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Niger J Clin Pract ; 26(4): 485-490, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326712


Background: Clinical studies suggest that warmer climates slow the spread of viral infections. In addition, exposure to cold weakens human immunity. Aim: This study describes the relationship between meteorological indicators, the number of cases, and mortality in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Adult patients who presented to the emergency department with confirmed COVID-19 were included in the study. Meteorological data [mean temperature, minimum (min) temperature, maximum (max) temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed] for the city of Istanbul were collected from the Istanbul Meteorology 1st Regional Directorate. Results: The study population consisted of 169,058 patients. The highest number of patients were admitted in December (n = 21,610) and the highest number of deaths (n = 46) occurred in November. In a correlation analysis, a statistically significant, negative correlation was found between the number of COVID-19 patients and mean temperature (rho = -0.734, P < 0.001), max temperature (rho = -0.696, P < 0.001) or min temperature (rho = -0.748, P < 0.001). Besides, the total number of patients correlated significantly and positively with the mean relative humidity (rho = 0.399 and P = 0.012). The correlation analysis also showed a significant negative relationship between the mean, maximum, and min temperatures and the number of deaths and mortality. Conclusion: Our results indicate an increased number of COVID-19 cases during the 39-week study period when the mean, max, and min temperatures were consistently low and the mean relative humidity was consistently high.

COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts , Temperature , Retrospective Studies , Cold Temperature
Geohealth ; 6(3): e2021GH000502, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650037


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a serious issue, and the role played by meteorological indicators in the process of virus spread has been a topic of academic discussion. Previous studies reached different conclusions due to inconsistent methods, disparate meteorological indicators, and specific time periods or regions. This manuscript is based on seven daily meteorological indicators in the NCEP reanalysis data set and COVID-19 data repository of Johns Hopkins University from 22 January 2020 to 1 June 2021. Results showed that worldwide average temperature and precipitable water (PW) had the strongest correlation (ρ > 0.9, p < 0.001) with the confirmed COVID-19 cases per day from 22 January to 31 August 2020. From 22 January to 31 August 2020, positive correlations were observed between the temperature/PW and confirmed COVID-19 cases/deaths in the northern hemisphere, whereas negative correlations were recorded in the southern hemisphere. From 1 September to 31 December 2020, the opposite results were observed. Correlations were weak throughout the near full year, and weak negative correlations were detected worldwide (|ρ| < 0.4, p ≤ 0.05); the lag time had no obvious effect. As the latitude increased, the temperature and PW of the maximum confirmed COVID-19 cases/deaths per day generally showed a decreasing trend; the 2020-year fitting functions of the response latitude pattern were verified by the 2021 data. Meteorological indicators, although not a decisive factor, may influence the virus spread by affecting the virus survival rates and enthusiasm of human activities. The temperature or PW threshold suitable for the spread of COVID-19 may increase as the latitude decreases.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(17): 24911-24924, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536342


The COVID-19 pandemic has a close relationship with local environmental conditions. This study explores the effects of climate characteristics and air pollution on COVID-19 in Isfahan province, Iran. A number of COVID-19 positive cases, main air pollutants, air quality index (AQI), and climatic variables were received from March 1, 2020, to January 19, 2021. Moreover, CO, NO2, and O3 tropospheric levels were collected using Sentinel-5P satellite data. The spatial distribution of variables was estimated by the ordinary Kriging and inverse weighted distance (IDW) models. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to analyze the relationship between environmental variables and COVID-19. The seasonal trend of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), wind speed, solar energy, and rainfall like COVID-19 was upward in spring and summer. The high and low temperatures increased from April to August. All variables had a spatial autocorrelation and clustered pattern except AQI. Furthermore, COVID-19 showed a significant association with month, climate, solar energy, and NO2. Suitable policy implications are recommended to be performed for improving people's healthcare and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study could survey the local spread of COVID-19, with consideration of the effect of environmental variables, and provides helpful information to health ministry decisions for mitigating harmful effects of environmental change. By means of the proposed approach, probably the COVID-19 spread can be recognized by knowing the regional climate in major cities. The present study also finds that COVID-19 may have an effect on climatic condition and air pollutants.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(1): 1106-1116, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340479


The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the global lifestyle, and the spreading of the virus is unprecedented. This study is aimed at assessing the association between the meteorological indicators such as air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (w/s), solar radiation, and PM2.5 with the COVID-19 infected cases in the hot, arid climate of Bahrain. Kendall and Spearman rank correlation coefficients and quantile on quantile regression were used as main econometric analysis to determine the degree of the relationship between related variables. The dataset analysis was performed from 05 April 2020, to 10 January 2021. The empirical findings indicate that the air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed indicators, and PM2.5 have a significant association with the COVID-19 newly infected cases. The current study findings allow us to suggest that Bahrain's relatively successful response to neighboring GULF economies can be attributed to the successful environmental reforms and significant upgrades to the health care facilities. We further report that a long-term empirical analysis between meteorological factors and respiratory illness threats will provide useful policy measures against future outbreaks.

COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Bahrain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Desert Climate , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2