity without acute pancreatitis at the time of admission in COVID-19 patients was determined as an independent predictor of poor prognosis.

2.
Medicina Intensiva ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814952

ABSTRACT

Objective: We examined weather a protocol for fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) adjustment can reduce hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use in COVID-19 patients mechanically ventilated. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Two intensive care units (ICUs) dedicated to COVID-19 patients in Brazil. Patients: Consecutive patients with COVID-19 mechanically ventilated. Interventions: One ICU followed a FiO2 adjustment protocol based on SpO2 (conservative-oxygen ICU) and the other, which did not follow the protocol, constituted the control ICU. Main variables of interest: Pprevalence of hyperoxemia (PaO2>100 mmHg) on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia (present on days 1 and 2), and excess oxygen use (FiO2>0.6 in patients with hyperoxemia) were compared between the two ICUs. Results: 82 patients from the conservative-oxygen ICU and 145 from the control ICU were included. The conservative-oxygen ICU presented lower prevalence of hyperoxemia on day 1 (40.2% vs. 75.9%, p<0.001) and of sustained hyperoxemia (12.2% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001). Excess oxygen use was less frequent in the conservative-oxygen ICU on day 1 (18.3% vs. 52.4%, p<0.001). Being admitted in the control ICU was independently associated with hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use. Multivariable analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FiO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Following FiO2 protocol was associated with lower hyperoxemia and less excess oxygen use. Although those results were not associated with better clinical outcomes, adopting FiO2 protocol may be useful in a scenario of depleted oxygen resources, as was seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar si un protocolo para el ajuste de la FiO2 reduce la hiperoxemia y el uso excesivo de oxígeno en pacientes con COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. Diseño: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Ámbito: UCI dedicadas a pacientes con COVID-19 en Brasil. Pacientes: Pacientes con COVID-19. Intervenciones: Una UCI siguió un protocolo de ajuste de FiO2 basado en SpO2 (UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora, N=82) y la otra no siguió el protocolo (UCI control, N=145). Principales variables de interés: Prevalencia de hiperoxemia (PaO2>100mmHg) en el día 1, hiperoxemia sostenida (presente en los días 1 y 2) y exceso de uso de oxígeno (FiO2>0,6 en pacientes con hiperoxemia) entre las dos UCI. Resultados: La UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora presentó menor prevalencia de hiperoxemia en el día 1 (40,2% vs 75,9%, p<0,001) y de hiperoxemia sostenida (12,2% vs 49,6%, p<0,001). El uso excesivo de oxígeno fue menos frecuente en la UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora el día 1 (18,3% vs 52,4%, p<0,001). El ingreso en la UCI control se asoció de forma independiente con la hiperoxemia y el uso excesivo de oxígeno. Los análisis multivariables no encontraron una relación independiente entre hiperoxemia o uso excesivo de FiO2 y resultados clínicos adversos. Conclusiones: Seguir el protocolo de FiO2 se asoció con menor hiperoxemia y menor consumo de oxígeno en exceso. Aunque esos resultados no se asociaron con mejores resultados clínicos, la adopción del protocolo FiO2 puede ser útil en un escenario de recursos de oxígeno agotados, como se vio durante la pandemia de COVID-19.

3.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814788

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-COV-2, has become a global pandemic threat. SARS- COV-2 is structurally similar to SARS-COV, and both bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, and cough, in some cases neurologic manifestations occur due to both direct and indirect involvement of the nervous system. Case reports include anosmia, ageusia, central respiratory failure, stroke, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, headache, myalgia, myelitis, ataxia, and various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Some patients with COVID-19 may present with concurrent acute neuromuscular syndromes such as myasthenic crisis (MC), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM);these conditions coupled with respiratory failure could trigger a life-threatening condition. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on acute neuromuscular syndromes with respiratory failure related to COVID-19 infection in an attempt to clarify and to manage the muscle dysfunction overlapping SARS-COV-2 infection.

4.
Journal of Critical Care ; 70:154045, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814672

ABSTRACT

Purpose Prolonged observation could avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and related risks in patients with Covid-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) compared to initiating early IMV. We aimed to determine the association between ARF management strategy and in-hospital mortality. Materials and methods Patients in the Weill Cornell Covid-19 registry who developed ARF between March 5 – March 25, 2020 were exposed to an early IMV strategy;between March 26 – April 1, 2020 to an intermediate strategy;and after April 2 to prolonged observation. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model in-hospital mortality and test an interaction between ARF management strategy and modified sequential organ failure assessment (mSOFA). Results Among 632 patients with ARF, 24% of patients in the early IMV strategy died versus 28% in prolonged observation. At lower mSOFA, prolonged observation was associated with lower mortality compared to early IMV (at mSOFA = 0, HR 0.16 [95% CI 0.04–0.57]). Mortality risk increased in the prolonged observation strategy group with each point increase in mSOFA score (HR 1.29 [95% CI 1.10–1.51], p = 0.002). Conclusion In Covid-19 ARF, prolonged observation was associated with a mortality benefit at lower mSOFA scores, and increased mortality at higher mSOFA scores compared to early IMV.

5.
Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology ; 50(2):1-12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811127

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated infection leads to a pathology of yet unknown clinical behavior, confronting the clinician with various challenges. An extensive search was conducted based on review articles on SARS-CoV-2 infection and studies including mechanical ventilation management strategies in order to complete this narrative review. Evidenced-based treatment for SARS-CoV2 infection is still in the works. We have some tools from our knowledge from past experiences indicating that a step-wise management approach should be used, without neglecting other joint therapeutic measures for improved clinical outcomes of a condition with a high mortality. The current recommendations indicate that patients with severe acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 should be managed with protective mechanical ventilation measures. No strong evidence is yet available on the individualization of mechanical ventilation therapy according to phenotypes. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] La infección asociada a COVID-19 produce una patología de comportamiento aún desconocido, planteándole diversos desafíos al clínico. Para esta revisión narrativa se llevó a cabo una extensa búsqueda basada en artículos de revisión sobre la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y estudios que incluían estrategias de manejo con ventilación mecánica. El tratamiento basado en evidencia para la infección por SARS-CoV2 todavía está en desarrollo. Tenemos algunas herramientas basadas en nuestros conocimientos de experiencias en el pasado que indican que se debe usar un abordaje escalonado, sin descuidar otras medidas terapéuticas conjuntas para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos de una condición con una elevada mortalidad. Las actuales recomendaciones indican que los pacientes con falla respiratoria aguda por SARS-CoV-2 deben manejarse con medidas de protección con ventilación mecánica. Aún no tenemos una sólida evidencia sobre la individualización del tratamiento con ventilación mecánica, de acuerdo a los distintos fenotipos. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology / Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología is the property of Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care ; 11(1):67-70, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1810698

ABSTRACT

Barotrauma has many different presentations, including pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumomediastinum. We have presented and analyzed some interesting cases of barotrauma in this case series. Case 1 in our series developed a thin-walled new cavity due to barotrauma, mimicking pneumatocele and fungal cavity. Case 2 presented with coexistence of pneumothorax and cavity with fungal infestation. Severity of barotrauma due to positive pressure ventilation has been shown in case 3. An interesting case of barotrauma in a 36-week primigravida, post cesarean section, causing dehiscence of scar, presented as case 4 in our series. Early and rapid imaging diagnosis of barotrauma should be pursued. In patients with mechanical ventilation, identifying small changes in imaging characteristics of cavitary lesions, such as fungal, bacterial, or transient cavities, would aid physicians in offering a correct treatment plan.

7.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(5): 493-498, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) (CARDS) pneumonitis presents a clinical challenge as regards to the timing of intubation and ambiguity of outcome. There is a lack of clear consensus on when to switch patients from trials of noninvasive therapies to invasive mechanical ventilation. We investigated the effect of the timing of intubation from the time of admission on the clinical outcome of CARDS. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective was to analyze the effect of timing of intubation early (within 48 hours of admission to critical care unit) versus delayed (after 48 hours of admission to critical care unit) on mortality in severe CARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study performed in a 28-bedded COVID-19 intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. All patients admitted between April 1, 2020, and October 15, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 (RT-PCR positive) requiring mechanical ventilation were included in the study. RESULTS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among 2,230 patients that were admitted to the hospital, 525 required critical care (23.5%), invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 162 patients and 147 (28%) of critical care admission were included in the study cohort after exclusion. Seventy-five patients (51%) were intubated within 48 hours of critical care admission (early group) and 72 (48.9%) were intubated after 48 hours of critical care admission (delayed group). With regards to the total of 147 included patients; male patients were 74.1% with a median age of 59 years (interquartile range, 51-68 years). Diabetes (44.9%) and hypertension (43.5%) were the most common comorbidities. Higher admission acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scores and lower absolute lymphocyte count were observed in patients intubated within 48 hours. The early intubated group had a mortality of 60% whereas the same was observed as 77.7% in delayed intubation group, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Current study concludes that early intubation is associated with improved survival rates in severe CARDS patients. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Zirpe KG, Tiwari AM, Gurav SK, Deshmukh AM, Suryawanshi PB, Wankhede PP, et al. Timing of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality among Patients with Severe COVID-19-associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(5):493-498.

8.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 14:231-247, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808720

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the clinical and economic benefits of lenzilumab plus standard of care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from the National Health Service (NHS) England perspective. METHODS: A cost calculator was developed to estimate the clinical benefits and costs of adding lenzilumab to SOC in newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients over 28 days. The LIVE-AIR trial results informed the clinical inputs: failure to achieve survival without ventilation (SWOV), mortality, time to recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use. Base case costs included drug acquisition and administration for lenzilumab and remdesivir and hospital resource costs based on the level of care required. Clinical and economic benefits per weekly cohort of newly hospitalized patients were also estimated. RESULTS: In all populations examined, specified clinical outcomes were improved with lenzilumab plus SOC over SOC treatment alone. In a base case population aged <85 years with C-reactive protein (CRP) <150 mg/L, with or without remdesivir, adding lenzilumab to SOC was estimated to result in per-patient cost savings of £1162. In a weekly cohort of 4754 newly hospitalized patients, addition of lenzilumab to SOC could result in 599 IMV uses avoided, 352 additional lives saved, and over £5.5 million in cost savings. Scenario results for per-patient cost savings included: 1) aged <85 years, CRP <150 mg/L, and receiving remdesivir (£3127);2) Black patients with CRP <150 mg/L (£9977);and 3) Black patients from the full population (£2369). Conversely, in the full mITT population, results estimated additional cost of £4005 per patient. CONCLUSION: Findings support clinical benefits for SWOV, mortality, time to recovery, time in ICU, time on IMV, and ventilator use, and an economic benefit from the NHS England perspective when adding lenzilumab to SOC for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

9.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804797

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who developed pneumothorax. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective analysis using a large administrative database of adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection in the United States from February 1, 2020 to June 10, 2021. We characterize the clinical features of these patients that develop pneumothorax, the factors associated mortality, and also stratified pneumothorax by timing of invasive mechanical ventilation initiation (IMV) and by time from admission (early versus late). Results A total of 811,065 adult patients had a SARS-CoV-2 positive test and 103,858 (12.8%) were hospitalized. Pneumothorax occurred in 1,915 (0.24% overall, 1.84% among hospitalized). Over time, use of steroids and remdesivir increased. IMV use, pneumothorax rates and mortality decreased. Clinical characteristics associated with pneumothorax were male gender, receipt of IMV and treatment with steroids, remdesivir or convalescent plasma. Most patients with pneumothorax received IMV, but the majority developed pneumothorax prior to initiation of IMV and/or early in the hospitalization. Multivariable analysis showed pneumothorax increased the risk of death (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] 1.15;95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.06-1.24). In patients who did not receive IMV, pneumothorax had nearly twice mortality (aHR 1.99;95% CI 1.56-2.54). Increased mortality was also noted when pneumothorax occurred prior to IMV (aHR 1.37;95% CI 1.11-1.69) and within 7 days of hospital admission (aHR 1.60;95% CI 1.29-1.98). Conclusion The overall incidence of pneumothorax in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection was low. Pneumothorax is an independent risk factor for death.

10.
Journal of Biomedical Informatics ; : 104079, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804425

ABSTRACT

Objective The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the capacity of healthcare resources and posed a challenge for worldwide hospitals. The ability to distinguish potentially deteriorating patients from the rest helps facilitate reasonable allocation of medical resources, such as ventilators, hospital beds, and human resources. The real-time accurate prediction of a patient's risk scores could also help physicians to provide earlier respiratory support for the patient and reduce the risk of mortality. Methods We propose a robust real-time prediction model for the in-hospital COVID-19 patients' probability of requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The end-to-end neural network model incorporates the Multi-task Gaussian Process to handle the irregular sampling rate in observational data together with a self-attention neural network for the prediction task. Results We evaluate our model on a large database with 9,532 nationwide in-hospital patients with COVID-19. The model demonstrates significant robustness and consistency improvements compared to conventional machine learning models. The proposed prediction model also shows performance improvements in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) compared to various deep learning models, especially at early times after a patient's hospital admission. Conclusion The availability of large and real-time clinical data calls for new methods to make the best use of them for real-time patient risk prediction. It is not ideal for simplifying the data for traditional methods or for making unrealistic assumptions that deviate from observation's true dynamics. We demonstrate a pilot effort to harmonize cross-sectional and longitudinal information for mechanical ventilation needing prediction.

11.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV‑2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death;however, SARS-CoV‑2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV‑2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.

12.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar ; 50(4), 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1801645

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the world, with widespread use even in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Objective: To identify what is known about the use of non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome and to analyze its application in this complication in COVID-19. Development: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation could appear as one more resource to give respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 infection, however, the scant scientific evidence on its effectiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome and the risk of contagion by the particle scattering, generates controversy over its use. Conclusions: In adults with COVID-19 and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be contraindicated, only assessing its use in very specific and justified cases. © 2021, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

13.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(5): e0118, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To design and test a ventilator circuit that can be used for ventilation of two or more patients with a single ventilator, while allowing individualization of tidal volume, fractional concentration of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure to each patient, irrespective of the other patient's respiratory system mechanics. DESIGN: Description and proof of concept studies. SETTINGS: Respiratory therapy laboratory. SUBJECTS: Ventilation of mechanical test lungs. INTERVENTIONS: Following a previously advocated design, we used components readily available in our hospital to assemble two "bag-in-a-box" breathing circuits. Each patient circuit consisted of a flexible bag in a rigid container connected via one-way valve to a test lung, along with an inline positive end-expiratory pressure valve, connected to the ventilator's expiratory limb. Compressed gas fills the bags during "patient" exhalation. During inspiration, gas from the ventilator, in pressure control mode, enters the containers and displaces gas from the bags to the test lungs. We varied tidal volume, "respiratory system" compliance, and positive end-expiratory pressure in one lung and observed the effect on the tidal volume of the other. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We were able to obtain different tidal volume, dynamic driving pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure in the two lungs under widely different compliances in both lungs. Complete obstruction, or disconnection at the circuit connection to one test lung, had minimal effect (< 5% on average) on the ventilation to the co-ventilated lung. CONCLUSIONS: A secondary circuit "bag-in-the-box" system enables individualized ventilation of two lungs overcoming many of the concerns of ventilating more than one patient with a single ventilator.

14.
Respiratory Medicine ; : 106853, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

Purpose To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020–April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Results Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period;698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%);only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100%(95%CI: 89.1–100), a specificity of 99.85%(95%CI: 99.2–100), a PPV of 96.7%(95%CI: 80.8–99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8%(95%CI: 99.2–100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusions Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients;it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.

15.
JTCVS Open ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796015

ABSTRACT

Background Numerous complications requiring tube thoracostomy have been reported among critically ill COVID-19 patients, however, there has been a lack of evidence regarding outcomes following chest tube placement. Methods We developed a retrospective observational cohort of all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed COVID-19 to describe the incidence of tube thoracostomy and factors associated with mortality following chest tube placement. Results In total, 1,705 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients were admitted to our ICUs from March 7, 2020 to March 1, 2021, with 69/1705 patients (4.0%) receiving 130 chest tubes. Of these 89/130 (68%) chest tubes were indicated for pneumothorax. Patients receiving tube thoracostomy were much less likely to be alive 90 days post-ICU admission (52% vs 69%, p < 0.01), and had longer ICU (30 vs 5 days, p < 0.01) and hospital (37 vs 10 days, p < 0.01) lengths of stay compared to those without tube thoracostomy. Patients who received tube thoracostomy and survived at least 90 days post-ICU admission had shorter times to first chest tube insertion (8.5 vs 17.0 days, p = 0.01) and a non-significantly higher static compliance (20.0 vs 17.5 mL/cm H2O, p = 0.052) at the time of chest tube placement than those who had expired. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association between time to first chest tube and decreased survival when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions Requiring a chest tube in COVID 19 is a negative prognostic endpoint. Delayed development of chest tube requirement was associated with a decreased survival and could reflect a poor healing phenotype.

16.
Gefasschirurgie ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the novelty of COVID­19 there is lack of evidence-based recommendations regarding the mechanical ventilation of these patients. OBJECTIVE: Identification and delineation of critical parameters enabling individualized lung and diaphragm protective mechanical ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Selective literature search, critical evaluation and discussion of expert recommendations. RESULTS: In the current literature a difference between ARDS in COVID­19 and classical ARDS is described; however, there are no evidence-based recommendations for dealing with this discrepancy. In the past parameters and approaches for a personalized mechanical ventilation strategy were already introduced and applied. CONCLUSION: Using the parameters presented here it is possible to individualize the mechanical ventilation of COVID­19 patients in order to adjust and increase its compatibility to the heterogeneous clinical presentation of the COVID­19 ARDS.

17.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221093946, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794147

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We investigated whether COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) had a different extubation outcome compared to non-COVID-19 patients while identifying predictive factors of extubation failure in the former. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, and observational study was done on 216 COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between March 2020 and March 2021, aged ≥ 18 years, in use of invasive MV for more than 24 h, which progressed to weaning. The primary outcome that was evaluated was extubation failure during ICU stay. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association of patient characteristics with extubation outcome, and a Poisson regression model determined the predictive value. Results: Seventy-seven patients were extubated; the mean age was 57.2 years, 52.5% were male, and their mean APACHE II score at admission was 17.8. On average, MV duration until extubation was 8.7 ± 3.7 days, with 14.9 ± 10.1 days of ICU stay and 24.6 ± 14.0 days with COVID-19 symptoms. The rate of extubation failure (ie, the patient had to be reintubated during their ICU stay) was 22.1% (n = 17), while extubation was successful in 77.9% (n = 60) of cases. Failure was observed in only 7.8% of cases when evaluated 48 hours after extubation. The mean reintubation time was 4.28 days. After adjusting the analysis for age, sex, during of symptoms, days under MV, dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, some parameters independently predicted extubation failure: age ≥ 66 years (APR = 5.12 [1.35-19.46]; p = 0.016), ≥ 31 days of symptoms (APR = 5.45 [0.48-62.19]; p = 0.016), and need for dialysis (APR = 5.10 [2.00-13.00]; p = 0.001), while a PaO2/FiO2 ratio >300 decreased the probability of extubation failure (APR = 0.14 [0.04-0.55]; p = 0.005). The presence of three predictors (ie, age ≥ 66 years, time of symptoms ≥ 31 days, need of dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200) increased the risk of extubation failure by a factor of 23.0 (95% CI, 3.34-158.5). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients had an extubation failure risk that was almost three times higher than non-COVID-19 patients, with the extubation of the former being delayed compared to the latter. Furthermore, an age ≥ 66 years, time of symptoms ≥ 31 days, need of dialysis, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 200 were independent predictors for extubation failure, and the presence of three of these characteristics increased the risk of failure by a factor of 23.0.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 378, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) has become an emerging prognostic biomarker of disease progression in patients with COVID-19. This study aims to determine the optimal cut-off value of PCT with regards to important clinical outcomes, especially for mechanical ventilation and all-cause mortality among moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 319 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the National Referral Hospital in December 2020 were included in the study retrospectively. Demographics, comorbidities, the severity of COVID-19 infection, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment given were collected from the hospital information system for analysis. The optimal cut-point values for PCT were estimated in two levels. The first level involved 276 patients who had their PCT measured within 5 days following their admission. The second level involved 237 patients who had their PCT measured within 3 days following their admission. Further, a propensity score matching analysis was performed to determine the adjusted relative risk of patients with regards to various clinical outcomes according to the selected cut-point among 237 patients who had their PCT measured within 3 days. RESULTS: The results showed that a PCT level of 0.2 ng/mL was the optimal cut-point for prognosis especially for mortality outcome and the need for mechanical ventilation. Before matching, patients with PCT ≥ 0.2 ng/mL were associated with significantly higher odds in all investigated outcomes. After matching, patients with PCT > 0.2 ng/mL were associated with higher odds in all-cause mortality (OR: 4.629, 95% CI 1.387-15.449, p = 0.0127) and non-invasive ventilation (OR: 2.667, 95% CI 1.039-6.847, p = 0.0415). Furthermore, patients with higher PCT were associated with significantly longer days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0213). There was however no association between higher PCT level and the need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.010, 95% CI 0.828-4.878, p = 0.1229). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that a rise in PCT above 0.2 ng/mL is associated with an elevated risk in all-cause mortality, the need for non-invasive ventilation, and a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. The study offers concrete evidence for PCT to be used as a prognostication marker among moderate to severe COVID-19 patients.

19.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0188, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795082

ABSTRACT

To explore demographics, comorbidities, transfers, and mortality in critically ill patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were collected from a large tertiary care public hospital ICU that is part of the largest public healthcare network in the United States. PATIENTS: One-hundred thirty-seven adult (≥ 18 yr old) ICU patients admitted between March 10, 2020, and April 7, 2020, with follow-up collected through May 18, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data extracted from electronic medical records. MAIN RESULTS: The majority of patients were male (99/137; 72.3%) and older than 50 years old (108/137; 78.9%). The most reported ethnicity and race were Hispanic (61/137; 44.5%) and Black (23/137; 16.7%). One-hundred six of 137 patients had at least one comorbidity (77.4%). One-hundred twenty-one of 137 (78.1%) required mechanical ventilation of whom 30 (24.8%) moved to tracheostomy and 46 of 137 (33.6%) required new onset renal replacement therapy. Eighty-two of 137 patients (59.9%) died after a median of 8 days (interquartile range 5-15 d) in the ICU. Male sex had a trend toward a higher hazard of death (hazard ratio, 2.1 [1.1-4.0]) in the multivariable Cox model. CONCLUSIONS: We report a mortality rate of 59.9% in a predominantly Hispanic and Black patient population. A significant association between comorbidities and mortality was not found in multivariable regression, and further research is needed to study factors that impact mortality in critical coronavirus disease 2019 patients. We also describe how a public hospital developed innovative approaches to safely manage a large volume of interhospital transfers and admitted patients.

20.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0202, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795075

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to present with at least two distinct phenotypes: severe hypoxemia with relatively well-preserved lung compliance and lung gas volumes (type 1) and a more conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome phenotype, displaying the typical characteristics of the "baby lung" (type 2). We aimed to test plausible hypotheses regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and to evaluate the resulting implications for ventilatory management. DESIGN: We adapted a high-fidelity computational simulator, previously validated in several studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome, to: 1) develop quantitative insights into the key pathophysiologic differences between the coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and the conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2) assess the impact of different positive end-expiratory pressure, Fio2, and tidal volume settings. SETTING: Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Systems Medicine Research Network. SUBJECTS: The simulator was calibrated to represent coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with both normal and elevated body mass indices undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An acute respiratory distress syndrome model implementing disruption of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasodilation leading to hyperperfusion of collapsed lung regions failed to replicate clinical data on type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Adding mechanisms to reflect disruption of alveolar gas-exchange due to the effects of pneumonitis and heightened vascular resistance due to the emergence of microthrombi produced levels of ventilation perfusion mismatch and hypoxemia consistent with data from type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, while preserving close-to-normal lung compliance and gas volumes. Atypical responses to positive end-expiratory pressure increments between 5 and 15 cm H2O were observed for this type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model across a range of measures: increasing positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in reduced lung compliance and no improvement in oxygenation, whereas mechanical power, driving pressure, and plateau pressure all increased. Fio2 settings based on acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols at different positive end-expiratory pressure levels were insufficient to achieve adequate oxygenation. Incrementing tidal volumes from 5 to 10 mL/kg produced similar increases in multiple indicators of ventilator-induced lung injury in the type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model to those seen in a conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome model. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that use of standard positive end-expiratory pressure/Fio2 tables, higher positive end-expiratory pressure strategies, and higher tidal volumes may all be potentially deleterious in type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, and that a highly personalized approach to treatment is advisable.

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