Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 82
Filter
1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(24), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2200249

ABSTRACT

HFMD is a viral-mediated infectious illness of increasing public health importance. This study aimed to develop a forecasting tool utilizing climatic predictors and internet search queries for informing preventive strategies in Sabah, Malaysia. HFMD case data from the Sabah State Health Department, climatic predictors from the Malaysia Meteorological Department, and Google search trends from the Google trends platform between the years 2010-2018 were utilized. Cross-correlations were estimated in building a seasonal auto-regressive moving average (SARIMA) model with external regressors, directed by measuring the model fit. The selected variables were then validated using test data utilizing validation metrics such as the mean average percentage error (MAPE). Google search trends evinced moderate positive correlations to the HFMD cases (r0-6 weeks: 0.47-0.56), with temperature revealing weaker positive correlations (r0-3 weeks: 0.17-0.22), with the association being most intense at 0-1 weeks. The SARIMA model, with regressors of mean temperature at lag 0 and Google search trends at lag 1, was the best-performing model. It provided the most stable predictions across the four-week period and produced the most accurate predictions two weeks in advance (RMSE = 18.77, MAPE = 0.242). Trajectorial forecasting oscillations of the model are stable up to four weeks in advance, with accuracy being the highest two weeks prior, suggesting its possible usefulness in outbreak preparedness.

2.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2196839

ABSTRACT

Governments all throughout the world have been negotiating about human destiny for decades, but without people. There is a significant chance that the future COP27, which will be hosted by Egypt in November 2022, will be just like the other COPs, in which enthusiasm and ambition are quickly overshadowed by the strength and influence of short-term interests and corporate avarice. Since the COVID-19 pandemic gave us a "sneak preview" of the harmful effects that shocks and stressors brought on by crises like the climate emergency could have on people, many people were hoping that last year's COP26 in Glasgow would be a turning point for climate action. However, the earlier pledge to "phase out" coal-based power in major economies was not included in the COP26 final declaration. The lengthy history of colonialism around the world must be explicitly acknowledged in the climate negotiations in addition to placing a strong emphasis on everyone's health and wellbeing. For the first time, the most recent assessment of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (UN IPCC) emphasized the crucial part historical colonialism played in accelerating current anthropogenic climate change. Only extraction from people and the Earth is valued in the colonial capitalist world order humans currently live in. The world's Indigenous Peoples, who were victims of colonization, are now being exploited and pillaged while still fighting the climatic disaster on the ground. Even in the bargaining chambers, where the powerful's interests are prioritized and Indigenous peoples are underrepresented, the colonial legacy persists. However, young people are inventively channeling their angst and fear into initiative and action. For instance, young movements from the frontlines of the climate crisis, like Tuvali, are making the stories of their struggle and survival apparent to the influential through campaigning and awareness raising. The People's Health Hearing, a global forum for testimonies about how extractive industries are wreaking havoc on health and how communities are fending off oppressive systems of pollution, is one of the forums that a number of us are organizing. People with credentials in health are working with health systems and professional associations to influence policy change and take action on climate change by using the strength of health evidence and their voices.

3.
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum ; 32(3):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2169800

ABSTRACT

It can be argued that there are three colliding pandemics that are currently affecting the planet and its people: COVID-19, global inequities and climate change. Regrettably, these are all the result of human action or inaction and are preventable. The United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP26), held in November 2021 in Glasgow, addressed some of these issues.1 Prince Charles called this meeting the 'last chance saloon to save the planet.' The main objective of COP26 was to reduce global heating and limit global warming to the target maximum temperature of 1.5-degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), since the late 19th century, the earth surface temperature rose by 1.18 degrees Celsius, caused by increased carbon dioxide and other emissions into the atmosphere, with the years 2016 and 2020 being tied as the warmest years on record.2 However, many, including a group of scientists called 'Scientist Rebellion' were not convinced that COP26 would make any difference to the warming of the planet.3 President of COP26, Alok Sharma admitted that the objective of the conference was not reached but remained cautiously optimistic: "We can now say with credibility that we have kept 1.5 degrees alive. But its pulse is weak and it will only survive if we keep our promises and translate commitments into rapid action".

4.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Development ; 19(1):89-100, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2168599

ABSTRACT

One of the key challenges in the coming years is to produce enough safe and nutritious food for the future generations without exceeding the planetary reserves even more. In circular agriculture, waste is seen as a raw material to produce new valuable products, including crops, food, feed and energy. Another characteristic of the concept is the need to reduce the consumption of resources and discharges into the environment. This article analyzes the concept of circular agriculture as well as the necessary government policies for implementing this concept as the development paradigm. It is highly recommended for governments to promote circular agriculture, especially in the post COVID-19 period, as means to improve different objectives, including better environmental conditions, climate change mitigation, public health, etc. It is also recommended to support and facilitate the development of circular economy principles as well as to implement best practices from existing initiatives around the world.

5.
Frontiers in Climate ; 4(September), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2162986

ABSTRACT

This perspective article argues that anticipatory research into possible "emergency" response measures such as solar geoengineering will increase knowledge, and thus confidence, in any future decisions to either deploy or reject these technologies. Similarities between COVID and climate can reveal some perspective on the benefits of anticipatory vaccine research for anticipatory for solar geoengineering research. Although we deeply hope governments will aggressively reduce emissions and scale up adaptation efforts in time to avoid the worst climate impacts, we argue that the benefits of anticipatory solar geoengineer research currently outweigh the risks of not moving research forward.

6.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 369(64), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2159207

ABSTRACT

From an economic point of view, the tourism sector is one of the most important in the world with religious tourism, such as pilgrimages, being a growth area. Tourism activities also make a significant contribution to CO2 emissions (roughly 8% of the world's carbon emissions). In this framework, the main objective of this research is to develop an integrated sustainable model by assessing the impact of pilgrimages to the Camino Lebaniego (Lebaniego Way) in the Cantabrian region, which is one of the most popular routes in northern Spain. To do this, it is necessary to quantify the environmental impacts of this activity since this is a key element in establishing appropriate and effective environmental management programmes. This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, focused on the Carbon Footprint (CF) impact category, to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of this activity considering 'a pilgrim who completes the route in three days' as the selected functional unit (FU). In addition, the sub-sectors of accommodation, food and beverages, and waste management are taken into account. Following this route generated a total of 13.69 kg CO2 eq./FU, of which accommodation and the services offered there contributed almost 71.47%, food was 17.08%, and waste management 11.45%. The evening meal and propane consumption were the hotspots in the hostel, accounting for almost 74% of the total impact, so alternatives were proposed to reduce the impacts associated with these. In terms of transport, it was found that for the same destination, it was better to use a car rather than a plane, because the associated CO2 emissions were lower. Finally, these aspects are discussed and improvement measures for reducing GHG emissions are proposed, involving the introduction of good practices and environmental commitments from the pilgrims themselves, as well as enterprises and local communities. Ecolabels and environmental certifications should become a key tool for sending this signal to the market as should the use of public transport to the destination, among other actions. Ultimately, religious and nature tourism seems to be on the upturn, and it is likely that pilgrimage routes could be the next post-COVID travel trend.

7.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156474

ABSTRACT

This issue contains 70 papers that were presented at a conference with the theme, "Landscape Dynamics and Sustainable Development Post Covid-19 Pandemic." The papers cover topics on landscape inventory and mapping;human impact on landscape;disaster management;food security;gender and demographic bonus;climate adaptation and mitigation;sustainable cities and community resilience;and clean water and sanitation.

8.
Revue forestière française ; 72(6):491-503, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155985

ABSTRACT

The economic impact of the worldwide Covid health crisis and the faster decline of forests have led to a 14% decrease of the turnover of wood from publicly owned forests Wood prices decreased by 10% on average, and by 17% for spruce, with more wood infested by bark beetles than in 2019 Beech, fir, Scots pine and even oak suffered from this third hot year in a row, with severe drought in summer All sales by submission have been done using an upgradable online selling tool since January 2020 In addition, supply contracts are increasing steadily, and represent 35% of the volumes.

9.
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences ; 11(2):302-323, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2144305

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), dates back to December 29, 2019, in Wuhan, China. It quickly spreads like wildfire to all continents in the following months. In Guinea, the first case of COVID-19 and death were all reported respectively on March 12 and April 16, 2020. Since then, several studies have found a relationship between certain environmental conditions such as the meteorological factors to have the potential of contributing to the spread of the virus. Thus, this study aims at examining the extent to which observed meteorological factors might have contributed to the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Conakry, from March 1 to May 31, 2020. Meteorological factors such as temperature (Tmin, Tmean and Tmax) and relative humidity (RHmin, RHmean and RHmax) were analyzed together with the data on the COVID-19. The dynamic of the COVID-19 in Guinea was analyzed along with that of some west African countries. The analysis on the dynamic of the COVID-19 pandemic in West Africa indicated Guinea as one of the most affected countries by the pandemic after Nigeria and Ghana. The study found that in general an increase in the temperature is linked to a decline in the COVID-19 number of cases and deaths, while an increase in the humidity is positively correlated to the number of cases and deaths. Nevertheless, from this study it was also observed that low temperature, mild diurnal temperature and high humidity are likely to favor its transmission. The study therefore, recommends that habitations and hospital rooms should be kept in relatively low humidity and relatively higher temperature to minimize the spread of the (SARS-CoV-2).

10.
Environmental Science & Technology ; 44(8):82-90, 2021.
Article in Chinese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056700

ABSTRACT

In order to trace and monitor the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Xichang City, an investigation activity was carried out with a sort of moss (Taxiphyllum taxirameum) (packed in moss bags) as a biological indicator for monitoring heavy metal pollution. The investigation was conducted from the period from April 2019 to April 2020, during which two grave emergency events occurred during spring monitoring period from January 15 to April 15, 2020, i.e., COVID-19 and "3.30"severe forest fire in Xichang, which inevitably affected the atmospheric quality. Based on the concentration analysis of 12 kinds of heavy metal, including Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Hg, Zn, V, As and Ba contained in the moss and the local meteorological data, comparing those informative data before and after the time when the emergency events toke place, the paper made an analysis on the impacts of two enormous emergency events on the air pollution of heavy metal in Xichang. The results showed that total amount of enrichment of above-mentioned 12 heavy metals in spring (January 15 to April 15, 2020) is (12.85 +or- 1.57) mg/g, which was significantly higher than in the other three seasons (p < 0.01), but no significant discrepancies about the total enrichment amount in the other three seasons (p > 0.05). Primarily because of COVID-19 pandemic, the level of motor vehicles emissions cut down, and the decrease of the tourism in the related areas perhaps causing the decline of pollution of Pb. In addition, the decrease of unbalanced emission of pollutants led to a noted increase of atmospheric oxidation in urban area, thus boosting the formation of secondary particulate matter, and the particulate matter from surrounding industrial sources was transported into the urban area;as a result, remarkable increases of Hg concentration of moss within the moss bags were detected downwind the industrial area located in the urban fringe. Consequently, the investigation showed that the moss-bag method is an effective biological tool for monitoring air heavy metal pollution, which could reflect the impacts of major pollution events on air quality.

11.
Environmental Science & Technology ; 45(2):202-209, 2022.
Article in Chinese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040545

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that during the 2020 epidemic control period, air quality data has been"abnormal", but due to differences in geography and demographic factors, the survey results in different regions are not consistent. The purpose of the study is to analyze the difference in air quality under the control of the two epidemics in Shijiazhuang City, further explore the impact of control measures on air quality, and provide reference and ideas for improving air quality and adjusting atmospheric control measures. Based on the China Air Quality Online Monitoring and Analysis Platform and Zhenqi.com, with Shijiazhuang air quality as the research object, the air quality and meteorological monitoring data in the past 6 years have been collected and sorted, and the t-test and rank-sum test methods are used to analyze the air pollution status and change characteristics in the two epidemic control periods based on the air quality monitoring data of Shijiazhuang City during the epidemic control period from January 5 to February 8,2021, with comparison with the data of the same time period in 2019. With reference to changes in meteorological factors, the impact of epidemic control on air quality was comprehensively analyzed. Results indicate that in 2021, the social blockade measures against the epidemic have greatly reduced the concentrations of various pollutants. The concentrations of PM2.5,PM10,SO2,CO2, and NO2 have dropped by 52.13%,40.62%,74.93%,55.53%,44.59%,(p<0.05),respectively, compared with the same period before the epidemic (2016-2019 average levels).O3 pollution increased, and the concentration increased by 49.40%compared to before the epidemic (p<0.05);the severity of epidemic control measures also has a certain impact on air quality compared with the epidemic blockade carried out in the same period in 2020.PM2.5,PM10,CO2,and NO2 during the epidemic control period in 2021 decreased by 54.85%,37.79%,52.36%and 31.15%,respectively,(p<0.05). Analysis of meteorological factors showed that there was no significant difference in the average temperature and wind speed in Shijiazhuang during the survey period from January 5 to February 8 in the past 6 years. Compared with before the epidemic, there was no significant change in the relative humidity during the epidemic period in 2021. The relative humidity in the same period in 2020 was 65.28% higher than before the epidemic (p<0.05). There were obvious differences in air quality during the two epidemic control periods in Shijiazhuang, but the meteorological factors did not show corresponding changes. The change in air quality may be related to the strictness of the epidemic control measures and the order of implementation.

12.
Rethinking Ecology ; 6(1-47):1-47, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040017

ABSTRACT

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in September 2014 near Virginia Key, Florida. In roughly six years, the disease spread throughout Florida and into the greater Caribbean basin. The high prevalence of SCTLD and high resulting mortality in coral populations, and the large number of susceptible species affected, suggest that this outbreak is one of the most lethal ever recorded. The initial recognition and management response to this catastrophic disease in Florida was slow, which delayed the start of monitoring programs and prevented coordinated research programs by at least two years. The slow management response was a result of several factors that operated concurrently. First, the Port Miami dredging project was ongoing during the coral disease epidemic and dredging rather than SCTLD was blamed by some managers and local environmental groups for the extreme coral losses reported in the project's compliance monitoring program. Second, this blame was amplified in the media because dredging projects are intuitively assumed to be bad for coral reefs. Third, during this same time State of Florida policy prohibited government employees to acknowledge global warming in their work. This was problematic because ocean warming is a proximal cause of many coral diseases. As a result, the well-known links between warming and coral disease were ignored. A consequence of this policy was that the dredging project provided an easy target to blame for the coral mortality noted in the monitoring program, despite convincing data that suggested otherwise. Specifically, results from the intensive compliance monitoring program, conducted by trained scientific divers, were clear. SCTLD that was killing massive numbers of corals throughout Florida was also killing corals at the dredge site - and in the same proportions and among the same suite of species. While eradication of the disease was never a possibility, early control measures may have slowed its spread or allowed for the rescue of significant numbers of large colonies of iconic species. This coral disease outbreak has similarities to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and there are lessons learned from both that will improve disease response outcomes in the future, to the benefit of coral reefs and human populations.

13.
NatureScot Research Report 1289 - Enjoying the Outdoors - Monitoring the impact of Coronavirus and social distancing - Wave 3 survey results (September 2021) 2022. 49 pp. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034414

ABSTRACT

This report presents the findings from a further, third wave undertaken a year later, with fieldwork running from 7 to 21 September 2021 and respondents asked to focus their responses on the preceding 4 weeks from around mid-August 2021.

14.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(2):157-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034280

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors and infectious diseases are closely related, mathematical models seek to explain these interactions, however, the same analytical practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that can result in analytical challenges.

15.
ACIAR Final Reports 2020. (FR2021/030):45 pp. 31 ref. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034270

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to identify and prioritize opportunities for sustainable development of groundwater resources with specific focus on the lowland plains and upland plateaus of Laos. It addressed this aim through three key objectives: (1) establish the potential to develop groundwater for irrigation in key hydrogeological settings in Southern Laos;(2) assess the opportunities that solar-powered pumping technologies may provide smallholder farmers seeking to engage in more profitable, market-oriented agriculture;and (3) enhance the capacity of current and emerging groundwater professionals in Laos. Two areas with promising aquifer development potential were selected in Southern Laos: a drought-prone lowland area underlain by sandstone aquifers in Savannakhet province (Outhomphone district);and a wetter, upland basaltic area on the Bolaven Plateau (Pakxong district). For the first objective, a preliminary hydrogeological assessment was undertaken based on the collation and analysis of existing (limited) data supplemented by data from a network of around 40 to 50 monitoring wells in each district and other hydrogeological measurements collected during two field campaigns. For the second objective, the opportunities for solar-powered groundwater pumping to provide an alternative to conventional grid electricity or fuel pumps was explored through policy analysis and the evaluation of a demonstration project as well as actual field operations. The third and final objective involved a cross-cutting effort to enhance capacity of current or emerging groundwater professionals. For Outhoumphone, where the need for dry season access to reliable groundwater sources is high, the sandstone aquifers present are likely sufficiently replenished but inadequately productive to provide a substantial resource for expanding dry season irrigation. Drillers in the area report well instability, saline water and drilling failure as common technical challenges. With adequate field investigations these challenges may be overcome and supplies for commercial agriculture could become feasible. For Pakxong, where the basaltic aquifers are more productive and reliable, field observations show that more entrepreneurial farmers have already started to develop groundwater for high value commercial crops. There is clear scope to expand irrigation development. Drillers report high success rates for wells and this is supported by the aquifer testing undertaken during this research. Even though policies on solar technologies in agriculture are limited, the solar industry appears to be expanding rapidly, with over twenty solar companies based in Laos;most of which are also servicing the agricultural sector. A demonstration site operated by the National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute in Vientiane Capital provides firsthand experience of solar pumping and data is emerging on its functioning and performance. Rapid assessments of six solar pumping sites on the Vientiane Plain show that better-off farmers and investors with the means to afford the upfront capital cost are accessing water on demand at effectively little or no marginal cost. Although the situation is evolving rapidly, solar water pumping for agriculture still remains an emerging technology in Laos and hence the long term technical performance, economic viability and potential impacts on the groundwater resources remain entirely unanswered at the present time. A one-week hydro-geophysics training course took place in Pakxong in November 2020 that involved 14 attendees from government agencies and the national university. Training was provided in fieldwork and analysis in new techniques to investigate groundwater using geophysical equipment, site wells, drilling and aquifer testing and aquifer conceptualization. In-situ guidance was provided by in-country team members supported by higher level oversight provided remotely by trainers based in Australia due to travel restrictions associated with COVID-19. The project has also enabled 5 Bachelor, Master and Doctorate students to unde

16.
CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033653

ABSTRACT

This report highlights the achievements in 2021 of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). PIM had a productive final year centered on synthesizing and packaging findings to consolidate the program's legacy while continuing to respond to demand related to the impacts of COVID-19 and preparing the transition to the new CGIAR portfolio. Among other achievements, PIM findings and engagement contributed to Myanmar's response to COVID-19, South Africa's policies on resilience to climate change, Tunisia's policies for pastoral development, a reform of Nigeria's national agricultural research system, Ghana's fish seed and farm certification system, gender strategies for three agricultural value chains in Honduras, and genome editing guidelines for the agricultural sector in four African countries. PIM research informed policy documents of FAO, IFAD, One CGIAR, the UK Government, the World Bank and the World Food Programme. PIM tools enabled more equitable co-management of 76 protected areas in Peru and informed World Bank social protection projects.

17.
Scientific Horizons ; 25(4):67-74, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026819

ABSTRACT

The study on environmental sustainability and perception of safety of vaccination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has been relevant for a long time and has been caused by people's concerns and fears about the consequences of the vaccination procedure. This paper provides a detailed analysis of approaches to determining environmental sustainability and emphasises the urgent need to maintain human health in a pandemic. Thus, the purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the readiness for vaccination against COVID-19 as a condition of environmental sustainability. The subject of the study is the environmental factors of readiness for vaccination against COVID-19. A set of methods and techniques were used to achieve this purpose, namely theoretical research methods, surveys, associative method, content analysis, methods of mathematical statistics using SPSS 23.0 and ArcGis. The paper presents the results of an empirical study of environmental sustainability and perception of safety of vaccination during pandemic, such as a comparative analysis of the sense of security of supporters and opponents of vaccination. The results of an empirical study of environmental sustainability and perception of safety of vaccination in a pandemic is provided. It was established that there are age and gender differences between proponents and opponents of vaccination. It was determined that subjects who were wary of vaccination did not consider COVID-19 to be a source of personal threat. The results of associations for the word-stimulus "danger" were analysed. There were differences in deep subconscious beliefs of danger in those who plan to be vaccinated and those who question vaccination. It was determined that the proponents of vaccination consider the general unavoidable external circumstances as a danger, and its opponents consider the very COVID-19 vaccination as such. Statistically significant differences were found between the sense of security in different areas of life in those who consider COVID-19 a danger and those for whom COVID-19 is not a source of concern. A prognostic portrait of a resident of Ukraine who is ready and willing to be vaccinated is presented. The obtained empirical results are of scientific value for researching the psychological characteristics of individual attitudes towards safe environmental sustainability and can be used in the development and implementation of programmes to work with people suffering from internal feelings of danger for their health caused by external circumstances.

18.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 9), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neonatal calf diarrhoea is a multifactorial disease that sometimes leads to high economic losses. It can be fatal due to dehydration and acidosis and has been one of the main causes of calf mortality. Material and methods: This retrospective study considered calves of a maximum of 35 days of age and with a diagnosed infection with rotavirus and/or bovine coronavirus. We examined the clinical records of 156 calves that were referred to the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna. Results Calves that had been treated with antibiotics before admission to the Clinic had a higher risk of staying longer, suggesting either that these calves had a more serious illness or that antibiotic treatment was not indicated and so therapeutic success was not achieved. Twenty-three calves died or were euthanized at the Clinic. At the time of admission, they were younger than the surviving calves and they had a lower inner body temperature and a lower base excess at the first examination. The four most common pathogens in faecal samples were rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli, which were detected in 67.1%, 53.9%, 48.1% and 94.1% of the faecal samples examined. The most common co-infection was rotavirus with Cryptosporidium parvum (17 faecal samples). We inspected the four most common pathogens in more detail. There were significant correlations between bovine coronavirus and season, with the risk of suffering from bovine coronavirus 1.6 times higher in winter than in other seasons. There was also a correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and general behaviour: the risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium parvum was 2.6 times higher in calves that were moderately to severely depressed at the first examination. There was a correlation between co-infections and mortality, with calves with a co-infection at three times higher risk of dying than calves with a mono-infection.

19.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 92, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2017614

ABSTRACT

Air pollution in the environment in which poultry is raised is one of the most serious problems facing the poultry sector across various aspects of production. Perhaps the most dangerous gas emitted from poultry houses is ammonia. The high concentrations of this gas in the air above the permissible limits (15 ppm) will have disastrous consequences. Ammonia directly affects the health and safety of birds, as it is a cause of ammonia blindness in birds accompanied by many respiratory diseases that destroy production and increase breeding costs. In addition, high concentrations of ammonia (above 20 ppm) contribute to enhancing the infection of birds with Newcastle and the bronchitis virus. In general, the greenhouse gases emitted from poultry houses included four main gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide). Studies regarding their direct effects on the health and productivity of birds have been insufficient. In the direct form, as the concentrations of greenhouse gases rise to very high limits, they cause suffocation and death., the behaviour of the greenhouse gases in the indirect effect is reflected being a source of nutritional stress and a group of diseases and parasites which lead to a decrease in productivity levels. The intensity and concentrations of gas emissions are directly related to many factors such as geographic location, the season of the year, ventilation technologies, humidity, litter quality, nutritional status and stocking density. The advances in ventilation technologies have played a key role in expelling all harmful gases, especially those that depend on negative pressure. However, greenhouse gases remain a real threat to the poultry industry in particular and to the planet's environment in general.

20.
ACIAR Final Reports 2021. (FR2021/010):74pp. 35 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011026

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been conducted on Pacific food crops and fisheries, their vulnerability to climate change, and resilience-building strategies. However, there is a lack of decision-making tools that integrate this information and enable stakeholders to anticipate rapid climate change and uncertainty, and to adapt and transform food systems accordingly. To meet this challenge, in 2019-2020 the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) and New Zealand's (NZ) Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) funded a proof-of-concept Small Research Activity (SRA). The SRA sought to develop innovative participatory decision-making tools that can map transformational options at a regional level to allow exploration and planning for future food systems. These aimed to integrate up-to-date climate projections with scientific and local knowledge of food systems, as well as determine how existing adaptation pathways planning methods could be modified for application in a food systems context, which has not been done to date. The SRA established a Steering Committee to guide the process, and a Science Committee of Australian and NZ food system researchers to design and test a conceptual approach. A case study was selected in Malaita Province, the Solomon Islands, following discussions with the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, and the Australian and NZ High Commissions in Honiara. Central and West Kwara'ae Constituencies and Langalanga Ward, which surround the provincial capital of Auki, formed the case study area. While the primary purpose of the SRA was to develop pathways planning methods suitable for a food systems context, the use of a case study helped to ground this in a practical context and test the attractiveness of these approaches with key decision-makers and stakeholders in one or more Pacific Island Countries. In September 2019 - March 2020 the science team collated available downscaled climate projections, sea level rise, cyclone risk and population projection data for the case study, plus an inventory of food and commodities produced in the area. The impact of a 'business as usual' scenario of climate change and population growth was modelled using the Assets Drivers Wellbeing Interaction Matrix (ADWIM), looking forward to both 2030 and 2050. A conceptual approach to planning with these drivers and their impacts in mind was designed based on the 'adaptation pathways' method, which plans for an uncertain future by identifying impacts and assessing and sequencing response options and actions over time. A two day adaptation pathways workshop to provide key decision-makers with an initial introduction to the approach was to be held in Auki in March 2020. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were multiple delays and a fully re-designed workshop was finally conducted in November 2020 with remote participation by the science team, and facilitation by local experts. The workshop process was co-designed with the facilitators, and participants were invited from local farmer groups, the Auki Market Vendors Association, women and youth groups, NGOs and provincial and national government departments. The climate and population projection information, pest and disease, alternative production methods and ADWIM modelling results were presented as part of a decision-into-practice learning cycle. Participants described the current food system, assessed drivers of change, their impacts in 2030 and 2050, agreed an aspirational vision for the food system in 2050, and then began to formulate adaptation pathways to reach the vision by re-designing the food system. Instead of focusing on production alone, the pathways approach addressed many aspects of the food system, including resource conservation, marketing, consumption, waste management, education, land disputes and governance.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL