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1.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(4), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2317711

ABSTRACT

Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA;Pennsylvania State University College of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Dobson AP, Carper ER. Infectious diseases and human population history: throughout history the establishment of disease has been a side effect of the growth of civilization. Nkuchia M. M'ikanatha Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA;Pennsylvania State University College of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

2.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2306790

ABSTRACT

Summit participants also noted that regulators must come to a consensus regarding requirements for clinical trial data, become more familiar with technology platforms through review of data across various pathogens over time, and provide guidance on the feasibility of alternative pathways to emergency use approval, especially in the context of the 100 Days Mission (10). Speakers shared reports of progress being made on several fronts: the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners are setting up mRNA vaccine technology transfer hubs in South America (12) and South Africa (13);Moderna (https://www.modernatx.com) plans to set up an mRNA manufacturing facility in Kenya (14);SK bioscience (https://www.skbioscience.com) plans to produce routine vaccines in preparation for Disease X that can quickly transfer to large-scale manufacturing if a new pandemic occurs;and WHO has designated South Korea as a biomanufacturing training hub (15). More tools and innovations that enable rapid R&D and manufacturing responses will, in turn, be needed, including standardized animal models and assays, accelerated trial designs, improved rapid diagnostics, laboratory and clinical trial networks that enable data sharing, and distributed manufacturing across regions. March 8, 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 7]. https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/moderna-build-mrna-vaccine-manufacturing-facility-kenya-2022-03-07/ World Health Organization.

3.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(5):538, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2294205

ABSTRACT

A nasal monoclonal antibody Investigations following a pilot trial of foralumab, the nasal monoclonal antibody a monoclonal antibody develop for inflammatory conditions and now repurposed for COVID-19, revealed decreased inflammatory markers and the same gene expression modulation seen in patients with multiple sclerosis. A subsequent gene expression analysis found changes in gene expression patterns (including NKG7, TGF beB1 and GIMAP7) involved with the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug, not only in COVID-19 patients, but also in a patient with multiple sclerosis, meaning the drug may be used for several diseases. For more on COVID-19 drug resistance see Sci Adv 2023;published online March 29. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.ade8778 For more on the new target for COVID-19 drugs see eLife 2023;published online March 21. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.83710 For more on the nasal monoclonal antibody see Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2023;published online March 7. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2220272120 For more on antibodies for yellow fever see Sci Transl Med 2023;published online March 29. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.ade5795 For more on a new drug for mpox see J Med Virol 2023;published online March 10. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28652 For more on the transmission of bacterial vaginosis see Cell Rep Med 2023;published online March 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2023.100981 For more on endolysin see J Invest Dermatol 2023;published online March 6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2023.01.039

4.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2292371

ABSTRACT

The author highlights many challenges ahead that limit achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy without substantial additional investments and development of new tools to combat TB (the WHO End TB strategy targets a 90% reduction in TB cases and 95% reduction in TB-related deaths by 2035). [...]perhaps the book ends prematurely, because after it was written, new treatments were developed for highly drug-resistant TB that shifted to all oral regimens (WHO recommendation);a ≈90% favorable outcome was recently reported for the BPaL regimen used to treat highly drug-resistant TB (2). Emory University School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA World Health Organization.

5.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(4):416, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2247647

ABSTRACT

By contrast, most neutralising antibodies target the viral spike protein's relatively mutable S1 region, with which the virus binds to host-cell receptors. Known as the "Düsseldorf patient”, the 53-year-old man was treated at the University Hospital Düsseldorf for his HIV infection and received a stem cell transplant due to a blood cancer. Preventing maternal sepsis A multicountry clinical trial with more than 29 000 women in seven low and middle-income countries found only 1·6% of women who received a single dose of the antibiotic azithromycin during labour developed sepsis or died within six weeks after delivery, compared with 2·4% of those who received placebo.

6.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(4):420, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2247645

ABSTRACT

[...]what is the ethically appropriate role of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)? [...]under which conditions should vaccines be mandated? [...]to what extent should democratic societies accept pandemic responses that curtail civil liberties for prolonged periods of time?

7.
Journal of Arthropod - Borne Diseases ; 16(4):340-349, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2259235

ABSTRACT

Background: Dengue fever as a mosquito-borne disease, has rapidly spread due to climate change, globalization, and human behavior. Iran is prone to dengue fever, as its vector recently has been found in the country. This study aimed to assess predictors of dengue preventive practices based on Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) factors in West Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 405 health professionals of communicable disease sector who were interested in study participation. Data-gathering instrument was an online researcher-made questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics (11 items), questions based on PAPM, and dengue preventive practices (85 items). Content validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity ratio, content validity index, and Cronbach a were utilized, respectively. Descriptive, analytical, and regression analysis using SPSS and STATA were examined. Results: Regression analysis revealed that awareness of appropriate actions for dengue prevention was a stronger predictor of preventive practice in borderline and appropriate categories (ß= 4.09, p< 0.001) and (ß= 4.42, p< 0.001), re - spectively. Among factors of PAPM, beliefs about precaution effectiveness and difficulty in borderline (ß= 1.04, p= 0.04) and appropriate (ß= 1.12, p= 0.03) groups had direct and significant relation with dengue preventive practice. Conclusion: The highest mean score of beliefs about hazard likelihood and severity factor was related to dengue prevention. Therefore, theory-based interventions that address beliefs about precaution effectiveness and difficulty can lead to assistance in acting. To improve dengue preventive practices, a well-designed promotive intervention that addresses associated factors in a context-specific manner is essential.

8.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):34.0, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2232834

ABSTRACT

The chapter "Disease by Decision – human-induced threats to biosafety and biosecurity” starts with the 2001 anthrax attack in the USA, which was the event that led to the Fink Report, and a range of prescient interventions, including the creation of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a committee that later considered gain-of-function (GOF) controversies. The risk of a lab accident is discussed, but Gostin concludes that an incident with global catastrophic impact has not yet occurred, thus dismissing the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a laboratory leak. Because of the anthrax attack in 2001, the USA have been the most advanced country in considering biosecurity risks. Gostin provides a very comprehensive plan for health system strengthening, financing, research and development, governance, equitable access to pharmaceuticals, and global cooperation.

9.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(2):161.0, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2229448

ABSTRACT

Brain aging and COVID-19 Many biological pathways that change with natural aging in the brain also changed in patients with severe COVID-19, say researchers who used RNA sequencing to assess changes in gene expression profiles in the brain of COVID-19 patients compared with uninfected individuals. The scientists observed that gene expression in the brain tissue of patients who died of COVID-19 closely resembled that of uninfected individuals aged 71 years or older. In genetially modified mice, the emergency mode of haematopoiesis ran without any detectable infection or increased interferon levels and these genetically modified animals were better able to fight off infection with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes than normal mice.

10.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 44(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2211813

ABSTRACT

Together, we create educational materials, develop practice and policy recommendations, and honor the careers of our members with the APIC-SHEA Award for Lifetime Contribution to the Field of Infection Prevention and Epidemiology, which is jointly selected and presented at both societies' national meetings. Together, we have efforts planned for the coming year to develop expert guidance related to staffing and resources necessary for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship programs to assist you in advocating for support from institutional leadership. For now, you can help to recruit the next generation of professionals who will enter this field as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and public health professionals by introducing students to infection prevention and epidemiology roles, by inspiring them with stories of your own career path, and by involving them in this work.

11.
Eurosurveillance ; 28(2):1, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167570

ABSTRACT

As the new year begins, one cannot help but recall the start of 2020, when the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and public health experts and scientists realized that a situation with possible major impact worldwide was emerging. At this time, there were many uncertainties about the virus itself, its abilities to spread and the disease it might cause. Much progress has been made since and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is much better understood and mitigated. Irrespectively, at the start of 2023 there are new challenges. Following the lifting of the stringent COVID-19 measures (zero-COVID strategy) in Sep 2022 in China, the country is experiencing a massive surge of cases while the new, highly transmissible Omicron variant sublineage XBB.1.5 continues to spread at a high pace in parts of the US. Public health experts are watching and analyzing the situation in both China and the US closely. Based on 564 sequences collected since Dec 1, 2022 from China and deposited by Jan 3, 2022 in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) EpiCoV database, there are no clear signs of new variants circulating in the country.

12.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(1):39, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2184731

ABSTRACT

In mice and ferrets, the vaccine produced high levels of cross-reactive and subtype-specific antibodies and could protect animals against disease symptoms and death after infection with both antigenically matched and mismatched strains of influenza virus. According to the researchers, this "immunologic memory” of the original HIV infection is why people living with HIV are susceptible to prolonged inflammation, putting them at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities. The researchers isolated human immune cells in vitro and exposed them to the HIV protein Nef and then introduced a bacterial toxin to generate an immune response from the Nef-exposed cells.

13.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2171496

ABSTRACT

Lawrence Gostin’s Global Health Security: A Blueprint for the Future comes along at an opportune time, as a pandemic reminds humankind of the importance of public health response to our wellbeing and security (Figure). The book addresses the types of infectious disease outbreaks and actions needed to prepare and respond, emphasizing the roles of multinational agreements and international cooperation. For readers knowledgeable about global health security, the content might serve as a refresher, for persons unfamiliar with the subject, as an introduction. Gostin, director of Georgetown Law School’s O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, shaped by experiences as a lawyer and interactions with the World Health Organization, examines scientific and policy approaches. He discusses COVID-19 throughout the book and emphasizes health equity, drawing attention towards disadvantaged populations in low- and middle-income countries

14.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(12):1680, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2132811

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 Emergency Fund for Journalists was born with an aim to support those on the ground who wanted to showcase the impact of the virus within their communities, and over 300 projects were funded from 70 countries. Pictured here are healthworkers whose day-to-day experience was at the mercy of the virus: a doctor in Belgium tries to explain the importance of testing to a distressed patient in a care-home (p 118), whilst staff in Ambikapur, India, tend to a woman who has fainted as samples are taken from her husband (p 132). [...]the collection concludes with the chapter Grief/Hope.

15.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 41(8):968-969, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096333

ABSTRACT

To inform the efficient allocation of testing resources, we evaluated the characteristics of those tested for COVID-19 to determine predictors of a positive test. Recent travel and exposure to a confirmed case were both highly predictive of positive testing. Symptom-based screening strategies alone may be inadequate to control the ongoing pandemic.

16.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(3):378-379, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096332

ABSTRACT

[...]antimicrobials are being used in empirical or targeted treatment for co- or superinfection outside the respiratory tract. [...]most data regarding bacterial and fungal respiratory co- and superinfections in the context of a viral respiratory pandemic are derived from previous influenza pandemics,4 and data from previous coronavirus epidemics are limited.5–7 In any case, bacterial and fungal respiratory co- and superinfections during large outbreaks of viral respiratory illnesses are probably underdiagnosed due to a shortage of trained healthcare personnel and/or supplies, infection control requirements, high workload, and the emergent nature of the primary viral disease that make the diagnosis complex and laborious. Data from the current COVID-19 pandemic, in accordance with previous coronavirus epidemics, show that the rate of bacterial and fungal co- or superinfection is relative low, but the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is very common.1 Specifically, in the current literature, bacterial and fungal co- and superinfections have been reported in 8% of COVID-19 cases, while 72% of these patients received broad-spectrum antibacterials.1 Finally, in the era of COVID-19, the liberal use of antimicrobials adds an unnecessary risk for possible unfavorable outcomes due to their potential toxicity.8 In addition, their empirical use based on local patterns of resistance has an undetermined probability of failure because during pandemics, significant changes in the pattern of endemic pathogens may evolve.7 Antimicrobial stewardship programs are imperative components of a successful response to COVID-19, and interventions to support the optimal use of antimicrobials are urgently needed. [...]results from further research emerge and stronger evidence is available, the following antimicrobial stewardship strategies should be implemented:

17.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(3):375-376, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096331

ABSTRACT

According to the integrated model,5 individuals who are driven by controlled motivation (ie, acting due to external contingencies, internal pressure, or sense of ego) may adhere to the advisory behavior as soon as the external factors (eg, contingencies of following COVID-19 preventive behaviors or not) are present, but they are more vulnerable to nonadherence in the long term than those who hold autonomous motivation (ie, acting for inherent interest, satisfaction, personal goals, and values) for the action. In support to the psychological factors in the integrated model5, there are social situations or personal beliefs that facilitate autonomous motivation (eg, “preventing COVID-19 is what I want to do because I am responsible for my own health”), attitude (eg, accessible online information about the values of COVID-19 prevention), subjective norms (eg, family or friends who are following the COVID-19 preventive strategies say I should do the same), and perceived behavioral control (eg, training resources that make it easier for me to correctly apply COVID-19 preventive behavior such as hand hygiene). [...]the integrated model of self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior explains why some individuals fail to adhere to the preventive behaviors of COVID-19.

18.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(3):369-370, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096330

ABSTRACT

During normal speech, a huge number of droplets are produced, and face covering may be effective in limiting the distance reached by the droplets, potentially reducing the transmission of the virus from individuals who are unaware that they are infected.1 Face covering with masks or tissue has been widely recommended as a complementary measure to reduce the infection rate in the community by limiting the excretion of droplets from asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals.2 In this context, some governments are ordering face covering, especially during activities when social distancing is impossible or difficult (eg, using public transportation and visiting grocery stores or supermarkets, etc).2,3 Such measures should be intended as a protection towards the community and not as self-protection. FFRs are disposable filtering media, designed to provide the wearer an inward protection from inhaling contaminants conveyed by respiratory droplets or aerosols.4 On one hand, this ‘panic buying’ of FFRs may have contributed to the lack of supplies available for those employed in risky settings, such as healthcare workers frequently exposed to aerosol generating procedures, and it has also likely encourages counterfeiting.5 On the other hand, the uncontrolled sale of FFRs to people who are unaware of their specific features and are untrained in their use can create additional risks: incorrect doffing procedures can increase cross contamination;a false perception of safety can reduce the compliance to other measures (ie, hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette, social distancing);and even worse, the use of FFRs with exhalation valves in the community may be an additional and underrecognized transmission source. The European Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and Africa Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have provided clear statements against their use in the community setting.7,8 The US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) recommended against their use in healthcare settings where a sterile field must be maintained, thus implying that the outward protection is not provided by FFRs.9 Recently, the City and County of San Francisco explicitly listed respirators with one-way valves among those forbidden for use in the community, clarifying that they ‘allow droplets out of the mask, putting others nearby at risk,’ thus not complying with the face-covering order.10 Communication campaigns should aim to promote the wearing of masks as a source control measure and to increase awareness that FFR supplies are already insufficient to protect highly exposed workers.

19.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(3):377-378, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096329

ABSTRACT

To the Editor—The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted widespread attention to experimental treatments, including the antirheumatic drug hydroxychloroquine, raising concerns about its supply for patients already taking the drug for non–COVID-19 indications.1 Currently, multiple manufacturers have reported shortages of hydroxychloroquine.2 We report an exploratory analysis of hydroxychloroquine prescribing in outpatient and urgent care clinics of a large academic health system in northern California. The CDC guidance has recommended that patients request larger prescription drug quantities to minimize pharmacy visits.3 However, the American College of Rheumatology has suggested limiting outpatient prescription refills of hydroxychloroquine to a 30-day supply as a potential mitigation strategy for any supply disruptions in select circumstances.4 Our analysis was observational in nature, and further interpretation is limited by several factors. [...]these results are unique to practice paradigms of a single health system and are subject to regional epidemiology of COVID-19.

20.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(3):373-374, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2096328

ABSTRACT

To the Editor—Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious in healthcare-related settings, both among patients and healthcare workers (HCWs).1 Hospital personnel have shown an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to the general population, possibly associated with repeated exposures and, in the current emergency context, frequent lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE). The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has also been dramatically efficient in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), where the combination of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic occupational carriers and a highly fragile elderly population have produced numerous outbreaks, greatly contributing to the total burden of COVID-19–related deaths.2 An integrated COVID-19 infection and prevention control (IPC) strategy must be promptly adopted by healthcare facilities to prevent further outbreaks. First experience of COVID-19 screening of health-care workers in England.

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